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SLEEP AND DREAMING. November 29, 2012. Objectives: To develop an understanding of Sleep and Dreams. Question: How many hours of sleep a night do you get? How many hours does the average teenager need? Agenda: Notes/New Vocab & Obj. SLEEP RESEARCH.

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november 29 2012
November 29, 2012

Objectives: To develop an understanding of Sleep and Dreams.

Question: How many hours of sleep a night do you get? How many hours does the average teenager need?

Agenda: Notes/New Vocab & Obj.

sleep research
SLEEP RESEARCH
  • ElectroencephalogramEEG - brain wave activity
  • Electro-oculogramEOG - eye movement activity
  • ElectromyogramEMG - muscle activity
waking eeg activity
WAKING EEG ACTIVITY
  • Alpha wave
  • synchronous - regular
  • 8 - 12 Hz (cps)
  • high amplitude, low frequency
  • characteristic of relaxed wakefulness
slide5
Beta wave
  • desynchronous - irregular
  • 13 - 40 Hz (cps)
  • low amplitude, high frequency
  • characteristic of behavioral arousal
sleeping eeg activity two states of sleep
SLEEPING EEG ACTIVITYTWO STATES OF SLEEP
  • NREM - 4 stages
    • Stage 1 - irregular EEG, slow eye movements
    • Stage 2 - sleep spindles
slide7
Stage 3 - high amplitude delta waves appear
  • Stage 4 - dominated by delta waves, 1 - 4 Hz
slide8
NREM sleep also known as
    • slow wave sleep - SWS
    • quiet sleep - physiological processes slow down
final 5
Final 5

What is the stage of sleep when we may experience hallucinations or a sense of falling?

rem sleep
REM SLEEP
  • EEG - irregular beta waves reappear
  • REM sleep also known as
    • paradoxical sleep
    • dream sleep - most vivid dreams occur now
slide12
but you are

PARALYZED

nrem rem cycles last about 90 min
NREM-REM cycles last about 90 min
  • 1st half of night

NREM REM

  • much stage 3 and 4, short REM periods
slide14
2nd half of night

NREM REM

  • very little stage 3 and 4, longer REM periods
stamp test
STAMP TEST
  • Impotence
  • Physical or psychological disorder?
why do we sleep and why do we dream
WHY DO WE SLEEP AND WHY DO WE DREAM?
  • Two major hypotheses - Sleep is
  • a restorative process
slide18
The brain? Yes
  • Sleep deprivation increases SWS, not REM
  • Exercise that increases brain temperature increases SWS
slide19

an evolutionary relic-

  • formerly adaptive
  • response, no longer
  • needed, but built in
circadian activity
Circadian Activity
  • endogenous 25 hr cycle entrained to 24 hr day by
  • suprachiasmatic nucleus
how much sleep do you need
How much sleep do you need?
  • Answer - tremendous variability
  • Leonardo da Vinci
what are the effects of total sleep deprivation
What are the effects of total sleep deprivation?
  • Peter Tripp - abnormal behavior
  • Randy Gardner - just sleepy
what are the effects of long sleep periods
What are the effects of long sleep periods?
  • 14 hours of darkness for 30 days
  • Humans sleep like
  • chipmunks
slide24

%

Time

in

Sleep

0 Time - Hrs 14

what are the functions of dreams
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF DREAMS?

Dreaming permits each and every one of us to be quietly and safely INSANE every night of our lives.

---- William Dement

slide27
I was walking down the steps of the library, wearing my nightgown, cradling a bowl of raspberry Jell-O in my arms. At the foot of the staircase I could see the dim figure of my high school algebra teacher. His right arm was upraised and he was shouting at me, but I could not make out the words.
slide28
Suddenly, the scene shifted. I was traveling through a dense forest. The sun was setting and the forest deepened in darkness. I felt afraid. An unseen menace seemed to be following, but when I glanced back in fear, I saw one. I tried to run faster, but my legs would not respond. I was powerless to escape.
slide29
Freud - dreams are windows to the unconscious mind, dreams represent wish fulfillment - distinguish between manifest (actual) content and latent (hidden) content
slide31
Hobson and McCarley - Activation/synthesis hypothesis - Dreams have no hidden meaning - simply by-products of brain activity
slide32
Winson - dreams process information into memory
  • Echida (spiny anteater) - no REM, large frontal lobes
do animals dream
Do Animals Dream?
  • Dogs and cats?
do animals dream1
Do Animals Dream?
  • Dogs and cats? Likely
do animals dream2
Do Animals Dream?
  • Dogs and cats? Likely
  • Dolphins?
do animals dream3
Do Animals Dream?
  • Dogs and cats? Likely
  • Dolphins? ??????
do animals dream4
Do Animals Dream?
  • Dogs and cats? Likely
  • Dolphins? ??????
  • No REM sleep
do animals dream5
Do Animals Dream?
  • Dogs and cats? Likely
  • Dolphins? ??????
  • No REM sleep
  • SWS alternates between hemispheres
slide40
Sleep apnea - cannot sleep and breathe at the same time - may be related to sudden infant death syndrome - SIDS - controversial
slide41
Narcolepsy - attack of REM sleep,
  • often triggered by emotional arousal
  • 1 in 5000 people
therapies for narcolepsy
Therapies for Narcolepsy
  • Stimulant drugs such as amphetamine - adverse side effects
  • New Drug - Provigil - not yet approved by FDA - few side effects - not a stimulant -
slide43
Sleep walking (somnabulism) and talking - genetic component
  • Occurs during slow wave sleep
slide44
Night terrors
  • Sudden arousal from slow wave sleep
  • Nightmares occur during REM sleep
insomnias
Insomnias
  • Pseudoinsomnia
  • Recurring dreams of insomnia
drug induced insomnias
Drug-Induced Insomnias
  • Barbiturates
  • lethal in overdose
  • benzodiazepines - Halcion
  • comparatively safe in overdose
  • lethal in combination with alcohol
slide47
SLEEPING PILLS

CAUSE

INSOMNIA,

not normal sleep

treatments for insomnia
Treatments for Insomnia
  • Melatonin
  • Mild hypnotic effect
  • Increases longevity?
treatments for insomnia1
Treatments for Insomnia
  • Exposure to bright light during morning hours
  • Where do you shine the light?
  • Eyes. Where else?
  • Behind your knees
treatments for insomnia2
Treatments for Insomnia
  • Tryptophan
  • Precursor of serotonin, induces normal sleep
  • Carbohydrates, not proteins, increase brain tryptophan levels
treatments for insomnia3
Treatments for Insomnia

Develop good sleep habits

two examples
Two Examples
  • Never sleep late on the weekends - always get up at the same time
  • Use your bed only for sleeping, nothing else!
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