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How networks can fulfil today‘s and tomorrow‘s Grid demands - Organisational and Technical Challenges - Marcus Pattloch, Karin Schauerhammer, Klaus Ullmann (DFN-Verein, Germany, [email protected]) 29. March 2007, ISGC 2007, Taipei. Contents. User Collaboration Structure

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slide1

How networks can fulfil today‘s and tomorrow‘s Grid demands

- Organisational and Technical Challenges -

Marcus Pattloch, Karin Schauerhammer, Klaus Ullmann

(DFN-Verein, Germany, [email protected])

29. March 2007, ISGC 2007, Taipei

contents
Contents
  • User Collaboration Structure
  • Economical and Technical Challenges
    • Some Technical Definitions
    • Examples: X-WiN, Geant2 and the LHCOPN
    • OPN Building Blocks
    • Forecasts
      • VPNs/OPNs, Grids’ Role for Networking, Transmission Technology, User Demands
    • Conclusions
      • Bandwidth Provision, Future Developments and Needs
  • Organisational Challenges
how do networked users collaborate
How do networked users collaborate?
  • Research collaboration has in almost all cases an international dimension
  • Example: For LHC collaborations the processes for the four experiment‘s data evaluation has an international dimension of networking which is vital for success
  • NRENs (National Research Networks) and Geant2 (Pan European Network) have to adapt to that situation - not only for the LHC experiment evaluation process
slide4

Economical and

Technical Challenges

some technical definitions
Some Technical Definitions
  • VPN: Virtual Private Network
    • a „user-owned network“ which is built from a basic technical platform (IP / SDH / DWDM...)
  • OPN: Optical (Virtual) Private Network
    • a VPN based on optical technology
  • Hybrid Network
    • Router based network using a VPN / OPN as a platform
forecast f1
Forecast (F1)
  • Communication Market
    • F1: Liberalisation of communication market in all European countries will continue, will (amongst others) give better opportunities for research networks and will decrease the „digital divide“ (or the economic conditions for that divide)
slide7

Example 1: X-WiN

(German NREN)

slide8

Fibre B

AWI

Fibre C

Fibre D

Fibre A

PSNC

Surfnet

X-WiN (1): Topology inc. cross-border fibre

KIE

DKRZ

ROS

DES

HAM

FFO

BRE

TUB

POT

ZEU

HAN

HUB

BIE

MUE

ZIB

BRA

MAG

ADH

DUI

DRE

FZJ

LEI

AAC

BIR

JEN

CHE

ILM

FRA

Geant2

BAY

GSI

ESF

KAI

SAA

ERL

HEI

REG

FZK

Renater

KEH

STU

GAR

Richtung Basel

13.10.2006

Switch/GARR

x win 2 hybrid network features
X-WiN (2): (Hybrid network) Features
  • Platform available for national VPNs/OPNs and for the national part of international VPNs/OPNs
  • Possible due to lively fibre market in Germany
  • Optical technology delivers ample bandwidth, i.e. 160*10 Gbit/s per link
  • Costs per 10 Gbit/s link are relatively low (as in Geant2) - in the order of 90 K€/a for 10 Gbit/s
x win 3 targets network design
X-WiN (3): Targets (network design)
  • More performance
    • performance increase by factor 4 since 01/06 (same costs)
    • more performance available as of 01/07 (for the same price)
  • More flexibility
    • no volume charging (and no usage limitation)
    • Ethernet as additional access technology
    • hybrid PoPs enable VPNs
  • Higher availability
    • during design for backbone implicitly taken into account
x win 4 optical platform
X-WiN (4): Optical platform
  • Toolbox for the provision of
    • DFNInternet (10 Gbps to 10 Mbps)
    • VPNs/OPNs based on optical links
    • services like DFNVideoConference, DFN-PKI, DFN-CERT, DFNRoaming, DFNNews unchanged
  • New cost structures for optical networks enable very economic network solutions for specialised services like Grids (for example OPNs)
x win 5 router platform for ip
X-WiN (5): Router Platform for IP

