Text linguistics
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Text linguistics. “Text”. the spoken or written evocation of an event or series of events (p.193). Missing the typographical boat. In written communication, the text is almost all there is. (p.180). Missing the typographical boat. In written communication, the text is almost all there is.

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Text linguistics

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Text linguistics

Text linguistics

English 306A; Harris


Text linguistics

“Text”

  • the spoken or written evocation of an event or series of events

  • (p.193)

English 306A; Harris


Missing the typographical boat

Missing the typographical boat

  • In written communication, the text is almost all there is.

  • (p.180)

English 306A; Harris


Missing the typographical boat1

Missing the typographical boat

  • In written communication, the text is almost all there is.

  • (p.180)

Wrong

English 306A; Harris


Missing the communication design rpw rcd boat

Typeface

Weight

Space

Proximity

Shape

Size

Colour

Medium

….

Missing the communication-design (RPW/RCD) boat

English 306A; Harris


Textual function weaving function

Textual function = Weaving function

The elements and dimensions of language that serve to weave a discourse together.

English 306A; Harris


Text perceived whole the two weaving mechanisms

Weave

Material

Pattern

Text—Perceived wholeThe two weaving mechanisms

English 306A; Harris


Text perceived whole the two weaving mechanisms1

Cohesion

Coherence

Text—Perceived wholeThe two weaving mechanisms

Texture

English 306A; Harris


Text perceived whole the two weaving mechanisms2

Text—Perceived wholeThe two weaving mechanisms

  • Cohesion (elements)

    • achieved by formal devices, usually lexico-syntactic

    • semasiological

  • Coherence (dimensions)

    • achieved by conceptual devices (‘ideas’)

    • onomasiological

English 306A; Harris


Text perceived whole the two weaving mechanisms3

Text—Perceived wholeThe two weaving mechanisms

Form

  • Cohesion (elements)

    • achieved by formal devices, usually lexico-syntactic

    • semasiological

  • Coherence (dimensions)

    • achieved by conceptual devices (‘ideas’)

    • onomasiological

Content

English 306A; Harris


Text perceived whole the two weaving mechanisms4

Text—Perceived wholeThe two weaving mechanisms

Semasiology

  • Cohesion (elements)

    • achieved by formal devices, usually lexico-syntactic

    • semasiological

  • Coherence (dimensions)

    • achieved by conceptual devices (‘ideas’)

    • onomasiological

Onomasiology

English 306A; Harris


A text

A text

  • It is true (Ladies) your tongues are held your defensive armour, but you never detract more from your honour than when you give too much liberty to that slippery glib member. That Ivory guard or garrison, which impales your tongue, doth caution and instruct you, to put restraint upon your Speech. In much talk you must of necessity commit much error, as it leaves some tincture of vain-glory, which proclaims the proud heart from whence it proceeded, or some taste of scurrility, which displays the wanton heart from whence it streamed.

English 306A; Harris


Iteration cohesion

IterationCohesion

  • It is true (Ladies) your tongues are held your defensive armour, but you never detract more from your honour than when you give too much liberty to that slippery glib member. That Ivory guard or garrison, which impales your tongue, doth caution and instruct you, to put restraint upon your Speech. In much talk you must of necessity commit much error, as it leaves some tincture of vain-glory, which proclaims the proud heart from whence it proceeded, or some taste of scurrility, which displays the wanton heart from whence it streamed.

English 306A; Harris


Referential cohesion

ReferentialCohesion

  • It is true (Ladies) your tongues are held your defensive armour, but you never detract more from your honour than when you give too much liberty to that slippery glib member. That Ivory guard or garrison, which impales your tongue, doth caution and instruct you, to put restraint upon your Speech. In much talk you must of necessity commit much error, as it leaves some tincture of vain-glory, which proclaims the proud heart from whence it proceeded, or some taste of scurrility, which displays the wanton heart from whence it streamed.

