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The Harlem Renaissance. Mr. Oppel AP US History. “The Harlem Renaissance probed racial themes and what it meant to be black in America”. I. Introduction. A. Definition Generic term describes Manhattan-based (NYC) cultural movement 1920s and 30s. B. Location. New York City.

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The harlem renaissance

The Harlem Renaissance

Mr. Oppel

AP US History



I introduction
I. Introduction meant to be black in America”

  • A. Definition

    • Generic term

    • describes Manhattan-based (NYC) cultural movement

    • 1920s and 30s


B. Location meant to be black in America”

New York

City


Manhattan island
Manhattan meant to be black in America”Island

Harlem

Central

Park

WTC


C european origins
C. European Origins meant to be black in America”

  • 1. European Art

    • French artists study West African sculpture

    • Popularize artistic primitivism

      • Spontaneous

      • Instinctive


Amedeo modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani meant to be black in America”


Pablo picasso
Pablo Picasso meant to be black in America”

  • Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

  • 1907

  • African masks


2 european music
2. European Music meant to be black in America”

  • Incorporate syncopation from ragtime

  • Later reintroduced to jazz


Sousa on tour in europe
Sousa on Tour in Europe meant to be black in America”

  • 1893 Chicago World’s Fair

  • touring repertoire began to include early ragtime cakewalks and syncopated songs



  • Incorporate American jazz meant to be black in America”

    • Claude DeBussy

      • Children’s Corner, 1906-8

    • Igor Stravinsky

      • Le Sacre duprintemps, 1913

    • Eric Satie

      • Parade, 1917



D american influences
D. American influences meant to be black in America”

  • Southern Counter- Reconstruction

    • Black Codes

    • Jim Crow laws


Wwi experience in europe
WWI Experience meant to be black in America”in Europe

  • Harlem Hellfighters


The great migration urbanization
The Great Migration & Urbanization meant to be black in America”


The red scare
The Red Scare meant to be black in America”

  • The NEW YORK TIMES lamented the new black militancy:

  • "There had been no trouble with the Negro before the war when most admitted the superiority of the white race."


Claude mckay if we must die 1919
Claude McKay meant to be black in America”If We must Die, 1919

  • If we must die, let it not be like hogsHunted and penned in an inglorious spot,While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,Making their mock at our accursed lot.If we must die, O let us nobly die,So that our precious blood may not be shedIn vain; then even the monsters we defyShall be constrained to honor us though dead!O kinsmen we must meet the common foe!Though far outnumbered let us show us brave,And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!What though before us lies the open grave?Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!


Ii harlem renaissance
II. Harlem Renaissance meant to be black in America”

  • A. Activists

  • B. Artists & Photographers

  • C. Writers

  • D. Composers, Musicians,

    Actors & Singers


Prognostications
Prognostications meant to be black in America”

  • “The nation was on the verge of a ‘renaissance of American Negro literature’”

    W.E.B. DuBois

    NAACP’s Crisis, 1920



A activists
A. Activists of, what might not improperly be called a Negro renaissance’”


Marcus garvey 1887 1940
Marcus Garvey of, what might not improperly be called a Negro renaissance’”1887-1940

  • Jamaican

  • “Back to Africa” movement

  • Universal Negro Improvement Association



  • Black Star steamship line of, what might not improperly be called a Negro renaissance’”

  • Raised money to help blacks emigrate to Africa



African folklore africanism
African Folklore & Africanism support

W.E.B.

DuBois

Alain

Locke


B artists photographers
B. Artists & Photographers support

  • Aaron Douglas

  • Jacob Lawrence

  • LM Jones

  • Arthur J. Motley, Jr.

  • James Van Der Zee


Aaron douglas
Aaron Douglas support

  • Painted murals

  • Illustrated The Crisis and Opportunity

  • taught art at Fisk University


Aaron douglas1
Aaron Douglas support

Aspects of

Negro Life, 1934


Into support

Bondage,

1936


L.M. Jones support

The Ascent

of Ethiopia,

1932


Arthur j motley jr
Arthur J. Motley, Jr. support

  • 1891 – 1981

  • Art Institute of Chicago

  • Realistic, urban subjects, jazz, & abstract painting


Cocktails 1926
Cocktails support, 1926



James van der zee
James Van Der Zee support

  • 1886 – 1983

  • photographer

  • celebrated the black middle class

  • brought dignity

  • reshaped the image of blackness


"A Couple Wearing Raccoon Coats With a Cadillac, Taken on West 127th Street," photograph by James Van Der Zee, 1932


Alpha Phi Alpha Basketball Team, 1926 West 127th Street," photograph by James Van Der Zee, 1932

Alpha Phi

Basketball

Team,

1926


C writers

Countee Cullen West 127th Street," photograph by James Van Der Zee, 1932

Langston Hughes

Alain Locke

Claude McKay

Wallace Thurman

Jeane Toomer

Walter White

Jessie Fauset

Zora Neale Hurston

Nella Larsen

C. Writers


Purpose of writing

Many establishment blacks “wanted black writers to promote positive images”

The writers themselves wanted to show realism of life in Harlem

purpose of writing?


