Sleep and dreaming
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SLEEP AND DREAMING. November 29, 2012. Objectives: To develop an understanding of Sleep and Dreams. Question: How many hours of sleep a night do you get? How many hours does the average teenager need? Agenda: Notes/New Vocab & Obj. SLEEP RESEARCH.

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Sleep and dreaming

SLEEP AND DREAMING


November 29 2012

November 29, 2012

Objectives: To develop an understanding of Sleep and Dreams.

Question: How many hours of sleep a night do you get? How many hours does the average teenager need?

Agenda: Notes/New Vocab & Obj.


Sleep research

SLEEP RESEARCH

  • ElectroencephalogramEEG - brain wave activity

  • Electro-oculogramEOG - eye movement activity

  • ElectromyogramEMG - muscle activity


Waking eeg activity

WAKING EEG ACTIVITY

  • Alpha wave

  • synchronous - regular

  • 8 - 12 Hz (cps)

  • high amplitude, low frequency

  • characteristic of relaxed wakefulness


Sleep and dreaming

  • Beta wave

  • desynchronous - irregular

  • 13 - 40 Hz (cps)

  • low amplitude, high frequency

  • characteristic of behavioral arousal


Sleeping eeg activity two states of sleep

SLEEPING EEG ACTIVITYTWO STATES OF SLEEP

  • NREM - 4 stages

    • Stage 1 - irregular EEG, slow eye movements

    • Stage 2 - sleep spindles


Sleep and dreaming

  • Stage 3 - high amplitude delta waves appear

  • Stage 4 - dominated by delta waves, 1 - 4 Hz


Sleep and dreaming

  • NREM sleep also known as

    • slow wave sleep - SWS

    • quiet sleep - physiological processes slow down


Final 5

Final 5

What is the stage of sleep when we may experience hallucinations or a sense of falling?


Rem sleep

REM SLEEP

  • EEG - irregular beta waves reappear

  • REM sleep also known as

    • paradoxical sleep

    • dream sleep - most vivid dreams occur now


Sleep and dreaming

  • and active sleep - physiological processes speed up


Sleep and dreaming

  • but you are

    PARALYZED


Nrem rem cycles last about 90 min

NREM-REM cycles last about 90 min

  • 1st half of night

    NREM REM

  • much stage 3 and 4, short REM periods


Sleep and dreaming

  • 2nd half of night

    NREM REM

  • very little stage 3 and 4, longer REM periods


Stamp test

STAMP TEST

  • Impotence

  • Physical or psychological disorder?


Why do we sleep and why do we dream

WHY DO WE SLEEP AND WHY DO WE DREAM?

  • Two major hypotheses - Sleep is

  • a restorative process


Sleep and dreaming

  • but what is restored?

  • The body?

  • NO


Sleep and dreaming

  • The brain? Yes

  • Sleep deprivation increases SWS, not REM

  • Exercise that increases brain temperature increases SWS


Sleep and dreaming

  • an evolutionary relic-

  • formerly adaptive

  • response, no longer

  • needed, but built in


Circadian activity

Circadian Activity

  • endogenous 25 hr cycle entrained to 24 hr day by

  • suprachiasmatic nucleus


How much sleep do you need

How much sleep do you need?

  • Answer - tremendous variability

  • Leonardo da Vinci


What are the effects of total sleep deprivation

What are the effects of total sleep deprivation?

  • Peter Tripp - abnormal behavior

  • Randy Gardner - just sleepy


What are the effects of long sleep periods

What are the effects of long sleep periods?

  • 14 hours of darkness for 30 days

  • Humans sleep like

  • chipmunks


Sleep and dreaming

%

Time

in

Sleep

0 Time - Hrs 14


What are the functions of dreams

WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF DREAMS?

Dreaming permits each and every one of us to be quietly and safely INSANE every night of our lives.

---- William Dement


Can you interpret this dream

CAN YOU INTERPRETTHISDREAM?


Sleep and dreaming

I was walking down the steps of the library, wearing my nightgown, cradling a bowl of raspberry Jell-O in my arms. At the foot of the staircase I could see the dim figure of my high school algebra teacher. His right arm was upraised and he was shouting at me, but I could not make out the words.


Sleep and dreaming

Suddenly, the scene shifted. I was traveling through a dense forest. The sun was setting and the forest deepened in darkness. I felt afraid. An unseen menace seemed to be following, but when I glanced back in fear, I saw one. I tried to run faster, but my legs would not respond. I was powerless to escape.


Sleep and dreaming

  • Freud - dreams are windows to the unconscious mind, dreams represent wish fulfillment - distinguish between manifest (actual) content and latent (hidden) content


Sleep and dreaming

  • Crick and Mitchinson - dreams erase information, we dream to forget


Sleep and dreaming

  • Hobson and McCarley - Activation/synthesis hypothesis - Dreams have no hidden meaning - simply by-products of brain activity


Sleep and dreaming

  • Winson - dreams process information into memory

  • Echida (spiny anteater) - no REM, large frontal lobes


Do animals dream

Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats?


Do animals dream1

Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely


Do animals dream2

Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins?


Do animals dream3

Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????


Do animals dream4

Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????

  • No REM sleep


Do animals dream5

Do Animals Dream?

  • Dogs and cats? Likely

  • Dolphins? ??????

  • No REM sleep

  • SWS alternates between hemispheres


Sleep disorders

SLEEP DISORDERS


Sleep and dreaming

  • Sleep apnea - cannot sleep and breathe at the same time - may be related to sudden infant death syndrome - SIDS - controversial


Sleep and dreaming

  • Narcolepsy - attack of REM sleep,

  • often triggered by emotional arousal

  • 1 in 5000 people


Therapies for narcolepsy

Therapies for Narcolepsy

  • Stimulant drugs such as amphetamine - adverse side effects

  • New Drug - Provigil - not yet approved by FDA - few side effects - not a stimulant -


Sleep and dreaming

  • Sleep walking (somnabulism) and talking - genetic component

  • Occurs during slow wave sleep


Sleep and dreaming

  • Night terrors

  • Sudden arousal from slow wave sleep

  • Nightmares occur during REM sleep


Insomnias

Insomnias

  • Pseudoinsomnia

  • Recurring dreams of insomnia


Drug induced insomnias

Drug-Induced Insomnias

  • Barbiturates

  • lethal in overdose

  • benzodiazepines - Halcion

  • comparatively safe in overdose

  • lethal in combination with alcohol


Sleep and dreaming

SLEEPING PILLS

CAUSE

INSOMNIA,

not normal sleep


Treatments for insomnia

Treatments for Insomnia

  • Melatonin

  • Mild hypnotic effect

  • Increases longevity?


Treatments for insomnia1

Treatments for Insomnia

  • Exposure to bright light during morning hours

  • Where do you shine the light?

  • Eyes. Where else?

  • Behind your knees


Treatments for insomnia2

Treatments for Insomnia

  • Tryptophan

  • Precursor of serotonin, induces normal sleep

  • Carbohydrates, not proteins, increase brain tryptophan levels


Sleep and dreaming

  • Eat graham cracker cookies before bedtime, not a glass of warm milk


Treatments for insomnia3

Treatments for Insomnia

Develop good sleep habits


Two examples

Two Examples

  • Never sleep late on the weekends - always get up at the same time

  • Use your bed only for sleeping, nothing else!


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