English 306A; Harris


Balance symmetry parallelism isocolon cohesion

Balance (symmetry, parallelism, isocolon)Cohesion

  • It is true (Ladies) your tongues are held your defensive armour, but you never detract morefrom your honour than when you give too much liberty to that slippery glib member. That Ivory guard or garrison, which impales your tongue, doth caution and instruct you, to put restraint upon your Speech. In much talk you must of necessity commit much error, as it leaves some tincture of vain-glory, which proclaims the proud heartfrom whence it proceeded, or some taste of scurrility, which displays the wanton heart from whence it streamed.

English 306A; Harris


Functional linking cohesion

Functional linkingCohesion

  • It is true (Ladies) your tongues are held your defensive armour, but you never detract more from your honour thanwhen you give too much liberty to that slippery glib member. That Ivory guard or garrison, which impales your tongue, doth caution and instruct you, to put restraint upon your Speech. In much talk you must of necessity commit much error, as it leaves some tincture of vain-glory, which proclaims the proud heart from whence it proceeded, or some taste of scurrility, which displays the wanton heart from whence it streamed.

English 306A; Harris


Iteration cohesion1

IterationCohesion

  • It is true (Ladies) your tongues are heldyourdefensive armour, but you never detract more from your honour than when you give too much liberty to that slippery glib member. That Ivory guard or garrison, which impales your tongue, doth caution and instruct you, to put restraint upon your Speech. In much talk you must of necessity commit much error, as it leaves some tincture of vain-glory, which proclaims the proud heart from whence it proceeded, or some taste of scurrility, which displays the wanton heart from whence it streamed.

English 306A; Harris


Iteration polyptoton cohesion

Iteration-PolyptotonCohesion

  • It is true (Ladies) yourtongues are heldyourdefensive armour, but you never detract more from your honour than when you give too much liberty to that slippery glib member. That Ivory guard or garrison, which impales yourtongue, doth caution and instruct you, to put restraint upon your Speech. In much talk you must of necessity commit much error, as it leaves some tincture of vain-glory, which proclaims the proud heart from whence it proceeded, or some taste of scurrility, which displays the wanton heart from whence it streamed.

English 306A; Harris


Text linguistics

English 306A; Harris


Cohesion coherence

Cohesion / Coherence

  • Cohesion (& coherence)

    • Don’t trust McBean, because he’s a shyster.

  • Coherence (low cohesion)

    • Don’t trust McBean. He’s a shyster.

English 306A; Harris


Cohesion without coherence

Cohesion without coherence (?)

  • A week has seven days.Every day I feed my cat.Cats have four legs.The cat is on the mat.Mat has three letters.

English 306A; Harris


Cohesion coherence1

Cohesion/ Coherence

  • Subordination

    • Don’t trust McBean, because he’s a shyster.

  • Evidence

    • Don’t trust McBean. He’s a shyster.

English 306A; Harris


Cohesion coherence2

Cohesion / Coherence

SubordinatorA word that puts one

clause into a specific syntactic relationship with another clause (i.e., a subordinate relationship); functional linking.

  • Subordination

    • Don’t trust McBean, becausehe’s a shyster.

  • Evidence

    • Don’t trust McBean. He’s a shyster.

English 306A; Harris


Cohesion coherence3

Cohesion / Coherence

  • Subordination

    • Don’t trust McBean, because he’s a shyster.

  • Evidence

    • Don’t trust McBean. He’s a shyster.

Shysters have low credibility. Trust requires credibility.

English 306A; Harris


Cohesion coherence4

Cohesion / Coherence

  • Cohesion

    • Knowing the words and/or structure

    • Semasiological

  • Subordination

    • Don’t trust McBean, because he’s a shyster.

  • Evidence

    • Don’t trust McBean. He’s a shyster.