EWE

KIE

ROS

GRE

DES

HUB

BRE

HAM

FFO

TUB

ADH

DRE

BRA

HAN

MAG

GOE

ZIB

CRS-

BIE

POT

POT

CHE

KAS

MUE

BAY

LEI

CRS-

DUI

HAN

CRS-

JEN

ERL

AAC

GSI

CRS-

MAR

ILM

XR

FRA

FRA

ERL

BIR

FZK

GIE

HEI

REG

GAR

STU

1GE

KAI

SAA

AUG

WUE

2x10GE

AWI

FZJ

43 CISCO7609

KR

10GE

x win 6 status
X-WiN (6) - Status
  • Technical concept backbone
    • backbone consists of (dark) fibre and leased circuits
    • operational responsibility: DFN
    • more than before bought in partial services like 24/7 hotline
    • much more than before DFN PoPs
  • Economic concept
    • backbone put together from different service offerings from the market and integrated under DFN responsibility
    • most effective usage of competition on the market
x win 7 scalability of architecture
X-WiN (7): Scalability of architecture
  • Options for transfer
    • 10 Gbit/s ~ 1014 Byte/d or 100 TByte/d
    • eleven 10 Gbit/s links -> more than 1 PByte/d or roughly 0.5 ExaByte/a
  • If one 10 Gbit/s link per T1 is not sufficient
    • installation of just another 10 Gbit/s link T0 - T1 if possible on physically separated fibre path
    • architecture covers this completely
    • upper limit of the technology is 160 links per optical path
conclusion c1
Conclusion (C1)
  • Bandwidth Provision
    • C1: Bandwidth provision, which has been a major economic problem for any research network over the past decade, will not be a big problem in the future (for 10 Gbit/s and below)
forecasts f2 f3
Forecasts (F2 & F3)
  • VPNs / OPNs
    • F2: VPNs/OPNs will in a few years carry the bulk of scientific data in European networks (NRENs/Geant) and perhaps also world-wide
    • F3: Migration to that scenario is an evolutionary rather than a revolutionary process defined by user group’s needs and available new network technology
forecasts f4 f5
Forecasts (F4 & F5)
  • Role of Grids
    • F4: Grids and Grid like systems will for the time being be a major driver for the VPN migration scenario process (examples LHCOPN, DEISA network etc.)
    • F5: Networking technology developments like network management (example: monitoring of VPNs/OPNs in multi domain environments) or network security are still needed for serving „Grid infrastructures“
opn building blocks 1 e2e links
OPN Building Blocks (1): E2E Links
  • E2E Links are dedicated optical multi-gigabit connections
  • Essentially P2P links, usually using SDH/SONET or Ethernet
  • E2E Links are planned as a regular service of Géant2:
    • Cooperation of several NRENs needed to operate E2E Links
    • Users need Single Point of Contact (SPOC)
  • E2E Link Coordination Unit (E2ECU) brings together Users and NRENs during operations

GEANT2

NREN1

NREN2

NREN3

E1

E3

E2E Link 3

E2E Link 2

E2

opn building blocks 2 workflow e2ecu
OPN Building Blocks (2):Workflow E2ECU
  • Workflows define the interaction between Actors
  • Actors: Authorized Users (no End Users), e.g.
    • LHC GGUS (Global Grid User Support)
    • E2ECU (End-to-End Link Coordination Unit )
    • NREN TNOCs (Thin Network Operation Centres of NRENs)
  • Mostly human/organisational communication
  • Full life cycle of E2E links is covered
  • For now, only Workflows for technical aspects are defined
  • Refinements still under discussion in GN2-JRA4/WI3
opn building blocks 3 e2e link monitoring
OPN Building Blocks (3):E2E Link Monitoring
  • Status information corresponds to network layers 1/2
  • Multiple technologies / vendors used to provide an E2E service
    • Status information is logical abstraction from vendor solution
    • No information about physical devices necessary
  • Status of partial links (within domains and connecting domains) is provided by NRENs
  • E2E link status is an aggregation of partial links
slide22

Demo Monitoring

  • http://cnmdev.lrz-muenchen.de/e2e
slide26

LHC TIER0 – TIER1 OPN, scenario based on work by R. Sabatino (DANTE)

