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ISO 14001 v. 2004 Environmental Management Systems. Quiz. According to the ISO 14001 standard, there is a continual improvement of 5 specific phases based on the methodology known as Plan-Do-Check-Act. Which are they?

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ISO 14001 v. 2004

Environmental Management Systems

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  • According to the ISO 14001 standard, there is a continual improvement of 5 specific phases based on the methodology known as Plan-Do-Check-Act. Which are they?

  • According to the ISO 14001 standard, what is a preventive action, and how it is different from a corrective action?

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EMS“A system put into place that keeps things running smoothly”Denso Manufacturing Michigan, Inc.

  • EMS does not have to be certified ISO 14001

  • Plant personnel can develop the EMS with/without consulting support

  • 3rd-Party Auditors are needed for ISO 14001 certification

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EMS Evolution

  • Until 1960s when gained public attention

  • Corporations reacted to increased legislation

  • Responsible Care Program (Canada) in 1984

  • British created the first national EM standard BS 7750 in 1994

  • A Canadian standard Z750 was created in 1994

  • Legislated in 1993, EU published EMAS in 1994, open in 1995.

  • In the U.S. no national standard was developed during the 1990s, however groups of companies did (e.g. GEMI)

  • The first international EMS was ISO 14001 by ISO.

  • Based on:

    • The success of ISO 9001

    • Increasing international concern (UN Conference of Rio 1992)

    • Created a Technical Committee 207

  • The ISO 14001 was published for the first time in 1996.

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Why environmental standards?

…to "promote a harmonious and balanced development of economic activities, sustainable and non-inflationary growth respecting the environment… the raising of standards of living and quality of life" (EMAS).

…to support environmental protection and prevention of pollution in balance with socio-economic needs (ISO 14001)

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EMS and ISO 14001

  • First version finalized and issued in 1996, revised every five years (2004 current version)

  • Market sector created and driven; governments participate but it is not legislative or regulatory

  • Process standard, not performance

  • Each participating nation has a committee that develops consensus and contributes (one vote each, for US it is ANSI)

  • 14001 is one of the standards in the 14000 series

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ISO 14001 Standards

  • Voluntary

  • Set up the by industry: countries can adapted into their legislation

  • Is aimed to improve processes not performance itself

  • Key aspect is that of continual improvement

  • Doesn’t require the publication of an environmental statement

  • Provides the company with a guideline on how to manage environmental aspects

  • Requires management commitments and involvement from all employees

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ISO, ANSI, Certifiers

  • ISO develops International Standards but does not operate any schemes for assessing conformity with them.

    What ISO is not?

  • ISO is not an auditor, assessor, registrar, or certifier of management systems, products, services, materials or personnel, nor does it endorse or control any such activities performed by other parties.

    ANSI coordinates the development of standards in the U.S. and accredit programs that assess conformance with the standards

  • 750 certification bodies worldwide

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and Operation

Checking and

Corrective Action

Environmental Management System (EMS)

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3.2 Continual Improvement

3.18 Prevention of Pollution

4.2 Define Policy


Services, and


4.3.1 Identify Aspects

4.3.3 Identify Objectives

Targets and Programs

4.3.2 Legal Requirements


4.4.1 Resources, Roles,

responsibility and authority

4.4.2 Competence, Training &


4.4.3 Communication

4.4.4 Documentation

4.4.5 Document Control

4.4.6 Operational Control

4.4.7 Emergency Preparedness

4.4 Implementation

and Operation

4.5.1 Monitoring & Measurement

4.5.2 Preventive & Corrective Action

4.5.3 Records

4.5.4 EMS Audit

4.5 Checking

4.6 Management Review

The ISO 14001 EMS Model

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ISO 14001 Environmental Standard v2004

4.1 General Requirements

4.2 Environmental Policy

4.3 Planning

  • Environmental aspects

  • Legal and other requirements

  • Objectives, Targets and Programs

    4.4. Implementation and Operation

  • Resources, Roles, Responsibilities and Authority

  • Competence, Training and Awareness

  • Communication

  • Documentation

  • Controls of documents

  • Operational control

  • Emergency Preparedness and Response

    4.5 Checking

  • Monitoring and Measurement

  • Evaluation of compliance

  • Nonconformity, Corrective action and Preventive action

  • Control of records

  • Internal audit

    4.6. Management Review

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and Operation

Checking and

Corrective Action

Environmental Policy

  • The environmental policy describes the organization’s overall approach and intentions.