  • Coherence

    • Knowing the ideas, the reasoning, the meaning

    • Onomasiological

English 306A; Harris


Text linguistics cohesion coherence

Text LinguisticsCohesion / Coherence

  • Cohesion--formal, semasiological

    • Structural

      • Iteration (phrasal, lexical, morphological, phonetic), balance (iteration of structure), functional linking (coordination and subordination)

  • Coherence—conceptual, onomasiological

    • Referential

      • Topical; definite, indefinite

    • Relational

      • Paratactic (among nuclei)

      • Hypotactic (between nucleus and satellite[s])

    • Proformal

      • Anaphoric, cataphoric, elliptical

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence topical

Referential coherence--Topical

  • When the Star-Belly Sneetches had frankfurter roasts

  • Or picnics or parties or marshmallow toasts,

  • They never invited the Plain-Belly Sneetches.

  • They left them out cold, in the dark of the beaches

  • They kept them away. Never let them come near.

  • And that’s how they treated them year after year.

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence topical1

Referential coherence--Topical

  • When the had frankfurter roasts

  • Or picnics or parties or marshmallow toasts,

  • They never invited .

  • They left them out cold, in the dark of the beaches

  • They kept them away. Never let them come near.

  • And that’s how they treated them year after year.

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence topical2

Referential coherence--Topical

  • When the had frankfurter roasts

  • Or picnics or parties or marshmallow toasts,

  • They never invited .

  • They left them out cold, in the dark of the beaches

  • They kept them away. Never let them come near.

  • And that’s how they treated them year after year.

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence proformal not content words

Referential coherence Proformal (not content words)

  • When theStar-Belly Sneetchesihadjfrankfurter roasts

  • Or ØiØjpicnics or Øi Øjparties or Øi Øj marshmallow toasts,

  • Theyi never invited the Plain-Belly Sneetchesk.

  • Theyi left themk out cold, in the dark of the beaches

  • Theyi kept themk away. Øi Never let themkcome near.

  • And that’s how theyi treated themk year after year.

i

k

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence topical3

Referential coherence--Topical

  • Prominence

    • Star-Bellies—focus

    • SB’s actions—topic

    • and/or

    • Plain-Bellies—focus

    • PB’s treatment—topic

    • SB’s/PB’s perspectives

    • (actions vs. feelings)

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence

Referential coherence

  • Phrasal

    • Identical

    • Partial

  • Proformal

    • Anaphoric

    • (Cataphoric)

    • Elliptical

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence iterative cohesion phrasal content words not proforms

Referential coherence / Iterative cohesionPhrasal (content words, not proforms)

  • Identical (full iteration)

    • Star-Belly Sneetches… blah blah blah … Star-Belly Sneetches

    • Plain-Belly Sneetches… blah blah blah … Plain-Belly Sneetches

    • Sylvester McMonkey McBean… blah blah blah … Sylvester McMonkey McBean

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence iterative cohesion phrasal content words not proforms1

Referential coherence / Iterative cohesion Phrasal (content words, not proforms)

  • Partial (reduction)

    • Star-Belly Sneetches…blah blah blah … Star-Bellies …

    • Sylvester McMonkey McBean…blah blah blah … McBean

  • Partial (paraphrase)

    • Star-Belly Sneetches…blah blah blah … Sneetches with stars

    • Plain-Belly Sneetches…blah blah blah … Sneetches without [stars on their bellies]

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence proformal not content words1

Referential coherence Proformal (not content words)

  • Star-Belly Sneetchesi

  • Anaphoric

    • Theyinever invited …

  • Elliptical

    • Øi never let them …

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence proformal not content words2

Referential coherenceProformal (not content words)

  • Cataphoric

    • Theyi… Star-Belly Sneetchesi

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence proformal not content words3

Referential coherence Proformal (not content words)

  • Cataphoric

  • And he laughed as he drove

  • In his car up the beach

  • “Theyi never will learn.

  • No. You can’t teach a sneetchi!”

English 306A; Harris


Referential coherence proformal not content words4

Referential coherenceProformal (not content words)

  • Cataphoric

  • Then I was deep within the woods

  • When, suddenly, I spied themi.

