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Ears, Nose, Mouth, Throat. Ears. Summary of any symptom should include PQRSTU. P= provocative or palliative Q= quality or quantity R= region or radiation S= severity scale T= timing (onset, duration, frequency) U= understand client’s perception. Anatomy.

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Ears nose mouth throat

Ears, Nose, Mouth, Throat



Summary of any symptom should include pqrstu
Summary of any symptom should include PQRSTU

  • P= provocative or palliative

  • Q= quality or quantity

  • R= region or radiation

  • S= severity scale

  • T= timing (onset, duration, frequency)

  • U= understand client’s perception


Anatomy
Anatomy

The ear is responsible for hearing and balance

Consists of 3 regions

External ear

Middle ear

Inner ear


Structure and function
Structure and Function

  • External Ear – auricle/pinna

    movable cartilage and skin

    Mastoid process= important Landmark

  • External Auditory Canal – the opening in the external ear; cul-de-sac 2.5 to 3 cm. Long in adult and ends at the eardrum.

    • Lined with glands that secrete cerumen


External ear
External Ear

2 types of cerumen

Whites and blacks – wet, sticky, and honey colored

Asians and Native Americans – dry and flaky

Lubricates & protects

Moves to meatus with chewing & talking

Outer 1/3 of canal is cartilage, inner 2/3 consists of bone covered with skin


External ear1
External Ear

  • Tympanic membrane (eardrum) separates external and middle ear.

    • Translucent membrane

    • Pearly, gray color

    • Cone of light reflection when using otoscope

    • Oval and slightly concave shape, pulled in at center by malleus


External ear2
External Ear

  • Malleus (hammer) – one of the middle ear ossicles

    • 3 parts

      • Umbo, manubrium short process, may show through the drum

    • Lymphatic drainage of the external ear flows into

      • Parotid, mastoid, superficial cervical nodes


Middle ear
Middle ear

  • Tiny air–filled cavity in the temporal bone contains:

    • Auditory ossicles (bones)

      • Malleus

      • Incus

      • Stapes

    • Openings to

      • Outer ear covered by tympanic membrane

      • Inner ear = oval and round windows

      • Eustachian tube connects middle ear to the nasopharnyx for air passage (normally closed, opens with swallowing/yawning)


Middle ear has 3 functions
Middle ear has 3 functions

  • Conducts sound vibration from outer ear to inner ear

  • Protects the inner ear by reducing the amplitude of loud sounds

  • Eustachian tube allows equalization of air pressure on each side of the ear drum to avoid rupture ( high altitudes)


Inner ear
Inner Ear

  • Contains the Bony Labyrinth which holds the sensory organs for hearing and equilibrium

    • Vestibule

    • Semicircular canals

    • Cochlea (contains the central hearing apparatus)


Function of hearing
Function of hearing

  • 3 levels

    • Peripheral – ear transmits sound and converts its vibrations into electrical impulses that can be analyzed by the brain. The electrical impulses are conducted by the auditory process of cranial nerve VIII (Acoustic) to the brain stem

      • Amplitude=loudness

      • Frequency=pitch


  • Sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate

  • Vibrations travel via the ossicles thru the oval window, the cochlea and are scattered against the round window

  • The basilar membrane of the cochlea contain the organ of Corti receptor hair cells that translate the vibrations to electric impulses

  • The impulses go to the brainstem via Acoustic nerve (VIII)


  • Brain stem – function is binaural interaction – permits identification of sound and locating the direction of a sound in space. The acoustic nerve (Cranial nerve VIII) sends signals from each ear to both sides of the brain stem. Brainstem is sensitive to intensity & timing from the ears depending on head position



Pathways of hearing
Pathways of hearing begins the appropriate response

  • Air conduction (AC)– normal pathway of hearing, the most efficient

  • Bone conduction (BC)– bones of the skull vibrate and transmit vibrations to the inner ear and acoustic nerve


Hearing loss
Hearing loss begins the appropriate response

  • Conductive – mechanical dysfunction of the external or middle ear resulting in partial hearing loss (if ↑ amplitude to reach nerve elements in inner ear, person can hear)

    • Causes= impacted cerumen, FB, perforated eardrum, pus/bld in the middle ear, otosclerosis


Hearing loss1
Hearing loss begins the appropriate response

  • Sensorineural ( perceptive) – pathology of the inner ear, acoustic nerve or auditory areas of the cerebral cortex. ↑ amplitude may not help

    • Causes= Presbycusis, a nerve degeneration due to aging (50yrs) or ototoxic drugs

  • Equilibrium – labyrinth feeds info to the brain about the body’s position in space, inflammation causes vertigo.


Subjective data
Subjective data begins the appropriate response

  • Earaches

  • Infections- otitis media

  • Discharge

  • Hearing loss

  • Environmental noise

  • Tinnitus- ototoxic: ASA, Aminoglycosides (gentamicin) etc.

  • Vertigo

  • Self care behaviors


Objective data
Objective data begins the appropriate response

  • External ear = Inspect and Palpate

    • Size and shape

    • Skin condition

    • Tenderness- pinna & tragus; mastoid process

    • External auditory meatus- cerumen


Inspect using otoscope
Inspect using Otoscope begins the appropriate response

  • Pull pinna up & back for adult/older child

  • Pinna down for infant & ↓ 3yrs. Maintain hold on pinna until exam is complete.

