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Providing Integrated Treatment to the Criminal Justice Population: Engaging Mandated Clients. Victoria Simon, Ph.D., MFT. An overview…. RNR Overview Engagement and the impact of GENERATIONAL POVERTY Engagement and the impact of TRAUMA Trauma Treatment

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providing integrated treatment to the criminal justice population engaging mandated clients

Providing Integrated Treatment to the Criminal Justice Population: Engaging Mandated Clients

Victoria Simon, Ph.D., MFT

an overview
An overview…
  • RNR Overview
  • Engagement and the impact of GENERATIONAL POVERTY
  • Engagement and the impact of TRAUMA
  • Trauma Treatment
  • Self-Sabotage: why we see it and how to help
  • The impact of ENVIRONMENT and COMMUNITY
risk needs responsivity model
Risk-Needs-Responsivity Model
  • Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) Model developed in the 1980s and operationalized in the 1990s
  • Designed for treatment of a criminal justice population
  • Risk
    • Must be assessed
  • Need
    • Must be targeted to level of risk and criminogenic issues
  • Responsivity
    • Must be provided in a format that makes sense for this population
rnr continued
RNR, continued
  • Risk
    • Must be assessed
    • Criminal behaviors can be reliably predicted
    • The “big eight”
      • antisocial attitudes
      • antisocial associates
      • history of antisocial behaviors
      • antisocial personality pattern
      • problematic circumstances at home
      • problematic circumstances at school/work
      • problematic leisure circumstances
      • substance abuse
slide5

RNR, continued

  • Needs
    • Treatment design and delivery must be specified for offenders
      • Moral Reconation Therapy
      • Values
      • The Con Game
      • Thinking Errors
      • Mindfulness
        • http://www.changecompanies.net/
        • https://www.ccimrt.com/mrt
    • Treatment must target criminogenic needs
rnr continued1
RNR, Continued
  • Responsivity
    • Describes how treatment should be provided
      • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Cognitive Social learning approach (practicing pro-social behaviors, problem solving tools and experience, etc.)
      • Focus on client’s learning style
      • Focus on motivation and stage of change (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance)
      • Focus on abilities and strengths
slide7

RNR, continued

  • When working with a criminal justice population, why is it important that treatment design and delivery be specified for offenders?
    • Standard outpatient programs that don’t address criminogenic need (1% INCREASE in recidivism)
    • Programs addressing criminogenic need (19% decrease in recidivism)
    • Programs with criminogenic and CBT/RNR approaches (32% decrease in recidivism)
slide8

The Impact ofGENERATIONAL POVERTY

data compiled by Dr. Carrie Petrucci; following from (Payne, et al., 2009)

- Characteristics of Generational Poverty

      • Defined as two or more generations in poverty
      • The mother is usually the center of the family
  • Impacts of Generational Poverty
      • Allostatic load (“wear and tear” on the body from the neuroendocrine, nervous, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems): the greater the allostatic load, the greater the impairment to other brain functions
      • Negatively impacted by poverty and its effects:
        • Language
        • Memory ability
        • Working memory
        • Executive functions
generational poverty continued
Generational Poverty, continued
  • Impact on learning:
    • Decreased Executive Functioning impacts:
      • behavior self regulation
      • adult intelligence
      • problem solving
    • Working memory includes the ability to do the following:
      • Giving/receiving multiple directions at once
      • Planning
      • Task Completion
      • Behavioral self regulation
      • Ability to identify options
slide10

Generational Poverty, continued

- Impacts of Generational Poverty on treatment

  • The majority of EBP and PP curriculums – even those designed for the offender population – don’t take into account the impacts of generational poverty on learning
    • Curriculums are primarily reading/writing intensive
    • Demand independent problem solving
    • Depend on memory without repetition or role play
    • Require planning and task completion
    • Often use language that is set in a more formal register (rather than the casual register that clients use)
slide11

Generational Poverty, continued

What has NOT been impacted by Generational Poverty?

Visual and spatial abilities - suggesting that visual teaching and learning techniques are the most effective

  • Training for treatment staff needed about how to modify information within a sensory learning format
    • Sight, sound, smell, taste, visual, tactile experience
    • Repetition and role play is vital
slide12

The Impact ofTRAUMA

Trauma data from Lynne Marsenich, LCSW

  • What is Trauma?
    • A Traumatic event is one in which a person experiences, witnesses or is confronted with actual or threatened death or serious injury, or threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others
    • Responses to trauma often include intense fear, helplessness or horror
slide13

Trauma, continued

  • Prevalence
    • Individuals with trauma histories from childhood onward make up the majority of clients with mental health and substance abuse issues
    • 90% of all clients receiving MH support have been exposed to or experienced trauma (Mueser et al., 1998)
    • 75% of all clients receiving SA treatment report trauma histories (SAMSHA/CSAT, 2000)
    • Males are most likely to report witnessing violence, while females report being victims of violence (Hennessey et al., 2004)
slide14