  • I saw a pair of pale green pantsi

  • With nobody inside themi!

English 306A; Harris


Relational coherence

Relational coherence

  • So they clambered inside. Then the big machine roared.

  • And it klonked. And it bonked. And it jerked. And it berked.

  • And it bopped them about. But the thing really worked!

  • When the Plain-Belly Sneetches popped out, they had stars!

  • They actually did. They had stars upon thars.

Local conceptual relations--between two, or a few,

proximal clauses.

English 306A; Harris


Relational coherence restatement

Relational coherenceRestatement

  • So they clambered inside. Then the big machine roared.

  • And it klonked. And it bonked. And it jerked. And it berked.

  • And it bopped them about. But the thing really worked!

  • When the Plain-Belly Sneetches popped out, they had stars!

  • They actually did.They had stars upon thars.

Nucleus

Restatements

A satellite which reformulates (paraphrases) the information given in the nucleus.

English 306A; Harris


Relational coherence concession

Relational coherenceConcession

  • So they clambered inside.Then the big machine roared.

  • And it klonked. And it bonked. And it jerked. And it berked.

  • And it bopped them about.But the thing really worked!

  • When the Plain-Belly Sneetches popped out, they had stars!

  • They actually did. They had stars upon thars.

Concessions

Nucleus

A satellite which concedes potential incompatibilities with the information presented in the nucleus.

English 306A; Harris


Relational coherence1

Relational coherence

  • Paratactic

    • Among elements of equal importance to the text; between nuclei

  • Hypotactic

    • Among elements in which one (the nucleus) is more important to the text, and the other (the satellite) extends it in some way.

English 306A; Harris


Relational coherence paratactic relations

Relational coherenceParatactic relations

  • Now, the Star-Belly Sneetches

  • Had bellies with stars.

  • The Plain-Belly Sneetches

  • Had noneupon thars.

  • Contrast

    • theme, character

Nuclei

English 306A; Harris


Relational coherence paratactic relations1

Relational coherenceParatactic relations

Nuclei

  • Off again! On again!

  • In again! Out again!

  • Sequence

    • Narrative elements

  • Contrast

    • Plot development(equality of characters!)

Nuclei

English 306A; Harris


Relational coherence hypotactic relations

Relational coherenceHypotactic relations

  • Nucleus

    • Utterance that contributes to the core of the text (the story, the argument, the instruction, …).

  • Satellite

    • Utterance that is peripheral to text, and which depends on a nucleus (that it extends, explains, frames, …)

English 306A; Harris


Hypotactic relations nucleus and satellite

Hypotactic relations Nucleus and satellite

  • Then ONE day, it seems, … while the Plain-Belly Sneetches

  • Were moping and doping alone on the beaches,

  • Just sitting there wishing their bellies had stars …

  • A stranger zipped up in the strangest of cars.

English 306A; Harris


Hypotactic relations nucleus and satellite1

Hypotactic relations Nucleus and satellite

  • Then ONE day, it seems, … while the Plain-Belly Sneetches

  • Were moping and doping alone on the beaches,

  • Just sitting there wishing their bellies had stars …

  • A stranger zipped up in the strangest of cars.

English 306A; Harris


Hypotactic relations nucleus and satellite2

Hypotactic relations Nucleus and satellite

  • Then ONE day, it seems, … while the Plain-Belly Sneetches

  • Were moping and doping alone on the beaches,

  • Just sitting there wishing their bellies had stars …

  • A stranger zipped up in the strangest of cars.

Nucleus

Satellites

English 306A; Harris


Nucleus and satellite circumstance

Nucleus and satellite Circumstance

  • Then ONE day, it seems, … while the Plain-Belly Sneetches

  • Were moping and doping alone on the beaches,

  • Just sitting there wishing their bellies had stars …

  • A stranger zipped up in the strangest of cars.

