Invertebrates
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Invertebrates. Chapter 29 and 30 Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Roundworms, mollusks, annelids. Animal Kingdom Characteristics. - multicellular - eukaryotic - heterotrophs - movement - tissues . - Bilateral Symmetry- equal halves in one direction . Body Plans. Radial Symmetry.

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Invertebrates

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Invertebrates

Invertebrates

Chapter 29 and 30

Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Roundworms, mollusks, annelids


Animal kingdom characteristics

Animal Kingdom Characteristics

  • - multicellular

  • - eukaryotic

  • - heterotrophs

  • - movement

  • - tissues


Body plans

- Bilateral Symmetry- equal halves in one direction

Body Plans


Radial symmetry

Radial Symmetry

  • - 360 degrees; equal halves


Invertebrates

  • - Asymmetry- cannot cut in equal halves


Body development

- Ectoderm- outside body layer- skin and hair

- Endoderm- inside body layer- digestive tract

Body Development


Mesoderm

- Mesoderm-

middle layer- muscles, blood and organs


Types of body cavities

- Types of Body Cavities:

  • 1. Coelom- true body cavity

  • - surrounded by mesoderm


Invertebrates

-2. Pseudocoelom- false cavity

- between mesoderm and endoderm


3 acoelomate

3. Acoelomate

  • No body cavity.


Let s review

Let’s Review.

What type of symmetry is this?


What type of symmetry

What type of symmetry?


Symmetry

Symmetry?


Vertebrates animals with backbones

- Vertebrates- animals with backbones

  • - fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals


Invertebrates animals without backbones

- Invertebrates- animals without backbones

  • - sponges, cnidarians, mollusks, worms, echinoderms, arthropods


Sponges phylum porifera

Sponges: Phylum Porifera

  • Asymmetrical – no symmetry

  • No tissues or organs (cells work together to perform a specific function

  • 2 body layers: endo-, ecto-

  • Sessile – do not move

  • Variety of shapes and colors

  • Acoelemate – no body cavity


Variety of sponges

Variety of Sponges


Digestion of sponges

Digestion of sponges

  • Sponges are consumers

  • Feed on bacteria, algae, protozoans (filter feeders)


Sponge digestion continued

Sponge digestion continued:


Reproduction

Reproduction

  • Either sexual or asexual

  • Asexual- fragmentation- each piece of sponge will grow into a complete new sponge

  • Sexual- hermaphrodite- produce both eggs and sperm- release into water at different times-sperm from one enters pores of other to fertilize eggs- External fertilization


Reproduction continued

Reproduction continued

  • Produces a zygote- free swimming larvae for a short time- attaches to surface- new sponge


Cnidarians the stingers coral

Cnidarians- the stingersCoral


Characteristics of cnidarians

Characteristics of Cnidarians

  • Two Types:

    • Polyp – sessile, tube-like with tentacles ex. Coarl, sea anemone

    • Medusa – free swimming, umbrella shaped

      • Jellyfish

  • Has tissues – ecto-, endo-

  • Nematocysts – stinging cells on tentacles

  • Radial symmetry

  • acoelamate


Invertebrates

B


How cnidarians get o 2

How Cnidarians Get O2?

  • Diffusion

  • Have nervous tissue.


Reproduction1

Reproduction

  • Asexual- budding- small extensions of body grow and then breaks away from parent

  • Sexual-some species are hermaphrodites

    • Others, female releases egg and male releases sperm into water- External fertilization


Hydra

hydra


Portugese man of war colony

Portugese Man of War (colony)


Jelly fish

Jelly fish


Sea anemone

Sea anemone


Sea anemones

Sea Anemones


Coral reef

Coral reef


Coral reefs

Coral reefs

Structure

See diagram – oldest part is deeper. Newest is toward the top.