African american publications
African–American publications positive images”

NAACP

Urban League


The naacp magazine
The NAACP magazine positive images”

  • Art

    • Aaron Douglas

  • Literature

    • Countee Cullen

    • Langston Hughes

    • Clause McKay


Claude mckay
Claude McKay positive images”

  • Born in Jamaica

  • Wrote poetry and novels

  • Tried to use poetry to inform as well as please



Langston hughes
Langston Hughes 1919 race riots

  • Lived in MO and Cleveland

  • Worked or traveled in Mexico, Europe, and Africa

  • Harlem Renaissance poet



  • Wrote in African-American vernacular pride, place of AA in white world

  • Brought rhythm of blues and jazz to writing process

  • “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”, “Negro”, “Harlem”, “Weary Blues”


Zora neale hurston
Zora Neale Hurston pride, place of AA in white world

  • Raised in all-black town in Florida near Orlando

  • Literary realism and consciousness of race issues like degree of skin-color


  • “Color Struck” pride, place of AA in white world

  • Mules and Men, 1935

  • Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937


D composers musicians

Jazz pride, place of AA in white world

Music

Clubs

artists

Stage Concerts

Brodaway

D. Composers & Musicians


1 jazz
1. JAZZ pride, place of AA in white world

  • Harlem jazz culture

    • Clubs, cabarets, theaters, ballrooms, rent parties

    • Liquor

    • White and black worlds


  • Musical origins pride, place of AA in white world

    • African American

    • Southern

    • poor

    • rural

    • Blues, Negro Spirituals, Ragtime


  • Criticism of jazz pride, place of AA in white world

    • as music

      • “cacophpony” and “deliberate vulgarity”

      • “Bolshevistic smashing of the rules of music”

      • Jazzing and ad libbing


  • as a cultural influence pride, place of AA in white world

    • Promoted “daring couple dancing”

    • The “sex-exciting” music affected girls morals and threatened chaste girls


White clubs

segregated pride, place of AA in white world

shows and music

black staff

dance shows

light-skinned girls

5’6” or taller

under 21

White Clubs


Negrotarians
NEGROTARIANS pride, place of AA in white world

  • Hurston’s name for whites interested in Harlem life

    • fascinated with Negro culture

    • still condescended with views of exoticism and a lack of civilization


Connie s inn
Connie’s Inn pride, place of AA in white world

  • Fats Waller

  • Bill “Bojangles” Robison

  • Louis Armstrong


Cotton club
Cotton Club pride, place of AA in white world

  • Cab Calloway

  • Duke Ellington


Black clubs
Black Clubs pride, place of AA in white world

  • for blacks

  • less expensive

  • food, music, no shows


Duke ellington 1899
Duke Ellington, 1899 - ? pride, place of AA in white world

  • Went to NYC at 23

  • Played with bands & then formed own

  • pianist, conductor, orchestrator

  • Improvised well

  • Rose to prominence from 1928 – 1934 playing at the Cotton Club in Harlem


  • Jazz compositions 1928-34 pride, place of AA in white world

    • “The Mooche”

    • “It Don’t Mean a Thing If It Ain’t Got That Swing”

    • “Mood Indigo”

    • “Sophisticated Lady”


Bessie smith
Bessie Smith pride, place of AA in white world


2 negro spirituals
2. Negro Spirituals pride, place of AA in white world

  • Sung for musical merit

  • Not baggage of slavery

  • Performers

    • Marian Anderson

    • Paul Robeson


3 broadway
3. BROADWAY pride, place of AA in white world

  • Eubie Blake & Noble Sissle

    • Shuffle Along, 1921

    • Chocolate Dandies, 1924

  • Fats Waller

    • Ain’t Misbehavin’


  • White writers supported movement pride, place of AA in white world

    • Sherwood Anderson,

      Sinclair Lewis, & Eugene O’Neil

  • Secret financial benefactors

    • Tried to encourage the exoticism


Paul robeson
Paul Robeson pride, place of AA in white world

  • Lawyer

  • Athlete

  • Singer

  • Actor

  • Political radical



  • George Gershwin play

    • Porgy and Bess

  • Jerome Kern & Oscar Hammerstein

    • Showboat

  • Eugene O’Neil

    • The Emperor Jones

    • All God’s Chillun Got Wings


  • In London play

    • The Emperor Jones

    • Showboat, 1928

    • Othello, 1930 (picture on left from 1944)



Josephine baker
Josephine Baker play

  • Born in St. Louis

  • Performing by 15 as a singer and dancer

  • Expatriate



Exoticism
exoticism play


Style
style play


Showgirl
showgirl play


Clown
clown play


Sophisticated lady
sophisticated play lady


La revue negre
La Revue Negre play

  • Paris, France

    • scantily clad

    • erotic dancing

    • suggestive music


La folie du jour
“La Folie du Jour” play

  • Paris, France, 1926

    • Folies Berger night club

    • topless, banana skirt, climbs down a tree like an animal

    • danced the charleston

    • erotic and comic



The end of a movement
The end of a movement play

  • By the late 20s & early 30s

  • Economic hardships with the Depression

  • Participants “moved on”

  • Some prospered throughout the 30s


Bibliography
Bibliography play

  • Harlem Renaissance

    • http://www.si.umich.edu/CHICO/Harlem/index.html

  • Josephine Baker

    • http://www.cmgww.com/stars/baker/home.html

  • Claude DeBussy

    • http://www.duke.edu/~aparks/class4.html

  • Marcus Garvey

    • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/index.html

    • http://www.isop.ucla.edu/mgpp/sound.htm

    • http://www.isop.ucla.edu/mgpp/facts.htm

  • Amedeo Modigliani

    • http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/modigliani/gallery_wall.html

    • http://www.trindera.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Year%209/modigliani_and_african_art.htm

  • Pablo Picasso

    • http://www.moma.org/collection/depts/paint_sculpt/blowups/paint_sculpt_006.html

    • http://www.moma.org/collection/conservation/demoiselles/analysis_1_la.html

    • http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/african-american/twentieth_century/cubism.htm

    • http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~bcr/African_Mask.html

  • Red Summer

    • http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_red.html


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