Trauma, continued

  • Trauma experiences
    • When abused in childhood, individuals commonly experience trauma and re-victimization through domestic violence, sexual assaults, gang and drug related violence, homelessness and poverty
    • Females sexually abused during childhood are 2.4 times more likely than non abused females to be sexually assaulted as adults (NASMHDP/NTAC, p. 55)
    • Adults with trauma histories are frequently traumatized further in incarcerated settings and in the community by supervising and social service agencies
      • Unsafe environments
      • Coercive interventions
slide15

Trauma, continued

  • Trauma and the Criminal Justice population
    • The majority of men and women in the criminal justice system report having been abused as children
    • Trauma experiences are interpersonal in nature, intentional, prolonged and repeated; they may extend over years of life
    • They include sexual abuse and/or incest, physical abuse, severe neglect, psychological abuse
    • They include witness and threats of violence (personal and community), repeated abandonment and sudden and traumatic losses
slide16

Trauma, continued

  • Trauma Informed Interventions
    • Incorporate knowledge about trauma – prevalence, impact and recovery – in all aspects of service delivery
    • Create environments that are hospitable and engaging for survivors
    • Consider factors of gender and culture
    • Minimize re-victimization
    • Facilitate recovery and empowerment
    • Symptoms are not understood as pathology but primarily as attempts to cope and survive
    • Survivors are survivors – their strengths need to be recognized
slide17

Trauma, continued

  • Trauma Informed Interventions, continued
    • A collaborative relationship between the consumer and the provider
    • Both the consumer and provider are assumed to have valid and valuable knowledge bases
    • The consumer’s safety must be guaranteed and trust must be developed over time
trauma treament
Trauma Treament
  • Trauma Narrative

vs.

  • Symptom Management
self sabotage
SELF SABOTAGE
  • Why do we see self-sabotage?
    • Success tests limits and creates vulnerability
    • Fear of embarrassment/shame if there is real or perceived failure
    • Ambivalence about new image
    • Practical concerns
self sabotage continued
Self-Sabotage, continued
  • How to address self-sabotage
    • Basic CBT approaches
      • Increase awareness of fears/concerns
      • Look at Pros/Cons
      • Teach thought stopping and replacement tools
      • Take small steps
      • Seek peer support
      • Ensure that there are support systems in place for practical needs
      • Allow for both forward and backward movement
questions to ask when looking to increase engagement
Questions to ask when looking to increase engagement
  • Do clients feel comfortable in their treatment environment?
  • Is the treatment environment welcoming?
  • Does the client feel safe? Do the female clients feel safe?
  • Does the treatment environment understand and address literacy?
  • Are groups offered in a sensory learning format?
  • Is individual literacy support provided to clients who have reading/writing/comprehension issues?
questions for increase engagement continued
Questions for increase engagement, continued
  • Is the treatment provider aware of client’s trauma history?
  • Is there not only trauma treatment, but trauma informed care?
  • Are there coercive treatment interventions being used? How are “mandatory” services handled?
questions for increase engagement continued1
Questions for increase engagement, continued
  • How is Malingering handled?
    • Has the client learned pro-social behaviors yet?
    • When the client says that something is wrong, do people listen?
    • If the client says that something is “a little wrong,” do people listen?
    • Does the client feel shut down when they make a request?
slide24

The Impact of ENVIRONMENT and COMMUNITY

How is a discussion about the environment and community of a treatment agency relevant to a training on the treatment of offenders?

environment and community continued
ENVIRONMENT and COMMUNITY, continued
  • What makes people stay connected? Retention is driven by emotional factors!
  • The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg sites a study done in 2000 for YMCA to determine why certain clubs had significantly higher retention than others. The conclusion? “Retention, the data said, was driven by emotional factors, such as whether employees knew members’ names or said hello when they walked in.” (p. 211)
  • This is most likely the same reason that community based organizations are the ONLY treatment providers to invert the retention numbers (70% retention vs. the 30% that is typically seen)
  • Underlines the importance of feeling “connected” to an agency
slide26

A Welcoming Environment

    • This is as simple as good customer service
    • Why do social service agencies think they work in an industry where the idea of “customer service” doesn’t apply?
    • Basic customer service skills that don’t seem to be expected in the social service world:
      • Either answer your phone or return your calls
      • Don’t make promises unless you can keep them
      • Listen to your customers
      • Deal with complaints
      • Be helpful – even if there is no immediate profit in it
      • Train your staff to be helpful, courteous and knowledgeable
      • Take the extra step
      • Think outside the box
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