  • Is the Keystone upon which the entire EMS is constructed.


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Policy Requirements

To meet ISO 14001 requirements, the policy must:

  • Be appropriate to the nature, scale, and environmental impacts of the organization activities and goods produced.

  • Include a commitment to continual improvement and prevention of pollution.

  • Include a commitment to relevant legal requirements.

  • Provide a framework for setting and reviewing environmental objectives and targets.

  • Be documented, implemented and maintained, and communicated to all employees (also contractors)

  • Be available to the public.

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Policy Statement

  • Organization must be able to demonstrate that it is fully aware of all relevant environmental issues and their potential impact and importance.

  • No list is appropriate to all organizations; each establishes methods/measures relevant to its operations.

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Policy Statement

  • Provides a framework for setting environmental objectives

    • Objectives are specific and defined goals that need to be achieved in order to meet the requirements of the Environmental Policy.

    • Every action, requirement, procedure, etc. contained within the EMS must have its roots in the Env. Policy Statement.

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Policy Statement

  • Commitment to continual improvement

    • “Process of enhancing the environmental management system to achieve improvements in overall environmental performance in line with the organization's environmental policy.“

    • Ties together the Env. Policy Statement and Management Review elements of ISO 14001.

      • Requires the EMS be reviewed and evaluated at a set frequency for changed aspects and impacts (yearly is generally acceptable).

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Policy Statement

  • Commitment to P2

    • After pollution based objectives have been set, P2 must be evaluated at one of the alternative approaches to setting the Target(s).

    • If P2 is not cost-effective, it does not have to be accepted.

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Policy Statement

  • Commitment to Compliance with Laws, Regs, and Requirements

    • Identify applicable laws & regs

    • Determine compliance

    • Develop action plan to correct noncompliance

    • Establish a system to maintain compliance

  • Organization does not need to be in full compliance in order to conform with 14001

  • Continued pattern of noncompliance may need to nonconformance with ISO 14001.

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Policy Statement

  • Documentation and Communication

    • Executive level manager must sign the Policy Statement and maintained based on Document Control (4.4.5) proceedures.

    • All employees must understand and recognize the commitments and relate their job functions with the Policy.

    • Policy must be communicated with the public.

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and Operation

Checking and

Corrective Action


  • Environmental Aspects.

  • Legal and Other Requirements.

  • Objectives and Targets.

  • Environmental Management Program

    • Dynamic

    • Integrated

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Aspects and
















Determine Legal and Other


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Activities, Products and Services

  • This is where is described what the facility does

    • Consider mission – what ‘facility’ is designed to do e.g. fast delivery of documents/packages

    • Consider activities that support the mission

      e.g. vehicle maintenance

    • Consider actions that are both regulated and not regulated

      e.g. commuting to work

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Aspectsand Impacts

  • Identify environmental aspects of activities products and services that can be controlled and over which can be expected to have an influence”

    • Aspects: Element of an organization's activities, products or services that can interact with the environment.

    • Impacts: Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization's activities, products or services


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Aspectsand Impacts

  • Content Requirements of Environmental Aspects

    • understand how organization interacts with the environment

    • control versus influence

    • arrive at a list of significant environmental aspects based upon impacts

    • develop a procedure to support the three step decision making process


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Determine Significant Aspects

  • The process of arriving at a list of Significant Environmental Aspects must be a reasonable and understandable procedure be based upon the following criteria:

    • perceived risk(human health vs. ecosystem);

    • impact analysis (internal, local, regional, global);

    • probability of occurrence

    • direct or indirect control;

    • regulated or non-regulated;

    • resource utilization;

    • community interest;

    • etc.

  • Consider normal, unique, and emergency conditions

  • Where do opportunities exist for improvement?