RAL

NorduGrid

TRIUMF

BNL

FNAL

S-Janet

ASCC

CERN

T0

NorduNet

SWITCH

Surfnet

SARA

GEANT2

DFN

Renater

GARR

GRIDKa

Rediris

IN2P3

PIC

CNAF

lhcopn in europe
LHCOPN in Europe
  • T1-T0 primary connection
    • for „Geant2 fibre cloud NRENs“ through Geant2
  • T1-T1 secondary connection
    • on separate fibre paths through other fibre. Secondary connections provide resilience
  • OPN approach
    • high data volume expected, Grid middleware driving this approach; „low“ prices for optical links due to liberalised situation per country enables it
t2 communication to t1 in de 1
T2 communication to T1 in DE (1)
  • Open Issues
    • Which access pattern is requested by the T2s to T1? Only GridKa or other T1s as well? „Other T1s“ would be T1s in other NRENs.
    • Which access pattern is requested by the T2s to other T2s or T3s?
    • What are quantitative access patterns of T2s?
t2 communication to t1 in de 2
T2 communication to T1 in DE (2)
  • No specification available yet
  • In Germany T2- and T3-sites are known, networking them is now on the agenda
  • Principles for this part of networking could be:
    • T2 sites need 1 Gbit/s access to T1 (which one?)
    • Build resilient ring of core-T2 sites in Germany
    • T3 sites access data through extended DFNInternet service
  • Problem has to be solved in 2007
forecasts f6 f8
Forecasts (F6 - F8)
  • Transmission Technology
    • F6: On a (per user-) stream basis 10 Gbit/s will be the main bandwidth to be used for the next 2-3 years, perhaps even longer - the difficulty is to get data from sources to sinks at higher speeds than 10 Gbit/s
    • F7: 40 Gbit/s or 100 Gbit/s per (user-) stream will follow
    • F8: 10 Gbit/s equipment will be very „cheap“
forecasts f9 f10
Forecasts (F9 & F10)
  • Qualitative User Demands
    • F9: The user (group) demand in the research area is in almost all cases „multi-domain / multi vendor“ in networking terms (--> see LCG example)
    • F10: Users will require „intelligent networks“, i.e. network technology which adapts (at best dynamically) to their requirements
conclusions c2 c3
Conclusions (C2 & C3)
  • Developments
    • C2: One of the main future challenges for the developments of research networking is to further work out solutions for multi-domain environments for operational purposes
    • C3: Work started in Geant2 („E2E“) but solutions have to be driven further according to developing demands for example from Grid communities like the particle physics community
conclusion c4
Conclusion (C4)
  • Future Needs
    • C4: Intelligent networks (i.e. „intelligent“ VPNs / OPNs adaptable and more flexible to user needs) have to be further developed in the future, i.e. VPNs „on demand“ or dynamic VPNs
governing structure
Governing Structure
  • Presently the NREN Policy Committee (NRENPC) is successfully governing the networking policy definition and always devised a flexible substructure (for example Exec) to adapt to management needs
the nrenpc as of 01 07
The NRENPC as of 01/07

CountryNREN

Austria(ACOnet)

Belgium (BELNET)

Bulgaria (BREB/ISTF)

Croatia (CARNet)

Czech Republic (CESNET)

Cyprus (CYNET)

Germany (DFN)

Estonia (EENet)

France (RENATER)

Greece (GRNET)

Hungary (HUNGARNET)

Ireland (HEANet)

Israel (IUCC)

Italy (GARR)

Latvia (LATNET)

Lithuania (LITNET)

Luxembourg (RESTENA)

Malta (UoM)

Netherlands (SURFNET)

CountryNREN

Nordic Countries (NorduNet)

Denmark,

Finland,

Iceland,

Norway,

Sweden

Poland (PSNC)

Portugal (FCCN)

Romania (RoEduNet)

Russia (JSCC)

Slovakia (SANET)

Slovenia (ARNES)

Spain (RedIRIS)

Switzerland (SWITCH)

Turkey (ULAKBIM)

United Kingdom (UKERNA)

Plus Non-Voting Members:

DANTE, TERENA

Perm. Observers: CERN, AMREJ, MARNET

summary
Summary
  • Economic situation for data networks improved drastically within the last 10 years
  • 10 Gbit/s VPNs economically achievable today
  • High performance network technology is/has been introduced in a couple of NRENs and Geant2; they will be upgraded according to available new network technology
  • Main development topic: multi-domain issues
  • Close coordination between demanding user groups and networkers is absolutely necessary
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