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Occupational accidents – a holistic approach. Daryl Attwood, PhD. * Based on research conducted at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. Safety notes. No alarm tests are expected, so any heard are real Evacuation routes Muster location. Lloyd’s Register.

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occupational accidents a holistic approach

Occupational accidents – a holistic approach

Daryl Attwood, PhD

* Based on research conducted at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

safety notes
Safety notes
  • No alarm tests are expected, so any heard are real
  • Evacuation routes
  • Muster location
lloyd s register
Lloyd’s Register
  • Celebrated 250th anniversary in 2010.
  • Lloyd’s coffee house – London – not the insurance company
  • Primary objective – safety of people in the industries we serve.
  • Began with ships – now in many industries, including a significant oil and gas presence.
major accidents
Major accidents….

Explosions - Piper Alpha

Helicopter crashes

fatality causes
Fatality causes

Accidents usually defined as “Major Accidents”

(air transport, explosion, burn): 24%.

Other accidents: 76%

direct causes quality of safety equipment weather conditions safety behaviour

Occupational accident root causes………

Direct causes? Quality of safety equipment? Weather conditions? Safety behaviour?

Organisational issues? Training? Procedures? Corporate safety culture? Lost time incident frequency (LTIF) ranged from 0.00 to 3.96

Something even broader? Cultural / Regional differences? Global Fatal Accident Rate (FAR) = 3.1 Middle East = 2.4, Africa, 4.4, South America 5.2 Financial pressure on corporations?

FAR = Fatal accidents per 100 million hours workedLTIF = Fatalities + lost workday cases per one million hours worked

regional differences1
Regionaldifferences

Africa, FSU greater than 5

Europe, Middle East, North and South America between 2.9 and 4.

Asia, Australia less than 1.5

slide11

Safety experts polled as part of research to gather opinion with respect to the relative importance of many factors……some selected results….

the existing approach to occupational accident analysis tosca s fall fault tree

Tosca receives a major injury

Falls down

the stairs

Running

Substance on the floor

Not looking where she was going

Interview

During

break

No

permssion

Not aware of danger

Lack of attention

Not

reported

Not

cleaned up

Using mirror

Unaware of danger

Takes place in stores

Taken at wrong time

Lack of supervision

Not told not to run

Not trained. No informationNo supervision

Using contractors machine

No procedures

No procedure

Substandard induction. No refresher

No employees to use contractors eqpt

Review procedure for spillage

Review induction cse and refresher training

Review system for visitors

Review break timings supervision increased

Review timings supervision increased

Refresher on safety standards/

procedures

Review induction awareness training

Review procedures for cleaning

The existing approach to occupational accident analysis – Tosca’s fall fault tree

But were there any broader causes? Financial pressures? Others?

Corporate Issues

Direct Causes

a holistic approach to occupational accident analysis
A holistic approach to occupational accident analysis

External influence

Corporate influence

Direct factors

model structure

Value of life

Price of oil

Shareholder pressure

Royalty regime

Influence of external elements

on corporate elements

ModelStructure

Corporate training programme

Corporate safety culture

Safety procedures

elements on direct factors

Influence of corporate

Capability

Behaviour

Physical

Mental

Attitude

Coordination

Knowledge

Fitness

Intelligence

Motivation

Lack of fatigue

Weather

Safety design

PPE

model running mechanism
Model running mechanism
  • Calibration against an existing, known result.
  • Compare performance of case under consideration with base case for each element.
  • Re-run model using adjusted component reliabilities – this generates actual prediction for the case under consideration.
safety situation installation
Safety situation – installation

Factors judged less conducive to good safety than industry average

Factors judged more conducive to good safety than industry average

model uses
Model Uses
  • Predict accident numbers or frequencies on new installations
  • Study the effect of changes in individual safety program elements on safety results
  • Establish key performance indicator targets for staff and contractor organisations.
occupational accidents a holistic approach1

Occupational accidents – a holistic approach

Daryl Attwood, Ph D

* Based on research conducted at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

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