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Generative Design in Civil Engineering Using Cellular Automata . Rafal Kicinger June 16, 2006. Outline. Generative Design Cellular Automata as Design Generators Steel Structures in Tall Buildings Traffic Control Systems in Urban Areas Emergent Designer Design Experiments

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Generative design in civil engineering using cellular automata

Generative Design in Civil Engineering Using Cellular Automata

Rafal Kicinger

June 16, 2006


Outline
Outline Automata

  • Generative Design

  • Cellular Automata as Design Generators

    • Steel Structures in Tall Buildings

    • Traffic Control Systems in Urban Areas

  • Emergent Designer

  • Design Experiments

  • Experimental Results

  • Conclusions

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Generative design representation
Generative Design: Representation Automata

  • Design representations

    • One of the key aspects of any computational design activity

    • Describe design’s form, its components, etc.

    • Incorporate domain-specific knowledge

    • Determine the space in which solutions are sought

  • Need to address important engineering objectives

    • Novelty

    • Optimization

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Traditional design representations
Traditional Design Representations Automata

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Generative design
Generative Design Automata

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Generative design1
Generative Design Automata

  • Cellular automata generating designs

    • Steel structural systems in tall buildings

    • Traffic control system in urban areas

  • Evolutionary algorithms searching the spaces of generative representations (design embryos + design rules)

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Cellular automata as design generators
Cellular Automata as Design Generators Automata

Steel Structural Systems in Tall Buildings

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Cellular automata as design generators1
Cellular Automata as Design Generators Automata

Traffic Control Systems in Urban Areas

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Cellular automata as design generators2
Cellular Automata as Design Generators Automata

Traffic Control Systems in Urban Areas

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Emergent designer
Emergent Designer Automata

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Emergent designer1
Emergent Designer Automata

System architecture

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Design experiments
Design Experiments Automata

Extensive Computational Experiments Conducted

  • Steel Structural Systems in Tall Buildings

    • Exhaustive search of all elementary CAs started from arbitrary and randomly generated design embryos

    • Generative representations based on 1D CAs evolved using evolutionary algorithms

  • Traffic Control Systems in Urban Areas

    • Generative representations based on 2D CAs evolved using evolutionary algorithms

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Design experiments1
Design Experiments Automata

  • Steel structural systems:

    • number of bays - 5

    • number of stories - 30

    • bay width - 20 feet

    • story height - 14 feet

  • Arbitrary design embryos used:

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Design experiments2
Design Experiments Automata

Traffic Control Systems

  • Number of network nodes - 65

  • Number of network links - 80

  • Number of traffic signals - 25

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Design experiments3
Design Experiments Automata

  • CA representation parameters:

    • CA dimension: 1D and 2D

    • CA neighborhood radius: 1 and 2

    • number of cell state values: 2 and 7

    • CA neighborhood shape (2D CAs): Moore

    • CA iteration steps (2D CAs): 14

  • Evolutionary computation parameters:

    • evolutionary algorithm: ES

    • population sizes (parent, offspring): (1,5), (5,25),(5,125)

    • mutation rate: 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3

    • crossover (type, rate): uniform, 0.2

    • fitness: weight of the steel skeleton structure, or the total vehicle time

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Experimental results
Experimental Results Automata

  • Exhaustive Search: Arbitrary Design Embryos

Best designs:

Total weight:

Max. displacement:

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Experimental results1
Experimental Results Automata

Distributions plotted with respect to two objectives:

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Experimental results2
Experimental Results Automata

Simple X bracings

K bracings

Exhaustive Search: Random Design Embryos

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Experimental results3
Experimental Results Automata

Evolutionary search of generative representations: steel structures

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Experimental results4
Experimental Results Automata

Evolutionary search of generative representations: traffic control systems

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Conclusions
Conclusions Automata

  • Generative representations based on cellular automata proved to perform well for civil engineering problems where some regularity/patterns are expected, or desired

  • They produced quantitatively better solutions (6-20% average performance improvement) than traditional design representations

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Conclusions1
Conclusions Automata

  • CA representations produced qualitatively different patterns than patterns obtained using traditional representations

  • They can be efficiently optimized by evolutionary algorithms, particularly in the case of 1D CA representations

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Credits
Credits Automata

  • The work on generative design of steel structural systems in tall buildings was conducted together with Drs. Tomasz Arciszewski and Kenneth De Jong

  • The work on generative design of traffic control systems in urban areas was conducted with Dr. Michael Bronzini

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Backup slides
Backup Slides Automata

  • Evolutionary search of elementary CAs: K bracings

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


Backup slides1
Backup Slides Automata

  • Evolutionary search of elementary CAs: Simple X bracings

NKS 2006, June 16-18, 2006, Washington, DC


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