Using instant messaging and short message service for emergency text communications
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Using Instant Messaging and Short Message Service for Emergency Text Communications. Piotr Boni Michael Armstrong Verizon Network and Technology. Wonsang Song Jong Yul Kim Henning Schulzrinne Dept. of Computer Science Columbia University. July 2009. Agenda. General Overview

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Using instant messaging and short message service for emergency text communications

Using Instant Messaging and Short Message Service for Emergency Text Communications

Piotr Boni

Michael Armstrong

Verizon

Network and Technology

Wonsang Song

Jong Yul Kim

Henning Schulzrinne

Dept. of Computer Science

Columbia University

July 2009


Agenda

Agenda

General Overview

Background

Next Generation 9-1-1 (NG 9-1-1)

Technical Overview

Prototype Architecture

Instant Messaging (IM)

Short Messaging Service (SMS)

Conclusion


Background

Background

Text communications is ubiquitous in the US.

71 million IM users in 2007 Source: comScore

263 million mobile telephone service subscribers601 billion SMS messages in 2008 (SMS is up 954% from 2005) Source: CTIA – The Wireless Association; FCC.

But it is limited in emergency use.

Anonymous crime tips in Boston and New York

Text alerts on university campuses

Text communications have advantages in emergency situation.

When voice calls are not possible

For speech/hearing impaired


Project goals

Project goals

Research methods to integrate IM and SMS into the NG9-1-1 architecture

Investigate ways to maintain a “live session” with the call taker when using IM or SMS

Verify the approach on a working prototype


Ng9 1 1 architecture

NG9-1-1 architecture

Emergency ServicesIP Network (ESInet)

IP PSAP A

Location-to-Service Translation (LoST) Server

PSAP SIP Proxy

Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP)

Call Takers

ACD

. . .

IP PSAP Z

PSAP SIP Proxy

Call Takers

Conference Server

ACD

Emergency Services IP Network (ESInet)

9-1-1

Call Origination

Network

SIP-based network of IP PSAPs

managed by the emergency authorities

Network used by emergency caller to ask for help

Examples: PSTN, VoIP, Cellular (SMS), IM

Role

1. Determine location of caller

2. Route call to ESInet

3. Protocol conversion


Adding im to ng9 1 1

Adding IM to NG9-1-1

Telematics Network

Emergency ServicesIP Network (ESInet)

VoIP Network

9-1-1

IP PSAP A

PSTN Network

Location-to-Service Translation (LoST) Server

PSAP SIP Proxy

IM Network

Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP)

Call Takers

ACD

. . .

IP PSAP Z

SMS Network

(Cellular network)

PSAP SIP Proxy

Call Takers

Conference Server

ACD


Adding im to ng9 1 1 1

Adding IM to NG9-1-1 (1)

Problem: Most IM providers use proprietary protocols.

AOL, Yahoo!, Microsoft

Fortunately, providers already use standard protocols such as SIP or XMPP to interconnect IM services.

Yahoo! and Microsoft use SIP.

AOL and Google use XMPP.

Prototype uses SIP MESSAGE method to add IM to NG9-1-1.


Im client

IM client

SIP Communicator

Open source, Java-based, VoIP and IM client with SIP presence

Multi-protocol instant messenger

SIP, XMPP/Jabber (Google talk), AIM/ICQ, MSN Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger, Bonjour, IRC, RSS

Uses JAIN SIP stack

Based on the OSGi architecture and using the Apache Felix implementation

SOS Button

Location Button


Sip message from sender s ua

SIP MESSAGE from sender’s UA

request line

MESSAGE urn:service:sos SIP/2.0

From: <sip:[email protected]>;tag=e778529

To: <urn:service:sos>

Route: <sip:esrp.ng911.gov;lr>

Geolocation: cid:[email protected]

;inserted-by="[email protected]"

Content-Length: 1123

--------------------------

Content-Type: text/plain

Help me..

--------------------------

Content-ID: <[email protected]>

Content-Type: application/pidf+xml

<presence>

<tuple id="id94954">

<status>

<gp:geopriv>

<gp:location-info>

<cl:civicAddress>

<cl:country>US</cl:country>

<cl:A1>NY</cl:A1>

<cl:A3>New York</cl:A3>

<cl:A6>Amsterdam Ave</cl:A6>

<cl:HNO>1214</cl:HNO>

<cl:PC>10027</cl:PC>

</cl:civicAddress>

</gp:location-info>

<gp:method>Manual</gp:method>

</gp:geopriv>

</status>

</tuple>

</presence>

header fields

message

PIDF-LO


Im message flow

IM message flow

Emergency ServicesIP Network (ESInet)

IP PSAP A

Location-to-Service Translation (LoST) Server

PSAP SIP Proxy

Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP)

Call Takers

ACD

. . .

IP PSAP Z

PSAP SIP Proxy

Call Takers

Conference Server

ACD

LoST

Manual Entry

LLDP-MED

Location

LoST

“Burglary!”

LoST Server

IM Client

SIP

SIP

SIP Proxy

IM Network


Adding im to ng9 1 1 2

Adding IM to NG9-1-1 (2)

Problem: Every message from the same ‘session’ should go to the same call taker.

Prototype keeps record of user’s address and destination to deliver messages consistently to one call taker.


Session keeping mechanisms

Session-keeping mechanisms

Emergency ServicesIP Network (ESInet)

IP PSAP A

Location-to-Service Translation (LoST) Server

PSAP SIP Proxy

Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP)

Call Takers

ACD

. . .

