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Invertebrates. Chapter 29 and 30 Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Roundworms, mollusks, annelids. Animal Kingdom Characteristics. - multicellular - eukaryotic - heterotrophs - movement - tissues . - Bilateral Symmetry- equal halves in one direction . Body Plans. Radial Symmetry.

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invertebrates

Invertebrates

Chapter 29 and 30

Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Roundworms, mollusks, annelids

animal kingdom characteristics
Animal Kingdom Characteristics
  • - multicellular
  • - eukaryotic
  • - heterotrophs
  • - movement
  • - tissues
radial symmetry
Radial Symmetry
  • - 360 degrees; equal halves
body development
- Ectoderm- outside body layer- skin and hair

- Endoderm- inside body layer- digestive tract

Body Development
mesoderm
- Mesoderm-

middle layer- muscles, blood and organs

types of body cavities
- Types of Body Cavities:
  • 1. Coelom- true body cavity
  • - surrounded by mesoderm
slide11
-2. Pseudocoelom- false cavity

- between mesoderm and endoderm

3 acoelomate
3. Acoelomate
  • No body cavity.
let s review
Let’s Review.

What type of symmetry is this?

vertebrates animals with backbones
- Vertebrates- animals with backbones
  • - fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
invertebrates animals without backbones
- Invertebrates- animals without backbones
  • - sponges, cnidarians, mollusks, worms, echinoderms, arthropods
sponges phylum porifera
Sponges: Phylum Porifera
  • Asymmetrical – no symmetry
  • No tissues or organs (cells work together to perform a specific function
  • 2 body layers: endo-, ecto-
  • Sessile – do not move
  • Variety of shapes and colors
  • Acoelemate – no body cavity
digestion of sponges
Digestion of sponges
  • Sponges are consumers
  • Feed on bacteria, algae, protozoans (filter feeders)
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Either sexual or asexual
  • Asexual- fragmentation- each piece of sponge will grow into a complete new sponge
  • Sexual- hermaphrodite- produce both eggs and sperm- release into water at different times-sperm from one enters pores of other to fertilize eggs- External fertilization
reproduction continued
Reproduction continued
  • Produces a zygote- free swimming larvae for a short time- attaches to surface- new sponge
characteristics of cnidarians
Characteristics of Cnidarians
  • Two Types:
    • Polyp – sessile, tube-like with tentacles ex. Coarl, sea anemone
    • Medusa – free swimming, umbrella shaped
      • Jellyfish
  • Has tissues – ecto-, endo-
  • Nematocysts – stinging cells on tentacles
  • Radial symmetry
  • acoelamate
how cnidarians get o 2
How Cnidarians Get O2?
  • Diffusion
  • Have nervous tissue.
reproduction1
Reproduction
  • Asexual- budding- small extensions of body grow and then breaks away from parent
  • Sexual-some species are hermaphrodites
    • Others, female releases egg and male releases sperm into water- External fertilization
coral reefs
Coral reefs

Structure

See diagram – oldest part is deeper. Newest is toward the top.

Live symbiotically with unicellular yellow brown algae- zooxanthellae

slide38
Benefit of Symbiotic Relationship: Coral gets:

food

(coral can also capture food with tentacles)

Algae gets:

Protection and access to sunlight

coral bleaching
Coral Bleaching
  • When coral ejects it’s algae- coral turns white
  • Coral doesn’t get enough food- dies
coral bleaching due to
Coral bleaching due to:
  • Diseases
  • Increased Ultra violet radiation
  • Sedimentation
  • Pollution
  • Increased water temperatures
  • Direct destruction by humans- anchors, touching while diving
flatworms
Flatworms
  • Acoelomate
  • Bilateral symmetry
characteristics of flatworms
Characteristics of flatworms:
  • Can be parasitic, or free living
  • 1 body opening
  • Hermaphrodites or asexual reproduction by regeneration: breaking in 2, and each becomes a new organism
  • Get O2 through skin- diffusion
tapeworm
Tapeworm
  • Body Two parts:
    • Scolex – head
    • Proglottids – body sections
  • Attach to inside of intestines
  • Parasite
  • Ex. Beef tapeworm: become infected by eating raw beef.
planeria
Planeria
  • Eyespots- light
  • Pharynx- extends like a straw, releases enzymes- breaks down food , sucks it up
  • Sensory pits on side of head, detect food, chemicals, and movement
  • Ability to regenerate
29 4 roundworms
29-4 Roundworms
  • Pseudocoelum
  • Tube within a tube body
  • 2 body openings
  • Move in a side to side manner
  • parasites
ex ascaris hookworm
Ex. Ascaris - hookworm
  • Carried through human waste to soil
  • If ingested eggs enter large intestine – becomes larvae
  • Larvae bore through blood vessels
  • Back to the intestine to mate
trichinella pork roundworm
Trichinella – pork roundworm
  • Causes Trichinosis
  • Eating improperly cooked pork
mollusks
Mollusks
  • Characteristics
    • Invertebrates
    • Larval stage
    • Marine, freshwater, terristrial
    • coelomates
mollusks have 3 parts to body
Mollusks have 3 parts to body:
  • Visceral mass – contains organs
  • Mantle – tissue around visceral mass (secretes a shell)
  • Foot - locomotion
other mollusk characteristics
Other Mollusk characteristics:
  • Exoskeleton
    • Sometimes called a valve
  • Outer skeleton
radula
Radula
  • (not in bivalves)
  • Tongue-like structure
organ systems of mollusks
Organ systems of mollusks:
  • Excretory – get rid of waste:
  • Open Circulatory System –heart pumps fluid through a series of vessels out into body cavity
organ systems of mollusks1
Organ Systems of Mollusks
  • Reproduction – most have separate sexes, external fertilization
  • Respiration – use gills
30 2 groups of mollusks
30-2 Groups of Mollusks
  • Bivalves – “two valves”
  • Valves held together by strong muscles
  • No radula
  • Filter feeders
  • Examples: clams, oysters, scallops
gastropods
Gastropods
  • Examples are snails and slugs
  • Single shell or none
  • Use radula to scrape food off of rocks etc
  • Land snails – hermaphrodites, aquatic snails – separate sexes
  • Herbivores
  • Gills or lungs?
cephalopods head footed
Cephalopods – “head footed”
  • Examples: squid, octopus
  • Large head with tentacles
  • Eyes
  • Marine predators (consumers)
  • Ink sac – for protection
  • Internal shell – pen
  • Brain present – complex
  • Skin can change color
  • gills
phylum annelida
Phylum Annelida
  • Segmented worms
  • Examples: earthworms, leeches, sandworms
  • Segmented body
  • Coelum
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Abundant in all habitats
organ systems in segmented worms
Organ Systems in Segmented Worms
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Excretory system – nephridia
  • Breath through skin
  • Bristles – setae
  • Reproduction – hermaphrodites
digestion of earthworm
Digestion of Earthworm
  • Pathway of food:
    • Pharynx – soil enters
    • Esophagus -
    • Crop-storage
    • Gizzard- muscular for grinding soil
    • Intestines – absorption
    • anus
groups of annelids
Groups of Annelids

Marine segmented worms

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