Invertebrates
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Invertebrates. Chapter 29 and 30 Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Roundworms, mollusks, annelids. Animal Kingdom Characteristics. - multicellular - eukaryotic - heterotrophs - movement - tissues . - Bilateral Symmetry- equal halves in one direction . Body Plans. Radial Symmetry.

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Invertebrates

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Invertebrates

Chapter 29 and 30

Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Roundworms, mollusks, annelids


Animal Kingdom Characteristics

  • - multicellular

  • - eukaryotic

  • - heterotrophs

  • - movement

  • - tissues


- Bilateral Symmetry- equal halves in one direction

Body Plans


Radial Symmetry

  • - 360 degrees; equal halves


  • - Asymmetry- cannot cut in equal halves


- Ectoderm- outside body layer- skin and hair

- Endoderm- inside body layer- digestive tract

Body Development


- Mesoderm-

middle layer- muscles, blood and organs


- Types of Body Cavities:

  • 1. Coelom- true body cavity

  • - surrounded by mesoderm


-2. Pseudocoelom- false cavity

- between mesoderm and endoderm


3. Acoelomate

  • No body cavity.


Let’s Review.

What type of symmetry is this?


What type of symmetry?


Symmetry?


- Vertebrates- animals with backbones

  • - fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals


- Invertebrates- animals without backbones

  • - sponges, cnidarians, mollusks, worms, echinoderms, arthropods


Sponges: Phylum Porifera

  • Asymmetrical – no symmetry

  • No tissues or organs (cells work together to perform a specific function

  • 2 body layers: endo-, ecto-

  • Sessile – do not move

  • Variety of shapes and colors

  • Acoelemate – no body cavity


Variety of Sponges


Digestion of sponges

  • Sponges are consumers

  • Feed on bacteria, algae, protozoans (filter feeders)


Sponge digestion continued:


Reproduction

  • Either sexual or asexual

  • Asexual- fragmentation- each piece of sponge will grow into a complete new sponge

  • Sexual- hermaphrodite- produce both eggs and sperm- release into water at different times-sperm from one enters pores of other to fertilize eggs- External fertilization


Reproduction continued

  • Produces a zygote- free swimming larvae for a short time- attaches to surface- new sponge


Cnidarians- the stingersCoral


Characteristics of Cnidarians

  • Two Types:

    • Polyp – sessile, tube-like with tentacles ex. Coarl, sea anemone

    • Medusa – free swimming, umbrella shaped

      • Jellyfish

  • Has tissues – ecto-, endo-

  • Nematocysts – stinging cells on tentacles

  • Radial symmetry

  • acoelamate


B


How Cnidarians Get O2?

  • Diffusion

  • Have nervous tissue.


Reproduction

  • Asexual- budding- small extensions of body grow and then breaks away from parent

  • Sexual-some species are hermaphrodites

    • Others, female releases egg and male releases sperm into water- External fertilization


hydra


Portugese Man of War (colony)


Jelly fish


Sea anemone


Sea Anemones


Coral reef


Coral reefs

Structure

See diagram – oldest part is deeper. Newest is toward the top.

Live symbiotically with unicellular yellow brown algae- zooxanthellae


Benefit of Symbiotic Relationship:Coral gets:

food

(coral can also capture food with tentacles)

Algae gets:

Protection and access to sunlight


Coral Bleaching

  • When coral ejects it’s algae- coral turns white

  • Coral doesn’t get enough food- dies


Coral bleaching due to:

  • Diseases

  • Increased Ultra violet radiation

  • Sedimentation

  • Pollution

  • Increased water temperatures

  • Direct destruction by humans- anchors, touching while diving


Bleached coral


Flatworms

  • Acoelomate

  • Bilateral symmetry


Platyhelminthes – flatworms


Characteristics of flatworms:

  • Can be parasitic, or free living

  • 1 body opening

  • Hermaphrodites or asexual reproduction by regeneration: breaking in 2, and each becomes a new organism

  • Get O2 through skin- diffusion


Tapeworm

  • Body Two parts:

    • Scolex – head

    • Proglottids – body sections

  • Attach to inside of intestines

  • Parasite

  • Ex. Beef tapeworm: become infected by eating raw beef.


Getting Beef tapeworm:


Blood fluke - causes Schitomiasis


Planeria

  • Eyespots- light

  • Pharynx- extends like a straw, releases enzymes- breaks down food , sucks it up

  • Sensory pits on side of head, detect food, chemicals, and movement

  • Ability to regenerate


planeria


29-4 Roundworms

  • Pseudocoelum

  • Tube within a tube body

  • 2 body openings

  • Move in a side to side manner

  • parasites


Ex. Ascaris - hookworm

  • Carried through human waste to soil

  • If ingested eggs enter large intestine – becomes larvae

  • Larvae bore through blood vessels

  • Back to the intestine to mate


Ascaris in pig intestine


Trichinella – pork roundworm

  • Causes Trichinosis

  • Eating improperly cooked pork


Lymphatic Filariasis


Mollusks and Annelids

Chapter 30


Mollusks

  • Characteristics

    • Invertebrates

    • Larval stage

    • Marine, freshwater, terristrial

    • coelomates


Mollusks have 3 parts to body:

  • Visceral mass – contains organs

  • Mantle – tissue around visceral mass (secretes a shell)

  • Foot - locomotion


Other Mollusk characteristics:

  • Exoskeleton

    • Sometimes called a valve

  • Outer skeleton


Radula

  • (not in bivalves)

  • Tongue-like structure


Organ systems of mollusks:

  • Excretory – get rid of waste:

  • Open Circulatory System –heart pumps fluid through a series of vessels out into body cavity


Organ Systems of Mollusks

  • Reproduction – most have separate sexes, external fertilization

  • Respiration – use gills


30-2 Groups of Mollusks

  • Bivalves – “two valves”

  • Valves held together by strong muscles

  • No radula

  • Filter feeders

  • Examples: clams, oysters, scallops


Bivalve Photos


Gastropods

  • Examples are snails and slugs

  • Single shell or none

  • Use radula to scrape food off of rocks etc

  • Land snails – hermaphrodites, aquatic snails – separate sexes

  • Herbivores

  • Gills or lungs?


Cephalopods – “head footed”

  • Examples: squid, octopus

  • Large head with tentacles

  • Eyes

  • Marine predators (consumers)

  • Ink sac – for protection

  • Internal shell – pen

  • Brain present – complex

  • Skin can change color

  • gills


Phylum Annelida

  • Segmented worms

  • Examples: earthworms, leeches, sandworms

  • Segmented body

  • Coelum

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Abundant in all habitats


Organ Systems in Segmented Worms

  • Closed circulatory system

  • Excretory system – nephridia

  • Breath through skin

  • Bristles – setae

  • Reproduction – hermaphrodites


Digestion of Earthworm

  • Pathway of food:

    • Pharynx – soil enters

    • Esophagus -

    • Crop-storage

    • Gizzard- muscular for grinding soil

    • Intestines – absorption

    • anus


Groups of Annelids

Marine segmented worms


Leeches


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