IP PSAP Z

PSAP SIP Proxy

Call Takers

Conference Server

ACD

  • Associate logical session to UI.

  • Use the initial ESRP URI while chat window is open.

  • Create soft state.

  • Ignore other routing policies such as LoST.

SOS

“Burglary!”

- Close the logical session explicitly when conversation is over.

LoST Server

IM Client

- Create logical session and keep using it until call taker closes it.

SIP Proxy

IM Network


Adding sms to ng9 1 1

Adding SMS to NG9-1-1

Telematics Network

Emergency ServicesIP Network (ESInet)

VoIP Network

9-1-1

IP PSAP A

PSTN Network

Location-to-Service Translation (LoST) Server

PSAP SIP Proxy

IM Network

Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP)

Call Takers

ACD

. . .

IP PSAP Z

SMS Network

(Cellular network)

PSAP SIP Proxy

Call Takers

Conference Server

ACD


Adding sms to ng9 1 1 1

Adding SMS to NG9-1-1 (1)

Problem: Location information must be included in emergency messages.

Location is configured using assisted GPS on cell phones.

This is an example of an endpoint-centric solution.

Location is included in the SMS message.

26/160

To: 911

Text:

Someone in my house.

Please send help

ASAP.

[+40.9625 -73.5684]


Adding sms to ng9 1 1 2

Adding SMS to NG9-1-1 (2)

Problem: SMS and SIP are different protocols.

Prototype uses SMS gateway to convert SMS to SIP.


Sms gateway

SMS gateway

Step1: extract phone number, message, and location

Step2: query LoST to resolve the ESRP URI

Step3: compose a SIP MESSAGE request (SIP From header: sip: phone number @ IP address of the SMS gateway)


Sms message flow

SMS message flow

Emergency Services IP Network (ESInet)

Location

LoST

“Burglary!”

IP PSAP A

Cellular phone

Location-to-Service Translation (LoST) Server

SMS

PSAP SIP Proxy

SMS

SMS GW

Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP)

Call Takers

ACD

. . .

SMPP Gateway

SMSC

Sybase 365

IP PSAP Z

SIP

SIP

Service Proxy

PSAP SIP Proxy

LoST

Call Takers

Conference Server

ACD

LoST Server


Adding sms to ng9 1 1 3

Adding SMS to NG9-1-1 (3)

Problem: Every message from the same ‘session’ should go to the same call taker.

Prototype keeps record of the user’s phone number and the destination URL to deliver messages consistently to one call taker.

Call taker has control over the session. The session is released by the call taker.


Session keeping mechanisms1

Session-keeping mechanisms

Emergency Services IP Network (ESInet)

IP PSAP A

Location-to-Service Translation (LoST) Server

PSAP SIP Proxy

Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP)

Call Takers

ACD

. . .

IP PSAP Z

PSAP SIP Proxy

Call Takers

Conference Server

ACD

“Burglary!”

Cellular phone

  • Create soft state

  • Ignore other routing policies such as LoST

SMS GW

- Close the logical session explicitly when conversation finishes

SMPP Gateway

SMSC

Sybase 365

  • Create soft state

  • Messages from same sender are routed to the same ESRP

Service Proxy

- Create logical session and keep using it until call taker closes it.

LoST Server


Conclusion

Conclusion

IM and SMS communications can be integrated into an IP PSAP using SIP.

Location can be configured and delivered with the message.

Messages can be delivered consistently to the same call taker as if it were a “session”.

Mechanism within ESInet is the same for IM and SMS.

Prototype software developed

SIP Communicator – modified open source, Java-based VoIP/IM client

Service Proxy a.k.a. HTTP-SIP Gateway as part of the SMS GW functionality

Stateful components in the emergency network


Using instant messaging and short message service for emergency text communications

Thank you!


Backup slides

Backup slides…


Two approaches for location

Two approaches for location

Endpoint-centric Solution

Location is configured by the endpoint.

A-GPS

Location is inserted by the endpoint.

SMS application

We are using this solution.

Network-centric Solution

Location is configured by the network.

Mobile Positioning Center (MPC)

Position Determining Equipment (PDE)

Location is inserted by the network.

SMS Gateway


Service proxy a k a http sip gw

Service Proxy a.k.a. HTTP-SIP GW

Web application running on Apache Tomcat server

Jointly developed using Java Servlet API

SIP client runs in parallel within the web application.

Developed using JAIN SIP stack

Features

Converts from HTTP to SIP and vice versa

Queries LoST in order to forward message to an appropriate ESRP

Keeps record of phone numbers and destination ESRP for a limited time to maintain session


Wireless network message flow

Wireless network message flow


How can we start today

How can we start today?

Emergency ServicesIP Network (ESInet)

IP PSAP

Manual Entry

LLDP-MED

FiOS ONT Box

LoST Server

PSAP SIP Proxy

Call Taker

“Burglary!”

ACD

LoST Server

IM Client

Today’s PSAP

911 voice calls

IM-SIP/SMS-SIP

Gateway

Verizon dedicated,

secure IM server(s)

ALI Controller

Telephone

Call Taker

Text Message + Location

IM Network

IM Call Taker

IM Client; preferably SIP-based

- Potential SIP conversion point


Next steps

Next steps

Propose solutions to standards organizations

Work on sending multimedia messages (MMS) to an IP PSAP

Explore how commercial IM networks can be integrated into Emergency Network

Build or re-use an IM gateway for proprietary protocols


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