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SLEEP AND DREAMING. November 29, 2012. Objectives: To develop an understanding of Sleep and Dreams. Question: How many hours of sleep a night do you get? How many hours does the average teenager need? Agenda: Notes/New Vocab & Obj. SLEEP RESEARCH.

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Sleep and dreaming
SLEEP AND DREAMING


November 29 2012
November 29, 2012

Objectives: To develop an understanding of Sleep and Dreams.

Question: How many hours of sleep a night do you get? How many hours does the average teenager need?

Agenda: Notes/New Vocab & Obj.


Sleep research
SLEEP RESEARCH

  • ElectroencephalogramEEG - brain wave activity

  • Electro-oculogramEOG - eye movement activity

  • ElectromyogramEMG - muscle activity


Waking eeg activity
WAKING EEG ACTIVITY

  • Alpha wave

  • synchronous - regular

  • 8 - 12 Hz (cps)

  • high amplitude, low frequency

  • characteristic of relaxed wakefulness


  • Beta wave

  • desynchronous - irregular

  • 13 - 40 Hz (cps)

  • low amplitude, high frequency

  • characteristic of behavioral arousal


Sleeping eeg activity two states of sleep
SLEEPING EEG ACTIVITYTWO STATES OF SLEEP

  • NREM - 4 stages

    • Stage 1 - irregular EEG, slow eye movements

    • Stage 2 - sleep spindles




Final 5
Final 5

What is the stage of sleep when we may experience hallucinations or a sense of falling?


Rem sleep
REM SLEEP

  • EEG - irregular beta waves reappear

  • REM sleep also known as

    • paradoxical sleep

    • dream sleep - most vivid dreams occur now


  • and active sleep - physiological processes speed up



Nrem rem cycles last about 90 min
NREM-REM cycles last about 90 min

  • 1st half of night

    NREM REM

  • much stage 3 and 4, short REM periods



Stamp test
STAMP TEST

  • Impotence

  • Physical or psychological disorder?


Why do we sleep and why do we dream
WHY DO WE SLEEP AND WHY DO WE DREAM?

  • Two major hypotheses - Sleep is

  • a restorative process



  • The brain? Yes

  • Sleep deprivation increases SWS, not REM

  • Exercise that increases brain temperature increases SWS


  • an evolutionary relic-

  • formerly adaptive

  • response, no longer

  • needed, but built in


Circadian activity
Circadian Activity

  • endogenous 25 hr cycle entrained to 24 hr day by

  • suprachiasmatic nucleus


How much sleep do you need
How much sleep do you need?

  • Answer - tremendous variability

  • Leonardo da Vinci


What are the effects of total sleep deprivation
What are the effects of total sleep deprivation?

  • Peter Tripp - abnormal behavior

  • Randy Gardner - just sleepy


What are the effects of long sleep periods
What are the effects of long sleep periods?

  • 14 hours of darkness for 30 days

  • Humans sleep like

  • chipmunks


%

Time

in

Sleep

0 Time - Hrs 14


What are the functions of dreams
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF DREAMS?

Dreaming permits each and every one of us to be quietly and safely INSANE every night of our lives.

---- William Dement


Can you interpret this dream
CAN YOU INTERPRETTHISDREAM?


I was walking down the steps of the library, wearing my nightgown, cradling a bowl of raspberry Jell-O in my arms. At the foot of the staircase I could see the dim figure of my high school algebra teacher. His right arm was upraised and he was shouting at me, but I could not make out the words.


Suddenly, the scene shifted. I was traveling through a dense forest. The sun was setting and the forest deepened in darkness. I felt afraid. An unseen menace seemed to be following, but when I glanced back in fear, I saw one. I tried to run faster, but my legs would not respond. I was powerless to escape.






Do animals dream
Do Animals Dream? Dreams have

  • Dogs and cats?


Do animals dream1
Do Animals Dream? Dreams have

  • Dogs and cats? Likely


Do animals dream2
Do Animals Dream? Dreams have

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins?


Do animals dream3
Do Animals Dream? Dreams have

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????


Do animals dream4
Do Animals Dream? Dreams have

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????

  • No REM sleep


Do animals dream5
Do Animals Dream? Dreams have

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????

  • No REM sleep

  • SWS alternates between hemispheres


Sleep disorders
SLEEP DISORDERS Dreams have




Therapies for narcolepsy
Therapies for Narcolepsy Dreams have

  • Stimulant drugs such as amphetamine - adverse side effects

  • New Drug - Provigil - not yet approved by FDA - few side effects - not a stimulant -


  • Sleep walking ( Dreams have somnabulism) and talking - genetic component

  • Occurs during slow wave sleep


  • Night Dreams have terrors

  • Sudden arousal from slow wave sleep

  • Nightmares occur during REM sleep


Insomnias
Insomnias Dreams have

  • Pseudoinsomnia

  • Recurring dreams of insomnia


Drug induced insomnias
Drug-Induced Insomnias Dreams have

  • Barbiturates

  • lethal in overdose

  • benzodiazepines - Halcion

  • comparatively safe in overdose

  • lethal in combination with alcohol


SLEEPING PILLS Dreams have

CAUSE

INSOMNIA,

not normal sleep


Treatments for insomnia
Treatments for Insomnia Dreams have

  • Melatonin

  • Mild hypnotic effect

  • Increases longevity?


Treatments for insomnia1
Treatments for Insomnia Dreams have

  • Exposure to bright light during morning hours

  • Where do you shine the light?

  • Eyes. Where else?

  • Behind your knees


Treatments for insomnia2
Treatments for Insomnia Dreams have

  • Tryptophan

  • Precursor of serotonin, induces normal sleep

  • Carbohydrates, not proteins, increase brain tryptophan levels



Treatments for insomnia3
Treatments for Insomnia warm milk

Develop good sleep habits


Two examples
Two Examples warm milk

  • Never sleep late on the weekends - always get up at the same time

  • Use your bed only for sleeping, nothing else!


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