NORMAL LABOUR: NORMAL ANATOMY. NORMAL LABOUR: NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY. Passenger Passage Power. NORMAL LABOUR. LATENT PHASE: 0-4cm ACTIVE PHASE: 4-10cm. FIRST STAGE SECOND STAGE THIRD STAGE. FULL DILATION TO EXPULSION OF FETUS. BIRTH TO EXPULSION OF PLACENTA
LATENT PHASE: 0-4cm
ACTIVE PHASE: 4-10cm
FULL DILATION TO EXPULSION OF FETUS
BIRTH TO EXPULSION OF PLACENTA
Expectant (physiological) vs Active (CCT +OT)
3 cm long
1 cm dilated
5 cm dilated
LATENT vs ACTIVE PHASE
1. Engagement of the fetal head in the transverse position.
2. Descent and flexion of the fetal head.
3. Internal rotation. The fetal head rotates 90 degrees to the
4. Delivery by extension. The fetal head passes out of the birth canal head is tilted backwards
5. Restitution. The fetal head turns through 45 degrees to restore its normal relationship with the shoulders, which are still at an angle.
6. External rotation. The shoulders repeat the corkscrew movements of the head, which can be seen in the final movements of the fetal head.
Term / Preterm / Post dates
Spontaneous rupture of membranes /
Prolonged rupture of membranes/
Preterm prolonged rupture of membranes
Fetal monitoring during labour:
Intermittent fetal auscultation / continous cardiotocograph
Analgesia during normal labour:
nothing/birth partner/ TENS/ 1-1 midwifery care/ drugs/ epidural
the Ferguson reflex
Term: 37 completed weeks to 42 weeks gestation
Preterm: 24-37 completed weeks
Post-dates: after 42 weeks (postmature, prolonged pregnancy, post-term)
SROM = spontaneous rupture of membranes at term
PROM = prelabor or premature rupture of membranes at term
(labour doesn't ensue within 24 hours of ROM)
PPROM = preterm, premature rupture of membranes
ARM = artificial rupture of membranes (used for labor induction)
Intermittent fetal auscultation
Continous cardiotocograph (CTG)
1-1 midwifery care
as pressure on the cervix increases, the Ferguson
reflex increases uterine contractions so that the second stage can go ahead.