  • Avoid inner, bony section of canal= sensitive to pain

  • Can angle otoscope towards nose


Inspect using otoscope1
Inspect using Otoscope begins the appropriate response

  • External canal

    • Color

    • Swelling

    • Lesions

    • Discharge ; color and odor. Clean or change speculum before examining other ear.




Tympanic membrane
Tympanic membrane hair follicle

  • Color – normal is shiny, translucent, pearl-grey

  • Characteristics – landmarks; umbro, manubrium, and short process

  • Position – flat, slightly pulled in at the center and flutters when person holds nose and swallows

  • Integrity of membrane – intact? Scarring = dense white patch


Hearing tests
Hearing tests hair follicle

  • Begins with the history-Conversational tone

  • The following tests may indicate the presence of hearing loss but not the degree.


Hearing tests1
Hearing tests hair follicle

  • Voice– place a finger on the tragus of one ear and while rapidly pushing it in and out of the meatus, place your head 1 –2 feet from your client’s other ear, shield your lips and whisper a 2 syllable word. Repeat on the opposite ear using another word, have the client identify the words (Used to detect high-tone loss)



  • Tuning fork tests- measure hearing by AC and BC hair follicle

    • To activate the tuning fork, hold it by the stem and strike the tines softly on the back of the hand

  • Weber test – used when hearing is reported as better in one ear than other (bone conduction)




Weber test hair follicle

Rinne test


Nose throat and mouth

Nose, Throat and Mouth hair follicle


Nose hair follicle

  • First segment of the respiratory system

  • Warms, moistens and filters inhaled air

  • Sensory organ for smell


External parts
External parts hair follicle

  • Bridge

  • Tip

  • Nares

  • Vestibule -nares widen in to vestibule

  • Columella divides the nares

  • Ala –lateral outside wing of the nose bilaterally

  • Upper 1/3 nose is bone; rest is cartilage


Internal
Internal hair follicle

  • Nasal cavity, extends back over the roof of the mouth

  • Nasal hair, ciliated mucous membrane – red due to ↑ bld supply

  • Septum-divides cavity into 2 passages


Internal1
Internal hair follicle

  • Superior, middle, inferior turbinates- 3 parallel bony projections on lateral walls of each cavity

  • Meatus- cleft underlying each turbinate. The sinuses drain into the middle, tears from the nasolacrimal duct drain into the inferior


Internal2
Internal hair follicle

  • Olfactory receptors- in roof of the nasal cavity & upper part of septum. Merge into the olfactory nerve (I) goes to the temporal lobe of the brain


Foreign Body hair follicle



  • Frontal sinuses hair follicle

  • Maxillary sinuses

  • Ethnoid sinuses

  • Sphenoid sinuses

    Frontal & Maxillary sinuses are accessible to examination


Mouth
Mouth hair follicle

  • First segment of the digestive system

  • Airway for the respiratory system

  • ORAL CAVITY

    • Lips

    • Palate

      • Hard

      • Soft

      • Uvula – hangs down from the soft palate



  • Salivary glands hair follicle

    • Parotid- largest of the glands, located in the cheeks, front of the ear. Stenson’s duct opens in buccal mucosa

    • Submandibular- walnut size, beneath the mandible at the angle of the jaw. Wharton’s duct either side of the frenulum

    • Sublingual –smallest, almond shape, under tongue


Throat
Throat hair follicle

  • Area behind the mouth & nose

  • Oropharynx – separated from the mouth by a fold of tissue on each side called anterior tonsillar pillars

  • Tonsils – lymphoid tissue behind pillars


Posterior pharyngeal wall located behind the tonsils hair follicle

Nasopharynx continues from the oropharynx but it is above it and behind the nasal cavity. It holds the adenoids and the eustachian tube openings.


Subjective data nose
Subjective data Nose hair follicle

  • Discharge

  • Frequent colds

  • Sinus pain

  • Trauma

  • Epistaxis

  • Allergies

  • Altered smell


Subjective data mouth and nose
Subjective data Mouth and Nose hair follicle

  • Sores, lesions

  • Sore throat

  • Bleeding gums

  • Toothache

  • Hoarseness

  • Dysphagia

  • Altered taste


  • Smoking hair follicle

  • Alcohol intake

  • Self care behaviors


Objective behavior
Objective behavior hair follicle

  • Nose – Inspect and palpate

  • INSPECT for:

    • Symmetry, deformity

    • Inflammation

    • Skin lesions

    • Color

  • If injury – palpate gently


  • Test for Patency hair follicle

  • Test for Sense of Smell – Cranial nerve I (olfactory)




Mouth inspect
Mouth - Inspect hair follicle

Use gloves, tongue depressor, light

  • Lips

  • Teeth

  • Gums

  • Tongue

  • Buccal mucosa –Stenson’s duct (parotid)

  • Palate


Throat inspect
Throat - Inspect hair follicle

  • Tonsils

    • Grade size 1+ visible

    • …………….2+ ½ way b/t tonsillar pillars and uvula

    • …………….3+ touching the uvula

    • …………….4+ touching each other

  • Posterior pharyngeal wall

  • Gag reflex cranial nerves IX = glossopharyngeal and X = Vagus

  • Cranial nerve XII = hypoglossal- stick out tongue

  • Halitosis – Due to ????


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