Organizational design and macroergonomics
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 23

Organizational Design and Macroergonomics PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 187 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Organizational Design and Macroergonomics. titis wijayanto. Outline. Introduction Organization Concept Macro-ergonomics Concept Socio-technical system component Relation of macro- to micro-ergonomics design of work system Socially Centered Design. Introduction.

Download Presentation

Organizational Design and Macroergonomics

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Organizational Design and Macroergonomics

titis wijayanto


Outline

  • Introduction

  • Organization Concept

  • Macro-ergonomics Concept

  • Socio-technical system component

  • Relation of macro- to micro-ergonomics design of work system

  • Socially Centered Design


Introduction

  • Different levels of study and intervention:

    • Micro-level

      • Human-machine interface technology –hardware ergonomics

      • Human-environment interface technology –environmental ergonomics

      • User-interface technology

    • Macro-level

      • Organization-machine interface technology


Introduction

Macro Ergonomics:

Job Design,

Job Content,

Organization,

Culture

Macro Ergonomics:

Fitting the Organization

To

The MAN

Micro

ergonomics:

Environment,

Physical,

Cognition

Micro

Ergonomics:

Fitting the task

To

The MAN


Introduction

“different organization designs can utilize the same technology”

(Emery & Trist, 1960)

The key is to select organizational designthat is most effective in terms of:

  • People/human portion in system

  • Relevant external system


Organization Concepts

Organization???

  • Planned coordination of collective activities implies management

  • Made up more than one person

  • Have a structure/have hierarchy of authority

  • Oriented toward achieving common goal


Organization Concepts

Organizational Structures (three major components):

  • COMPLEXITY (degree of differentiation and integration)

    • Horizontal differentiation

    • Vertical differentiation

    • Spatial dispersion

  • FORMALIZATION (degree to which jobs within organization become standardized)

  • CENTRALIZATION (degree to which formal decision is concentrated in an individual)


Macro-ergonomics Concepts

  • the optimization of organizational and work systems design through consideration of relevant personnel, technological and environmental variables and their interactions.(H.W. Hendrick)

  • The goal of macro-ergonomics is a fully harmonized work system at both the macro- and micro-ergonomic level which results in improved productivity, job satisfaction, health and safety, and employee commitment.

  • Socio-technical system model


Socio-technical System Concept

External Environment

Joint causal

Personnel

subsystem

Technical

subsystem


Technological subsystem characteristics

  • Technology, as a determinant of organizational design, has been operationally defined in several different ways:

    • by Production Technology

    • by Knowledge Based Technology

    • by Technological Uncertainty

    • by Work Flow Integration


Technological subsystem characteristics

  • by Production Technology (based on mode of production)

  • Applies only to manufacturing organization/firm


Technological subsystem characteristics

  • by Knowledge Based Technology

     technology classification


Technological subsystem characteristics

  • by Technological Uncertainty (based on task performed)

    • Long-linked technology  automobile assembly line

      --moderately complex and formalized structure

    • Mediating technology  bank/post office

      --low complexity and high formalization

    • Intensive technology  customized response (hospital)

      --high complexity and low formalization


Personnel Subsystem Characteristics

  • Degree of Professionalism

    --education and training requirements of a given job.

    --there is a trade-off between professionalism and formalizing the organizational structure

  • Psychosocial Factors

    --cognitive complexity

  • Cultural Diversity


Personnel Subsystem Characteristics

  • Cultural Diversity –Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension:


Personnel Subsystem Characteristics

  • Cultural Diversity –Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension:

    • Power Distance Index (PDI) focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country's society.

    • Individualism (IDV) focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships.

    • Masculinity (MAS) focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power.

    • Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) focuses on the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society - i.e. unstructured situations


Personnel Subsystem Characteristics

  • Cultural Diversity –Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension:

World Averages 55 - 43 - 50 - 64 - 45


External Environment Characteristics

  • External environments that significantly impact organizational function:

    • Socioeconomic

    • Education

    • Politic

    • Culture


External Environment Characteristics

  • Environmental dimension (Duncan, 1979)

Degree of change

Degree of complexity

uncertainty


Socially Centered Design

  • Evolution of Design

Socially centered

User centered

System centered


System design

  • Factor considered in System Design


Component of System design

Equipment

CONTEXT

User

Task

Environment


Contextual Component of System Design

artifacts

Cooperative

Task activities

interpersonal

Situational

characteristics

Organization

& Groups


  • Login