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Legal and Other Requirements

  • Identify legal requirements that apply to a facility’s activities – use audit guides or protocols

  • Identify other requirements that apply including corporate policies, Executive Orders (public organizations), facility initiatives or voluntary practices

  • ISO 14001 does not require documentation for the Legal and Other Requirements section (4.3.2). However, the only practical way to demonstrate conformance is to assemble in one place a list and copies of each applicable environmental law, regulation and voluntary subscription along with the supporting permits and/or contracts as evidence.

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Objectives and Targets

  • Consider “legal and other requirements”

  • Consider significant aspects

  • Reflect corporate policies

  • Reflect financial and technical limitations

  • Reflect “interested parties”

  • Reflect policy commitment and commitment to pollution prevention

  • Consider how you will measure progress

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Objectives and Targets

  • Objectives are the “Goals” that support the “Vision” contained in the Environmental Policy Statement.

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ISO 14001 Specifications for Objectives/Targets

  • The ISO 14001 Standard stipulates several criteria that must be considered when establishing environmental objectives. Specifically:

  • Environmental policy commitments to continual improvement, prevention of pollution, and compliance with legal and other requirements.

  • Concentration on controlling significant environmental aspects – the activities, products, and services with the highest environmental impacts – since reducing their significance (i.e., the risks associated with them) automatically lowers their impacts.

  • Taking consideration of technological options and financial, operational, and business requirements means that environmental objectives and targets must be practical in terms of being technologically achievable, within the limits of available budget constraints, and consistent with operational and business strategies.

    • In other words, objectives and targets must be realistic and attainable, not mere dreams or wish lists.

  • The views of interested parties. Any individual, group, agency, or community that may be affected by or have a stake in the operations of the facility implementing the EMS. This can be a long list, including:

    • National, regional/provincial, local government officials

    • Local community representatives

    • Public interest groups and other stakeholders (The views of interested parties are also helpful when an organization makes a decision regarding communication of its environmental aspects).

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ISO 14001 Environmental Management Programs:

The organization shall establish and maintain programs for achieving its objectives and targets, including:

(a) designation of responsibility for achieving objectives and targets at each level and function of the organization

(b) the means and time-frame by which they are to be achieved

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EnvironmentalManagement Programs

An EMP is an action plan specifying:

  • Howobjectives and targets will be accomplished

  • Whois responsible for achieving them

  • Whowill manage and supervise the activities

  • Whowill carry out the work

  • Whatthey will do

  • What resources are needed (e.g., people, skills, equipment, time, money)

  • When the tasks will be completed (i.e., a schedule)

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and Operation

Checking and

Corrective Action

Implementation and Operation

  • This phase includes 7 elements:

    • Resources, Roles, Responsibilities and Authority

    • Competence, Training and Awareness

    • Communication

    • Documentation

    • Controls of documents

    • Operational control

    • Emergency Preparedness and Response

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Implementation and Operation

Capabilities &

Organization &




EMS Documentation


Awareness and

Document Control


Structure and


Operational Control


Emergency preparedness and response

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Structure and Responsibility

  • Roles and responsibilities are defined, documented, communicated

  • Management will provide resources for implementation of the system

  • Identifies Management Representative (s)

    • In charge

    • Report to top management

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Training, Awareness and Competence

  • Ensure training and awareness relevant to

    • EMS - including policy

    • relationship between employees’ activities and environmental impacts

  • Ensure competence training to

    • regulatory requirements

    • standard operating procedures

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  • Ensure internal communication

  • External communication of significant environmental impacts is optional, however this decision shall be documented

  • Provide process for responding to external communication

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Documentation and Document Control

  • Procedures for controlling documents

    • can be located - are legible, dated and maintained

    • reviewed and revised as necessary and approved

    • current versions are available to practitioner

    • obsolete documents are removed from use

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  • Under ISO 14001, documentation refers to all written material concerning the EMS

  • Documents include policies, procedures, manuals, plans, diagrams, flowcharts, correspondence, memoranda related to the EMS

  • Records are documents, but under ISO 14001 are distinguished from documentation:

    • Documentation concerns what should happen

    • Records contain information on whathas happened

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4.3.3 Environmental objectives and targets

4.4.1 Roles, responsibilities, and authority for EMS

4.4.3 Communications from external interested parties

4.4.4 EMS core elements

4.4.6 Procedures essential for operational control

4.5.1 Monitoring and measurement of key operations that have potential significant impacts

4.5.1 Compliance with laws and regulations

4.5.3 Records


Must Document

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4.3.1 Environmental aspects and impacts inventory

4.3.2 Significant environmental aspects

4.3.3 Registry of legislation and regulations

4.3.4 Environmental management programs - action plans to achieve objectives and targets

4.4.2 Training needs results, and training plans

4.4.7 Emergency response plan

4.5.2 Corrective and preventive actions

4.5.5 EMS audit results

Good Idea to Document

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What areOperational Controls?

