Organizational design and macroergonomics
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Organizational Design and Macroergonomics. titis wijayanto. Outline. Introduction Organization Concept Macro-ergonomics Concept Socio-technical system component Relation of macro- to micro-ergonomics design of work system Socially Centered Design. Introduction.

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Organizational design and macroergonomics
Organizational Design and Macroergonomics

titis wijayanto


Outline
Outline

  • Introduction

  • Organization Concept

  • Macro-ergonomics Concept

  • Socio-technical system component

  • Relation of macro- to micro-ergonomics design of work system

  • Socially Centered Design


Introduction
Introduction

  • Different levels of study and intervention:

    • Micro-level

      • Human-machine interface technology –hardware ergonomics

      • Human-environment interface technology –environmental ergonomics

      • User-interface technology

    • Macro-level

      • Organization-machine interface technology


Introduction1
Introduction

Macro Ergonomics:

Job Design,

Job Content,

Organization,

Culture

Macro Ergonomics:

Fitting the Organization

To

The MAN

Micro

ergonomics:

Environment,

Physical,

Cognition

Micro

Ergonomics:

Fitting the task

To

The MAN


Introduction2
Introduction

“different organization designs can utilize the same technology”

(Emery & Trist, 1960)

The key is to select organizational designthat is most effective in terms of:

  • People/human portion in system

  • Relevant external system


Organization concepts
Organization Concepts

Organization???

  • Planned coordination of collective activities implies management

  • Made up more than one person

  • Have a structure/have hierarchy of authority

  • Oriented toward achieving common goal


Organization concepts1
Organization Concepts

Organizational Structures (three major components):

  • COMPLEXITY (degree of differentiation and integration)

    • Horizontal differentiation

    • Vertical differentiation

    • Spatial dispersion

  • FORMALIZATION (degree to which jobs within organization become standardized)

  • CENTRALIZATION (degree to which formal decision is concentrated in an individual)


Macro ergonomics concepts
Macro-ergonomics Concepts

  • the optimization of organizational and work systems design through consideration of relevant personnel, technological and environmental variables and their interactions.(H.W. Hendrick)

  • The goal of macro-ergonomics is a fully harmonized work system at both the macro- and micro-ergonomic level which results in improved productivity, job satisfaction, health and safety, and employee commitment.

  • Socio-technical system model


Socio technical system concept
Socio-technical System Concept

External Environment

Joint causal

Personnel

subsystem

Technical

subsystem


Technological subsystem characteristics
Technological subsystem characteristics

  • Technology, as a determinant of organizational design, has been operationally defined in several different ways:

    • by Production Technology

    • by Knowledge Based Technology

    • by Technological Uncertainty

    • by Work Flow Integration


Technological subsystem characteristics1
Technological subsystem characteristics

  • by Production Technology (based on mode of production)

  • Applies only to manufacturing organization/firm


Technological subsystem characteristics2
Technological subsystem characteristics

  • by Knowledge Based Technology

     technology classification


Technological subsystem characteristics3
Technological subsystem characteristics

  • by Technological Uncertainty (based on task performed)

    • Long-linked technology  automobile assembly line

      --moderately complex and formalized structure

    • Mediating technology  bank/post office

      --low complexity and high formalization

    • Intensive technology  customized response (hospital)

      --high complexity and low formalization


Personnel subsystem characteristics
Personnel Subsystem Characteristics

  • Degree of Professionalism

    --education and training requirements of a given job.

    --there is a trade-off between professionalism and formalizing the organizational structure

  • Psychosocial Factors

    --cognitive complexity

  • Cultural Diversity


Personnel subsystem characteristics1
Personnel Subsystem Characteristics

  • Cultural Diversity –Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension:


Personnel subsystem characteristics2
Personnel Subsystem Characteristics

  • Cultural Diversity –Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension:

    • Power Distance Index (PDI) focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country's society.

    • Individualism (IDV) focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships.

    • Masculinity (MAS) focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power.

    • Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) focuses on the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society - i.e. unstructured situations


Personnel subsystem characteristics3
Personnel Subsystem Characteristics

  • Cultural Diversity –Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension:

World Averages 55 - 43 - 50 - 64 - 45


External environment characteristics
External Environment Characteristics

  • External environments that significantly impact organizational function:

    • Socioeconomic

    • Education

    • Politic

    • Culture


External environment characteristics1
External Environment Characteristics

  • Environmental dimension (Duncan, 1979)

Degree of change

Degree of complexity

uncertainty


Socially centered design
Socially Centered Design

  • Evolution of Design

Socially centered

User centered

System centered


System design
System design

  • Factor considered in System Design


Component of system design
Component of System design

Equipment

CONTEXT

User

Task

Environment


Contextual component of system design
Contextual Component of System Design

artifacts

Cooperative

Task activities

interpersonal

Situational

characteristics

Organization

& Groups


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