Live symbiotically with unicellular yellow brown algae- zooxanthellae


Invertebrates

Benefit of Symbiotic Relationship:Coral gets:

food

(coral can also capture food with tentacles)

Algae gets:

Protection and access to sunlight


Coral bleaching

Coral Bleaching

  • When coral ejects it’s algae- coral turns white

  • Coral doesn’t get enough food- dies


Coral bleaching due to

Coral bleaching due to:

  • Diseases

  • Increased Ultra violet radiation

  • Sedimentation

  • Pollution

  • Increased water temperatures

  • Direct destruction by humans- anchors, touching while diving


Bleached coral

Bleached coral


Flatworms

Flatworms

  • Acoelomate

  • Bilateral symmetry


Platyhelminthes flatworms

Platyhelminthes – flatworms


Characteristics of flatworms

Characteristics of flatworms:

  • Can be parasitic, or free living

  • 1 body opening

  • Hermaphrodites or asexual reproduction by regeneration: breaking in 2, and each becomes a new organism

  • Get O2 through skin- diffusion


Tapeworm

Tapeworm

  • Body Two parts:

    • Scolex – head

    • Proglottids – body sections

  • Attach to inside of intestines

  • Parasite

  • Ex. Beef tapeworm: become infected by eating raw beef.


Getting beef tapeworm

Getting Beef tapeworm:


Blood fluke causes schitomiasis

Blood fluke - causes Schitomiasis


Planeria

Planeria

  • Eyespots- light

  • Pharynx- extends like a straw, releases enzymes- breaks down food , sucks it up

  • Sensory pits on side of head, detect food, chemicals, and movement

  • Ability to regenerate


Planeria1

planeria


29 4 roundworms

29-4 Roundworms

  • Pseudocoelum

  • Tube within a tube body

  • 2 body openings

  • Move in a side to side manner

  • parasites


Ex ascaris hookworm

Ex. Ascaris - hookworm

  • Carried through human waste to soil

  • If ingested eggs enter large intestine – becomes larvae

  • Larvae bore through blood vessels

  • Back to the intestine to mate


Invertebrates

Ascaris in pig intestine


Trichinella pork roundworm

Trichinella – pork roundworm

  • Causes Trichinosis

  • Eating improperly cooked pork


Invertebrates

Lymphatic Filariasis


Mollusks and annelids

Mollusks and Annelids

Chapter 30


Mollusks

Mollusks

  • Characteristics

    • Invertebrates

    • Larval stage

    • Marine, freshwater, terristrial

    • coelomates


Mollusks have 3 parts to body

Mollusks have 3 parts to body:

  • Visceral mass – contains organs

  • Mantle – tissue around visceral mass (secretes a shell)

  • Foot - locomotion


Other mollusk characteristics

Other Mollusk characteristics:

  • Exoskeleton

    • Sometimes called a valve

  • Outer skeleton


Radula

Radula

  • (not in bivalves)

  • Tongue-like structure


Organ systems of mollusks

Organ systems of mollusks:

  • Excretory – get rid of waste:

  • Open Circulatory System –heart pumps fluid through a series of vessels out into body cavity


Organ systems of mollusks1

Organ Systems of Mollusks

  • Reproduction – most have separate sexes, external fertilization

  • Respiration – use gills


30 2 groups of mollusks

30-2 Groups of Mollusks

  • Bivalves – “two valves”

  • Valves held together by strong muscles

  • No radula

  • Filter feeders

  • Examples: clams, oysters, scallops


Bivalve photos

Bivalve Photos


Gastropods

Gastropods

  • Examples are snails and slugs

  • Single shell or none

  • Use radula to scrape food off of rocks etc

  • Land snails – hermaphrodites, aquatic snails – separate sexes

  • Herbivores

  • Gills or lungs?


Cephalopods head footed

Cephalopods – “head footed”

  • Examples: squid, octopus

  • Large head with tentacles

  • Eyes

  • Marine predators (consumers)

  • Ink sac – for protection

  • Internal shell – pen

  • Brain present – complex

  • Skin can change color

  • gills


Phylum annelida

Phylum Annelida

  • Segmented worms

  • Examples: earthworms, leeches, sandworms

  • Segmented body

  • Coelum

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Abundant in all habitats


Organ systems in segmented worms

Organ Systems in Segmented Worms

  • Closed circulatory system

  • Excretory system – nephridia

  • Breath through skin

  • Bristles – setae

  • Reproduction – hermaphrodites


Digestion of earthworm

Digestion of Earthworm

  • Pathway of food:

    • Pharynx – soil enters

    • Esophagus -

    • Crop-storage

    • Gizzard- muscular for grinding soil

    • Intestines – absorption

    • anus


Groups of annelids

Groups of Annelids

Marine segmented worms


Leeches

Leeches


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