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INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR MIGRATION Presented by Karen Blackman. PATTERNS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. SOTHERN AFRICAN COUNTER-TRAFFICKING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME [SACTAP]. Activities : Prevention of trafficking:

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sothern african counter trafficking assistance programme sactap
SOTHERN AFRICAN COUNTER-TRAFFICKING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME [SACTAP]

Activities:

Prevention of trafficking:

  • Field research and data collection; Eye on Human Trafficking quarterly news bulletin [[email protected]].
  • Information dissemination; print, television, radio

Protection of Trafficking Victims:

  • Training for Police and Immigration officials
  • Training for NGO and government service providers
  • Toll-Free National Trafficking Helpline in South Africa

Assistance and Reintegration to trafficking Victims through:

  • NGO support network – shelters, medical, legal and psychosocial counseling
  • Relocation and/or AVR
  • Reintegration options for victims
what is the international organization for migration iom
What is the International Organization for Migration (IOM)?
  • Leading international organization working globally to manage migration challenges for the benefit of all.
  • Established 1951 to resettle European displaced persons, refugees and migrants, but has evolved with offices and operations in every continent. Currently 125 member states.
  • IOM helps governments and civil society in 7 service areas:
  • Assisted voluntary returns
  • Counter-trafficking
  • Migration health
  • Movements of migrants [refugees and others]
  • Mass information on migration
  • Technical co-operation on migration [border management]
  • Labour migration
  • IOM’s regional office for Southern Africa is situated in Pretoria
patterns of tip in southern africa
PATTERNS OF TiP IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

Based on

  • 6-month research conducted by IOM in 2002-2003.
  • Additional interviews with victims of trafficking over the past 5 years
south africa south africa to asia
SOUTH AFRICA South Africa to Asia

Recruitment

  • Recruiters usually SA national with links SA sex industry and Triad groups; earn US$ 500 per recruit.
  • SA women are recruited in strip clubs or as sex workers in Johannesburg.
  • Offered strip jobs or sex work in Macau, all expenses paid and US$ 10 000 – 20 000.

Transportation

  • JHB – Hong Kong – Macau
  • SA Nationals enter HK on one-month permit, and must then apply to immigration office to continue on to Macau
  • Sold to organized crime bosses that operate saunas in Macau

Exploitation

  • Confiscation of passport.
  • Sign contract in Chinese characters with no translation.
  • Imposition of escalating debt burden.
  • Drugs play a big role in controlling victims.
  • Confinement to flat; no telephone calls.
  • Experience physical abuse; death threats and threats of arrest.
  • Forcibly prostituted in saunas with long working hours – e.g. 16 clients per 12 hour shift.
  • Victims are numbered , colour-coded and ‘priced’ accordingly – e.g. Black [VIP] category = US$ 625 per client .
s outh africa south africa to israel
SOUTH AFRICASouth Africa To Israel

Recruitment

  • SA national recruit older SA women as au pairs.
  • Offered jobs in Israel, paid US$ 800 per month. Accommodation and air fare included.

Transportation

  • JHB – Tel Aviv [EI AI Airlines]
  • Enter Israel with the trafficker on a three month tourist visa.
  • Victims were unaware that they are unable to work on this visa or that it is illegal for foreign nationals to work as au pairs in Israel.

Exploitation

  • Confiscation of passport.
  • Not allowed to leave the premises.
  • Long working hours.
  • Payment less than half that was promised, if any.
  • No sick leave.
  • Forced to do all household tasks as well as au pair.
  • Experience verbal abuse.
south africa south africa to ireland uk and us
SOUTH AFRICASouth /Africa to Ireland, UK and US

Recruitment

  • Young South African women recruited to work as domestic workers, professional employment or for education.
  • Many are students receiving post secondary education.
  • Recruited by West African and South African nationals - often friends of friends or boyfriends.
  • Also recruited by friends already in country of destination.
  • Cases in US – recruitment was advertised in newspapers or flyers.
  • Travel costs covered by traffickers.
  • Victims travel independently.

Transportation

  • JHB – London direct
  • JHB – London – Dublin
  • JHB and CPT to various locations in US direct

Exploitation

  • Confiscation of passport and travel documentation.
  • Forced to live in unsuitable conditions .
  • Movements controlled,
  • Forced to work long hours doing domestic chores and child care.
  • Experience verbal abuse from ‘employers’.
  • Told to repay debt for travel.
  • Not paid salary or salary much lower than promised.
  • May also experience sexual abuse or harassment from male employers.
refugees to south africa
REFUGEESTO SOUTH AFRICA

Recruitment

  • Traffickers are unemployed men with refugee status in South Africa
  • Traffic women from home counties (e.g. Angola, DRC, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Somalia)
  • Victims are female relatives (aged 25-45), sometimes with children
  • Promised jobs in South Africa

