The harlem renaissance
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 94

The Harlem Renaissance PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 58 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Harlem Renaissance. Mr. Oppel AP US History. “The Harlem Renaissance probed racial themes and what it meant to be black in America”. I. Introduction. A. Definition Generic term describes Manhattan-based (NYC) cultural movement 1920s and 30s. B. Location. New York City.

Download Presentation

The Harlem Renaissance

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The Harlem Renaissance

Mr. Oppel

AP US History


“The Harlem Renaissance probed racial themes and what it meant to be black in America”


I. Introduction

  • A. Definition

    • Generic term

    • describes Manhattan-based (NYC) cultural movement

    • 1920s and 30s


B. Location

New York

City


Manhattan Island

Harlem

Central

Park

WTC


C. European Origins

  • 1. European Art

    • French artists study West African sculpture

    • Popularize artistic primitivism

      • Spontaneous

      • Instinctive


Amedeo Modigliani


Pablo Picasso

  • Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

  • 1907

  • African masks


2. European Music

  • Incorporate syncopation from ragtime

  • Later reintroduced to jazz


Sousa on Tour in Europe

  • 1893 Chicago World’s Fair

  • touring repertoire began to include early ragtime cakewalks and syncopated songs


  • introduced ragtime to Europe

  • Performances

    • Paris Exposition

    • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany


  • Incorporate American jazz

    • Claude DeBussy

      • Children’s Corner, 1906-8

    • Igor Stravinsky

      • Le Sacre duprintemps, 1913

    • Eric Satie

      • Parade, 1917


  • Black jazz bands toured Europe during WWI


D. American influences

  • Southern Counter- Reconstruction

    • Black Codes

    • Jim Crow laws


WWI Experience in Europe

  • Harlem Hellfighters


The Great Migration & Urbanization


The Red Scare

  • The NEW YORK TIMES lamented the new black militancy:

  • "There had been no trouble with the Negro before the war when most admitted the superiority of the white race."


Claude McKayIf We must Die, 1919

  • If we must die, let it not be like hogsHunted and penned in an inglorious spot,While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,Making their mock at our accursed lot.If we must die, O let us nobly die,So that our precious blood may not be shedIn vain; then even the monsters we defyShall be constrained to honor us though dead!O kinsmen we must meet the common foe!Though far outnumbered let us show us brave,And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!What though before us lies the open grave?Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!


II. Harlem Renaissance

  • A. Activists

  • B. Artists & Photographers

  • C. Writers

  • D. Composers, Musicians,

    Actors & Singers


Prognostications

  • “The nation was on the verge of a ‘renaissance of American Negro literature’”

    W.E.B. DuBois

    NAACP’s Crisis, 1920


  • “America was ‘on the edge, if not already in the midst of, what might not improperly be called a Negro renaissance’”

    New York Herald Tribune, 1925


A. Activists


Marcus Garvey1887-1940

  • Jamaican

  • “Back to Africa” movement

  • Universal Negro Improvement Association


  • Uniform of the “Provisional President of Africa”

  • Opened office in Harlem in 1917


  • Black Star steamship line

  • Raised money to help blacks emigrate to Africa


  • Liberia feared he was a revolutionary and pulled away its support

  • Jailed & deported to Jamaica, 1923


African Folklore & Africanism

W.E.B.

DuBois

Alain

Locke


B. Artists & Photographers

  • Aaron Douglas

  • Jacob Lawrence

  • LM Jones

  • Arthur J. Motley, Jr.

  • James Van Der Zee


Aaron Douglas

  • Painted murals

  • Illustrated The Crisis and Opportunity

  • taught art at Fisk University


Aaron Douglas

Aspects of

Negro Life, 1934


Into

Bondage,

1936


L.M. Jones

The Ascent

of Ethiopia,

1932


Arthur J. Motley, Jr.

  • 1891 – 1981

  • Art Institute of Chicago

  • Realistic, urban subjects, jazz, & abstract painting


Cocktails, 1926


  • Motley

  • Blues,

    1929


James Van Der Zee

  • 1886 – 1983

  • photographer

  • celebrated the black middle class

  • brought dignity

  • reshaped the image of blackness


"A Couple Wearing Raccoon Coats With a Cadillac, Taken on West 127th Street," photograph by James Van Der Zee, 1932


Alpha Phi Alpha Basketball Team, 1926

Alpha Phi

Basketball

Team,

1926


Countee Cullen

Langston Hughes

Alain Locke

Claude McKay

Wallace Thurman

Jeane Toomer

Walter White

Jessie Fauset

Zora Neale Hurston

Nella Larsen

C. Writers


Many establishment blacks “wanted black writers to promote positive images”

The writers themselves wanted to show realism of life in Harlem

purpose of writing?


