Sleep and dreaming
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 54

SLEEP AND DREAMING PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 158 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

SLEEP AND DREAMING. November 29, 2012. Objectives: To develop an understanding of Sleep and Dreams. Question: How many hours of sleep a night do you get? How many hours does the average teenager need? Agenda: Notes/New Vocab & Obj. SLEEP RESEARCH.

Download Presentation

SLEEP AND DREAMING

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


SLEEP AND DREAMING


November 29, 2012

Objectives: To develop an understanding of Sleep and Dreams.

Question: How many hours of sleep a night do you get? How many hours does the average teenager need?

Agenda: Notes/New Vocab & Obj.


SLEEP RESEARCH

  • ElectroencephalogramEEG - brain wave activity

  • Electro-oculogramEOG - eye movement activity

  • ElectromyogramEMG - muscle activity


WAKING EEG ACTIVITY

  • Alpha wave

  • synchronous - regular

  • 8 - 12 Hz (cps)

  • high amplitude, low frequency

  • characteristic of relaxed wakefulness


  • Beta wave

  • desynchronous - irregular

  • 13 - 40 Hz (cps)

  • low amplitude, high frequency

  • characteristic of behavioral arousal


SLEEPING EEG ACTIVITYTWO STATES OF SLEEP

  • NREM - 4 stages

    • Stage 1 - irregular EEG, slow eye movements

    • Stage 2 - sleep spindles


  • Stage 3 - high amplitude delta waves appear

  • Stage 4 - dominated by delta waves, 1 - 4 Hz


  • NREM sleep also known as

    • slow wave sleep - SWS

    • quiet sleep - physiological processes slow down


Final 5

What is the stage of sleep when we may experience hallucinations or a sense of falling?


REM SLEEP

  • EEG - irregular beta waves reappear

  • REM sleep also known as

    • paradoxical sleep

    • dream sleep - most vivid dreams occur now


  • and active sleep - physiological processes speed up


  • but you are

    PARALYZED


NREM-REM cycles last about 90 min

  • 1st half of night

    NREM REM

  • much stage 3 and 4, short REM periods


  • 2nd half of night

    NREM REM

  • very little stage 3 and 4, longer REM periods


STAMP TEST

  • Impotence

  • Physical or psychological disorder?


WHY DO WE SLEEP AND WHY DO WE DREAM?

  • Two major hypotheses - Sleep is

  • a restorative process


  • but what is restored?

  • The body?

  • NO


  • The brain? Yes

  • Sleep deprivation increases SWS, not REM

  • Exercise that increases brain temperature increases SWS


  • an evolutionary relic-

  • formerly adaptive

  • response, no longer

  • needed, but built in


Circadian Activity

  • endogenous 25 hr cycle entrained to 24 hr day by

  • suprachiasmatic nucleus


How much sleep do you need?

  • Answer - tremendous variability

  • Leonardo da Vinci


What are the effects of total sleep deprivation?

  • Peter Tripp - abnormal behavior

  • Randy Gardner - just sleepy


What are the effects of long sleep periods?

  • 14 hours of darkness for 30 days

  • Humans sleep like

  • chipmunks


%

Time

in

Sleep

0 Time - Hrs 14


WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF DREAMS?

Dreaming permits each and every one of us to be quietly and safely INSANE every night of our lives.

---- William Dement


CAN YOU INTERPRETTHISDREAM?


I was walking down the steps of the library, wearing my nightgown, cradling a bowl of raspberry Jell-O in my arms. At the foot of the staircase I could see the dim figure of my high school algebra teacher. His right arm was upraised and he was shouting at me, but I could not make out the words.


Suddenly, the scene shifted. I was traveling through a dense forest. The sun was setting and the forest deepened in darkness. I felt afraid. An unseen menace seemed to be following, but when I glanced back in fear, I saw one. I tried to run faster, but my legs would not respond. I was powerless to escape.


  • Freud - dreams are windows to the unconscious mind, dreams represent wish fulfillment - distinguish between manifest (actual) content and latent (hidden) content


  • Crick and Mitchinson - dreams erase information, we dream to forget


  • Hobson and McCarley - Activation/synthesis hypothesis - Dreams have no hidden meaning - simply by-products of brain activity


  • Winson - dreams process information into memory

  • Echida (spiny anteater) - no REM, large frontal lobes


Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats?


Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely


Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins?


Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????


Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????

  • No REM sleep


Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????

  • No REM sleep

  • SWS alternates between hemispheres


SLEEP DISORDERS


  • Sleep apnea - cannot sleep and breathe at the same time - may be related to sudden infant death syndrome - SIDS - controversial


  • Narcolepsy - attack of REM sleep,

  • often triggered by emotional arousal

  • 1 in 5000 people


Therapies for Narcolepsy

  • Stimulant drugs such as amphetamine - adverse side effects

  • New Drug - Provigil - not yet approved by FDA - few side effects - not a stimulant -


  • Sleep walking (somnabulism) and talking - genetic component

  • Occurs during slow wave sleep


  • Night terrors

  • Sudden arousal from slow wave sleep

  • Nightmares occur during REM sleep


Insomnias

  • Pseudoinsomnia

  • Recurring dreams of insomnia


Drug-Induced Insomnias

  • Barbiturates

  • lethal in overdose

  • benzodiazepines - Halcion

  • comparatively safe in overdose

  • lethal in combination with alcohol


SLEEPING PILLS

CAUSE

INSOMNIA,

not normal sleep


Treatments for Insomnia

  • Melatonin

  • Mild hypnotic effect

  • Increases longevity?


Treatments for Insomnia

  • Exposure to bright light during morning hours

  • Where do you shine the light?

  • Eyes. Where else?

  • Behind your knees


Treatments for Insomnia

  • Tryptophan

  • Precursor of serotonin, induces normal sleep

  • Carbohydrates, not proteins, increase brain tryptophan levels


  • Eat graham cracker cookies before bedtime, not a glass of warm milk


Treatments for Insomnia

Develop good sleep habits


Two Examples

  • Never sleep late on the weekends - always get up at the same time

  • Use your bed only for sleeping, nothing else!


  • Login