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Essential Computer Concepts PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Essential Computer Concepts. Objectives. Compare the types of computers Describe the components of a computer system Describe input and output peripheral devices Examine data representation and the ASCII code Define memory and storage

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Essential Computer Concepts

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Essential computer concepts l.jpg

Essential Computer Concepts


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Objectives

  • Compare the types of computers

  • Describe the components of a computer system

  • Describe input and output peripheral devices

  • Examine data representation and the ASCII code

  • Define memory and storage

  • Identify the hardware and software that are used for data communications and to establish a network connection

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Objectives

  • Explain how Internet access, e-mail, and the World Wide Web affect the use of computers

  • Describe potential security threats to computers and protection methods

  • Discuss the types of system software and their functions

  • Identify popular application software

  • Describe how data is shared among different types of application software

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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What Is a Computer?

  • A computer is an electronic device that accepts information and instructions from a user, manipulates the information according to the instructions, displays the information in some way, and stores the information for retrieval later

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Types of Computers

  • Personal computers (PCs)

  • Desktop computers

  • Notebook (laptop) computers

  • Tablet PCs

  • Handheld computers

  • PDA (personal digital assistant)

  • MP3 players

  • Mainframe computers

  • Supercomputers

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Types of Computers

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Computer Systems

  • Includes computer hardware and software

    • Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer

    • Software refers to the intangible components of a computer system, particularly the programs, or lists of instructions, the computer needs to perform a specific task

  • The design and construction of the hardware of a particular computer is referred to as its architecture or configuration

  • The technical details about each component are called specifications

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Processing Hardware

  • The motherboard is the main electronic component of the computer

    • Circuit board

  • The microprocessor is one of the most important pieces of processing hardware on the motherboard

  • Cards are removable circuit boards

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Input and Output

  • The data or instructions you type into the computer are called input

  • The result of the computer processing your input is referred to as output

  • Peripheral devices accomplish input and output functions

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Input Devices

  • You use an input device, such as a keyboard or a mouse, to input data and issue commands

    • Keyboard

      • Ergonomic

    • Pointing device

      • Controls the pointer

      • Mouse

        • Scroll wheel

      • Trackball

      • Touch pad

      • Pointing stick

    • Scanner

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Output Devices

  • Output devices show you the results of processing data

    • Monitor

      • Flat panel

      • LCD

      • CRT

    • Printer

      • Laser

      • Inkjet

      • Dot matrix

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Data Representation

  • Binary digits (bits)

  • A series of eight bits is called a byte

    • Kilobyte (KB or K)

    • Gigabyte (GB)

    • Terabyte (TB)

  • ASCII

    • American Standard Code for Information Interchange

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Memory

  • Random access memory (RAM)

    • Volatile memory

    • SDRAM

  • Cache memory (RAM cache or CPU cache)

  • Virtual memory

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Memory

  • Read-only memory (ROM)

    • BIOS

    • Nonvolatile memory

  • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS)

  • Semipermanent memory

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Storage Media

  • A computer file is a named collection of stored data

  • An executable file contains the instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task

  • A data file is created by a user

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Storage Media

  • Magnetic media

    • Hard disk

New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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Storage Media

  • Tape

  • Floppy disk

  • Optical storage device

    • CD

    • DVD

    • CD-R

    • CD-RW

    • CD-ROM

  • New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Storage Media

    • Flash memory

      • Flash memory cards

      • USB flash storage device

      • USB drive (flash drive)

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Data Communications

    • The transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to another or to a peripheral device is called data communications

      • Sender and receiver

      • Channel

      • Protocol

      • Device driver (driver)

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Data Bus

    • This path between the microprocessor, RAM, and peripherals is called the data bus

    • Controller card

    • Expansion card

    • Expansion slot

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Networks

    • A network connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices, enabling you to share data and resources with others

    • Network interface card (NIC)

    • LAN

    • WAN

    • WLAN

    • PAN

    • WiMax

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Telecommunications

    • Telecommunications means communicating over a comparatively long distance using a phone line or some other data conduit

      • Modem

        • Digital and analog signals

      • DSL

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    The Internet

    • The Internet is the largest network in the world, connecting millions of people

      • Electronic mail

      • World Wide Web

        • Web page

        • Web site

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Security Threats on Your Computer

    • Security refers to the steps a computer owner takes to prevent unauthorized use of or damage to the computer

      • Malware

        • Viruses

          • Antivirus software

        • Spyware

        • Adware

    • Firewall

    • Phishing

    • Pharming

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    System Software

    • System software manages the fundamental operations of your computer

      • Operating system

        • System resource

        • Multitasking

      • Utilities

      • Programming Languages

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Application Software

    • Application software enables you to perform specific computer tasks, such as document production, spreadsheet calculations, and database management

      • Document production software

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Application Software

    • Web site creation and management software

    • Spreadsheet software

    • Database management software

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Application Software

    • Presentation software

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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    Application Software

    • Photo editing software

    • Multimedia authoring software

    • Accounting software

    • Information management software

    New Perspectives on Microsoft Office 2007: Windows Vista Edition


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