Transportation

  • Travel by boat, truck, car, bus, taxis
  • Woman sells everything to finance trip – families may contribute
  • Travel alone or accompanied by recruiter or refugee clan member
  • Borders crossed legally and illegally
  • Hazardous journey to South Africa

Exploitation

  • Women apply for asylum in SA
  • Sexual initiation (recruiter or ethnic clan)
  • Street sex work
  • Long working hours and dangerous conditions
  • Minimum nightly earnings
  • Highly dependent of trafficker who will often physically abuse the victim if she doesn’t earn money
  • Small-scale
  • Ethnic clan networks:
  • Control women
  • Involved in criminal activity
mozambique to south africa
MOZAMBIQUETO SOUTH AFRICA

Recruitment

  • Traffickers involved in TRAFFICKING AND SMUGGLING of people, drugs and weapons
  • 2 methods of recruitment:
  • Active - (making false job offers)
  • Passive - (targeting female taxi passengers en route to SA)

Transportation

  • Maputo – Komatipoort – JHB/PRET
  • Maputo – Ponta d’Ouro – JHB/DBN
  • By taxi along main routes to SA
  • Undocumented border crossings
  • Use of safe houses in border region between SA, Mozambique, Swaziland

Exploitation

  • Sexual initiation at safe houses
  • In JHB women held captive in safe houses in Soweto and Lenasia
  • Taken to housing compounds on West Rand mines and sold to mineworkers
  • Sold as wives to SA and Mozambican men
  • Live under conditions of domestic servitude
  • Others are sold to brothels in Gauteng and KZN for R1000 – R15,000
  • Now into upmarket brothels in residential areas
  • Similar trafficking modus operandi does occur between Zimbabwe and South Africa
thailand to south africa
THAILANDTO SOUTH AFRICA

Recruitment

  • Cottage Industry traffickers
  • Small-time Thai traffickers
  • “Second-wave” traffickers
  • Brothel owners as traffickers
  • International Organised Crime
  • Chinese organised crime
  • Thai organised crime
  • Women recruited are 60%-80% aging sex workers aged 25-35

Transportation

  • Bangkok – Singapore – JHB
  • Bangkok – Hong Kong – JHB
  • Bangkok – JHB

Exploitation

  • SOLD for between R15 000 – R50 000 or LEASED to brothels by agent
  • Debt bonded for R60 000 – R80 000
  • Rotated between brothels and private venues by agents
  • Living conditions at safe houses are tightly controlled by mama san
  • Long working hours
  • Agents manipulate women’s legal status
  • Scale: at least 6 provinces [towns and cites]
china to south africa
CHINATO SOUTH AFRICA

Recruitment

  • Traffickers are Chinese organized crime groups operating in SA
  • Women recruited are poorly educated and unemployed
  • Women are most often recruited in Southern China
  • Women recruited by Traffickers & Smugglers
  • 2 categories of Chinese women in SA
    • Smuggled migrants
    • Trafficked women
  • Women smuggled into SA are retroactively trafficked

Transportation

  • Hong Kong- JHB
  • Hong Kong – JHB – Lesotho – JHB
  • Hong Kong – JHB – Swaziland – JHB
  • Hong Kong - JHB – Mozambique – JHB
  • Travel documents and air ticket paid for by agent

Exploitation

  • Bonded for repayment of R75 000 to R100 000 travel debt
  • Private houses/flats or exclusively Asian or seamen’s clubs in Cape Town
eastern europe to south africa
EASTERN EUROPETO SOUTH AFRICA

Recruitment

  • Traffickers are Russian mafia & Bulgarian organized crime groups
  • Traffickers own clubs in SA
  • Recruiters are often women connected to Eastern European organized crime in SA
  • Women recruited are often highly educated but poor/jobless, aged 25-35
  • Promises of jobs as waitresses, dancers or hostesses

Transportation

  • Russia/EE – EU – JHB
  • Russia/EE – EU- JHB – Moz – JHB
  • Russia/EE – EU – JHB – Lesotho – JHB
  • SA Visas fraudulently obtained in Russia.

Exploitation

  • Debt-bonded on arrival for between US$ 12000 – US$ 15 000
  • Women rotated between clubs & private venues. Mix with Thai women
  • Threat of physical violence
  • Family members in Russia/EE may be threatened and assaulted
  • Difficult to exit “system” run by traffickers – extremely difficult to escape
iom s human trafficking help line
IOM’s HUMAN TRAFFICKING HELP LINE
  • REPORT A CASE
  • ASK FOR HELP
  • ASK FOR MORE INFORMATION

0800 555 999

(toll-free 7am -10pm)

further information
FURTHER INFORMATION
  • www.iom.org.za
  • www.iom.int
  • Subscribe electronically to the EYE on Human Trafficking: [email protected]
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