Nucleus

Satellites

Circumstance

English 306A; Harris


Nucleus and satellite circumstance1

Nucleus and satellite Circumstance

  • Then ONE day, it seems, … while the Plain-Belly Sneetches

  • Were moping and doping alone on the beaches,

  • Just sitting there wishing their bellies had stars …

  • A stranger zipped up in the strangest of cars.

Nucleus

Satellites

Circumstance

A satellite which gives the framework in which the reader isintended to interpret the situation described in the nucleus.

English 306A; Harris


Multiple relations

Multiple relations

  • And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

  • But I can fix that. I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

  • I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

  • And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

  • And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

English 306A; Harris


Contrast

Contrast

And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

But I can fix that. I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

Nuclei

English 306A; Harris


Solutionhood

Solutionhood

  • And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

  • But I can fix that. I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

  • I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

  • And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

  • And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

Problem(s)

Nucleus

The nucleus is a solution to the problem described in the satelite.

English 306A; Harris


Justification

Justification

And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

But I can fix that.I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

Nucleus

Justifications

A satellite which increases the reader’s readiness to accept the writer’s right to present the information in the nucleus.

English 306A; Harris


From the perspective of the plain belly sneetches motivation

From the perspective of the Plain-Belly SneetchesMotivation

  • And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

  • But I can fix that.I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

  • I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

  • And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

  • And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

Nucleus

Motivations

A satellite which motivates the hearer to perform the action described in the nucleus (in this case, evoked by the nucleus).

English 306A; Harris


Motivation hey that s persuasion isn t it rhetorical interlude

Motivation?! Hey, that’s persuasion, isn’t it?Rhetorical interlude

  • And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

  • But I can fix that. I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

  • I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

  • And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

  • And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

Reasons: premises feeding the argument ‘pay me (so you can jump into my star-off machine)’.

English 306A; Harris


Motivation hey that s persuasion isn t it rhetorical interlude1

Motivation?! Hey, that’s persuasion, isn’t it?Rhetorical interlude

  • And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

  • But I can fix that. I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

  • I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

  • And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

  • And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

Ethos, pathos, logos, figuration, topoi, invention, arrangement, style, delivery, stasis, …

English 306A; Harris


Motivation hey that s persuasion isn t it rhetorical interlude ethos

Motivation?! Hey, that’s persuasion, isn’t it?Rhetorical interlude: ethos

  • And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

  • ButI can fix that. I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

  • I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

  • And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

  • And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

Phronesis(Good sense)

Eunoia(Goodwill)

Arete(Virtue)

English 306A; Harris


Character hey that s literary isn t it literary interlude

Character?! Hey, that’s literary, isn’t it?Literary interlude

  • And I’ve heard of your troubles. I’ve heard you’re unhappy.

  • But I can fix that. I’m the Fix-it-up Chappie.

  • I’ve come here to help you. I have what you need.

  • And my prices are low. And I work at great speed.

  • And my work is one-hundred percent guaranteed.

Opportunistic interloper, illustrating selfish personal values, in contrast to the (selfishly skewed) community values of the Sneetches. Advances plot while advancing personal wealth; thematically exposes superficiality of appearance and fashion; character revealed through dialogue.

English 306A; Harris


Text linguistics vs other analyses

Text linguistics vs. other analyses

  • Text linguistics only cares what satellites and nuclei are doing.

  • Rhetoric cares (from a suasive viewpoint) about where, how and why (and what).

  • Literary analysis cares (from anaesthetic viewpoint) about where, how and why (and what).

English 306A; Harris


Text linguistics1

Text linguistics

  • Cohesion--formal, semasiological

    • Structural

      • Iteration (phrasal, lexical, morphological, phonetic), balance (iteration of structure), functional linking (coordination and subordination)

  • Coherence—conceptual, onomasiological

    • Referential

      • Topical; definite, indefinite

    • Relational

      • Paratactic (among nuclei)

      • Hypotactic (between nucleus and satellite[s])

    • Proformal

      • Anaphoric, cataphoric, elliptical

English 306A; Harris


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