  • Means by which an organization prevents pollution from operations, e.g.:

    • Pollution control equipment such as scrubbers, filters, precipitators, clarifiers, biological and chemical treatment, etc.

    • Alarms for gas, pH, conductance, tank level, etc.

    • Preventive maintenance practices

    • Operating procedures

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Methods of Operational Control

  • Process controls:

    • electronic

    • mechanical

    • monitoring

    • observation

  • Operating procedures:

    • verbal

    • documented

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What is a Procedure?

  • An activity carried out according to specified instructions

  • Combination of responsibilities, authority, resources, instructions needed to consistently perform an activity

  • A procedure may be documented (i.e., written), but the document is NOT the procedure

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One More Thing from ISO 14001 4.4.6

The organization shall establish and maintain procedures related to the identifiable significant environmental aspects of goods and services used by the organization and communicate relevant procedures and requirements to suppliers and contractors

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Responsibilities of Contractors and Suppliers

  • The organization is responsible for informing contractors and suppliers about operating procedures relating to their goods and services

  • Contractors must comply with all EMS requirements when on site

  • Suppliers may be required to meet specified environmental standards in their own facilities

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Emergency Preparedness and Response

  • Procedures to address accidents and emergencies

    • prevent and mitigate environmental impacts

    • review and revise after emergency or accident

    • test where appropriate

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and Operation

Checking and

Corrective Action


  • 5 elements:

    • Monitoring and Measurement.

    • Evaluation of compliance

    • Non-Conformance and Corrective and Preventive Actions.

    • Control of Records

    • EMS Internal Audit.

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Periodic Evaluations of compliance




Monitoring and

Corrective and


Preventive Action

Periodic Internal EMS Audits

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Monitoring and Measuring

  • Procedures to monitor and measure activities related to significant aspects

    • Root cause analysis

    • Audits

    • Track performance, operational control and objectives and targets

    • Maintain and calibrate monitoring equipment

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Evaluation of Compliance

  • Periodically evaluate compliance with applicable legal requirements

  • Also evaluate compliance with other requirements the company subscribes

  • Keep records of such evaluations

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Nonconformity, Corrective and Preventive Action

  • Identify cause of nonconformity

  • Develop corrective action and implement it

  • Modify procedures if necessary to prevent recurrence

  • Define responsibility and authority to address non-conformance

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Control of Records

  • Procedures for identification, maintenance and disposition of environmental records

    • Legible and traceable to the activity, product or service involved

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Internal EMS Audits

  • Periodically audit to determine if the EMS

    • is being properly implemented and maintained, and

    • conforms to the standard

  • Provide audit information to management

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and Operation

Checking and

Corrective Action

Management Review

  • Policy

  • Audits

  • Corrective and Preventive Action Systems.

  • Environmental Objectives and Targets.

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Management Review Process

  • To Assess the

  • suitability,

  • adequacy, and

  • effectiveness of the EMS

  • Need to consider:

  • audit findings

  • progress records on objectives

  • changes to facilities

  • changes in activities, products or services

  • changes in technology

  • concerns of interested parties

  • other relevant information

  • In order to determine the need for change and improvement to:

  • the environmental policy

  • the objectives and targets

  • other elements of the EMS

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  • An EMS is a formal system for managing the environmental footprint of organizations

  • Most organizations already have several EMS elements in place - the system relationship is lacking

  • An EMS must serve the mission of the organization

  • The EMS and related measurement tools are just that- tools. Alone, they will not guarantee success.

  • The organization must use the tools, not just have them.

  • Success comes from being committed to continual improvement for the long term