African–American publications

NAACP

Urban League


The NAACP magazine

  • Art

    • Aaron Douglas

  • Literature

    • Countee Cullen

    • Langston Hughes

    • Clause McKay


Claude McKay

  • Born in Jamaica

  • Wrote poetry and novels

  • Tried to use poetry to inform as well as please


  • Wrote poem “If We must Die” in response to a series of 1919 race riots

  • Fled to Soviet Union and Europe,1922

  • In conflict with “Harlem Renaissance” and claimed to be an older “forerunner”


Langston Hughes

  • Lived in MO and Cleveland

  • Worked or traveled in Mexico, Europe, and Africa

  • Harlem Renaissance poet


  • Stressed nobility of lowly walks of life, developed racial pride, place of AA in white world

  • Gained attention of whites and raised self-esteem of blacks


  • Wrote in African-American vernacular

  • Brought rhythm of blues and jazz to writing process

  • “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”, “Negro”, “Harlem”, “Weary Blues”


Zora Neale Hurston

  • Raised in all-black town in Florida near Orlando

  • Literary realism and consciousness of race issues like degree of skin-color


  • “Color Struck”

  • Mules and Men, 1935

  • Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937


Jazz

Music

Clubs

artists

Stage Concerts

Brodaway

D. Composers & Musicians


1. JAZZ

  • Harlem jazz culture

    • Clubs, cabarets, theaters, ballrooms, rent parties

    • Liquor

    • White and black worlds


  • Musical origins

    • African American

    • Southern

    • poor

    • rural

    • Blues, Negro Spirituals, Ragtime


  • Criticism of jazz

    • as music

      • “cacophpony” and “deliberate vulgarity”

      • “Bolshevistic smashing of the rules of music”

      • Jazzing and ad libbing


  • as a cultural influence

    • Promoted “daring couple dancing”

    • The “sex-exciting” music affected girls morals and threatened chaste girls


segregated

shows and music

black staff

dance shows

light-skinned girls

5’6” or taller

under 21

White Clubs


NEGROTARIANS

  • Hurston’s name for whites interested in Harlem life

    • fascinated with Negro culture

    • still condescended with views of exoticism and a lack of civilization


Connie’s Inn

  • Fats Waller

  • Bill “Bojangles” Robison

  • Louis Armstrong


Cotton Club

  • Cab Calloway

  • Duke Ellington


Black Clubs

  • for blacks

  • less expensive

  • food, music, no shows


Duke Ellington, 1899 - ?

  • Went to NYC at 23

  • Played with bands & then formed own

  • pianist, conductor, orchestrator

  • Improvised well

  • Rose to prominence from 1928 – 1934 playing at the Cotton Club in Harlem


  • Jazz compositions 1928-34

    • “The Mooche”

    • “It Don’t Mean a Thing If It Ain’t Got That Swing”

    • “Mood Indigo”

    • “Sophisticated Lady”


Bessie Smith


2. Negro Spirituals

  • Sung for musical merit

  • Not baggage of slavery

  • Performers

    • Marian Anderson

    • Paul Robeson


3. BROADWAY

  • Eubie Blake & Noble Sissle

    • Shuffle Along, 1921

    • Chocolate Dandies, 1924

  • Fats Waller

    • Ain’t Misbehavin’


  • White writers supported movement

    • Sherwood Anderson,

      Sinclair Lewis, & Eugene O’Neil

  • Secret financial benefactors

    • Tried to encourage the exoticism


Paul Robeson

  • Lawyer

  • Athlete

  • Singer

  • Actor

  • Political radical


  • Robeson won the title role in Eugene O’Neil’s Broadway play The Emperor Jones on a lark and improvised on stage into success


  • George Gershwin

    • Porgy and Bess

  • Jerome Kern & Oscar Hammerstein

    • Showboat

  • Eugene O’Neil

    • The Emperor Jones

    • All God’s Chillun Got Wings


  • In London

    • The Emperor Jones

    • Showboat, 1928

    • Othello, 1930 (picture on left from 1944)


  • Better treatment in Europe led him to radicalism

    • Socialism

    • Communism

    • Ties to U.S.S.R.


Josephine Baker

  • Born in St. Louis

  • Performing by 15 as a singer and dancer

  • Expatriate


  • Shuffle Along, 1921-23

    • danced

    • sang

    • clowned

    • improvised


exoticism


style


showgirl


clown


sophisticated lady


La Revue Negre

  • Paris, France

    • scantily clad

    • erotic dancing

    • suggestive music


“La Folie du Jour”

  • Paris, France, 1926

    • Folies Berger night club

    • topless, banana skirt, climbs down a tree like an animal

    • danced the charleston

    • erotic and comic


“the charleston”


The end of a movement

  • By the late 20s & early 30s

  • Economic hardships with the Depression

  • Participants “moved on”

  • Some prospered throughout the 30s


Bibliography

  • Harlem Renaissance

    • http://www.si.umich.edu/CHICO/Harlem/index.html

  • Josephine Baker

    • http://www.cmgww.com/stars/baker/home.html

  • Claude DeBussy

    • http://www.duke.edu/~aparks/class4.html

  • Marcus Garvey

    • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/index.html

    • http://www.isop.ucla.edu/mgpp/sound.htm

    • http://www.isop.ucla.edu/mgpp/facts.htm

  • Amedeo Modigliani

    • http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/modigliani/gallery_wall.html

    • http://www.trindera.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Year%209/modigliani_and_african_art.htm

  • Pablo Picasso

    • http://www.moma.org/collection/depts/paint_sculpt/blowups/paint_sculpt_006.html

    • http://www.moma.org/collection/conservation/demoiselles/analysis_1_la.html

    • http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/african-american/twentieth_century/cubism.htm

    • http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~bcr/African_Mask.html

  • Red Summer

    • http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_red.html


  • Login