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The Harlem Renaissance. Mr. Oppel AP US History. “The Harlem Renaissance probed racial themes and what it meant to be black in America”. I. Introduction. A. Definition Generic term describes Manhattan-based (NYC) cultural movement 1920s and 30s. B. Location. New York City.

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the harlem renaissance

The Harlem Renaissance

Mr. Oppel

AP US History

i introduction
I. Introduction
  • A. Definition
    • Generic term
    • describes Manhattan-based (NYC) cultural movement
    • 1920s and 30s
slide4

B. Location

New York

City

manhattan island
Manhattan Island

Harlem

Central

Park

WTC

c european origins
C. European Origins
  • 1. European Art
    • French artists study West African sculpture
    • Popularize artistic primitivism
      • Spontaneous
      • Instinctive
pablo picasso
Pablo Picasso
  • Les Demoiselles d\'Avignon
  • 1907
  • African masks
2 european music
2. European Music
  • Incorporate syncopation from ragtime
  • Later reintroduced to jazz
sousa on tour in europe
Sousa on Tour in Europe
  • 1893 Chicago World’s Fair
  • touring repertoire began to include early ragtime cakewalks and syncopated songs
slide15
introduced ragtime to Europe
  • Performances
    • Paris Exposition
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
slide16
Incorporate American jazz
    • Claude DeBussy
      • Children’s Corner, 1906-8
    • Igor Stravinsky
      • Le Sacre duprintemps, 1913
    • Eric Satie
      • Parade, 1917
d american influences
D. American influences
  • Southern Counter- Reconstruction
    • Black Codes
    • Jim Crow laws
wwi experience in europe
WWI Experience in Europe
  • Harlem Hellfighters
the red scare
The Red Scare
  • The NEW YORK TIMES lamented the new black militancy:
  • "There had been no trouble with the Negro before the war when most admitted the superiority of the white race."
claude mckay if we must die 1919
Claude McKayIf We must Die, 1919
  • If we must die, let it not be like hogsHunted and penned in an inglorious spot,While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,Making their mock at our accursed lot.If we must die, O let us nobly die,So that our precious blood may not be shedIn vain; then even the monsters we defyShall be constrained to honor us though dead!O kinsmen we must meet the common foe!Though far outnumbered let us show us brave,And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!What though before us lies the open grave?Like men we\'ll face the murderous, cowardly pack,Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!
ii harlem renaissance
II. Harlem Renaissance
  • A. Activists
  • B. Artists & Photographers
  • C. Writers
  • D. Composers, Musicians,

Actors & Singers

prognostications
Prognostications
  • “The nation was on the verge of a ‘renaissance of American Negro literature’”

W.E.B. DuBois

NAACP’s Crisis, 1920

slide25
“America was ‘on the edge, if not already in the midst of, what might not improperly be called a Negro renaissance’”

New York Herald Tribune, 1925

marcus garvey 1887 1940
Marcus Garvey1887-1940
  • Jamaican
  • “Back to Africa” movement
  • Universal Negro Improvement Association
slide30
Black Star steamship line
  • Raised money to help blacks emigrate to Africa
slide33
Liberia feared he was a revolutionary and pulled away its support
  • Jailed & deported to Jamaica, 1923
african folklore africanism
African Folklore & Africanism

W.E.B.

DuBois

Alain

Locke

b artists photographers
B. Artists & Photographers
  • Aaron Douglas
  • Jacob Lawrence
  • LM Jones
  • Arthur J. Motley, Jr.
  • James Van Der Zee
aaron douglas
Aaron Douglas
  • Painted murals
  • Illustrated The Crisis and Opportunity
  • taught art at Fisk University
aaron douglas1
Aaron Douglas

Aspects of

Negro Life, 1934

slide38
Into

Bondage,

1936

slide39
L.M. Jones

The Ascent

of Ethiopia,

1932

arthur j motley jr
Arthur J. Motley, Jr.
  • 1891 – 1981
  • Art Institute of Chicago
  • Realistic, urban subjects, jazz, & abstract painting
slide43
Motley
  • Blues,

1929

james van der zee
James Van Der Zee
  • 1886 – 1983
  • photographer
  • celebrated the black middle class
  • brought dignity
  • reshaped the image of blackness
slide45
"A Couple Wearing Raccoon Coats With a Cadillac, Taken on West 127th Street," photograph by James Van Der Zee, 1932
slide48

Alpha Phi Alpha Basketball Team, 1926

Alpha Phi

Basketball

Team,

1926

c writers
Countee Cullen

Langston Hughes

Alain Locke

Claude McKay

Wallace Thurman

Jeane Toomer

Walter White

Jessie Fauset

Zora Neale Hurston

Nella Larsen

C. Writers
purpose of writing
Many establishment blacks “wanted black writers to promote positive images”

The writers themselves wanted to show realism of life in Harlem

purpose of writing?
the naacp magazine
The NAACP magazine
  • Art
    • Aaron Douglas
  • Literature
    • Countee Cullen
    • Langston Hughes
    • Clause McKay
claude mckay
Claude McKay
  • Born in Jamaica
  • Wrote poetry and novels
  • Tried to use poetry to inform as well as please
slide54
Wrote poem “If We must Die” in response to a series of 1919 race riots
  • Fled to Soviet Union and Europe,1922
  • In conflict with “Harlem Renaissance” and claimed to be an older “forerunner”
langston hughes
Langston Hughes
  • Lived in MO and Cleveland
  • Worked or traveled in Mexico, Europe, and Africa
  • Harlem Renaissance poet
slide56
Stressed nobility of lowly walks of life, developed racial pride, place of AA in white world
  • Gained attention of whites and raised self-esteem of blacks
slide57
Wrote in African-American vernacular
  • Brought rhythm of blues and jazz to writing process
  • “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”, “Negro”, “Harlem”, “Weary Blues”
zora neale hurston
Zora Neale Hurston
  • Raised in all-black town in Florida near Orlando
  • Literary realism and consciousness of race issues like degree of skin-color
slide59
“Color Struck”
  • Mules and Men, 1935
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937
d composers musicians
Jazz

Music

Clubs

artists

Stage Concerts

Brodaway

D. Composers & Musicians
1 jazz
1. JAZZ
  • Harlem jazz culture
    • Clubs, cabarets, theaters, ballrooms, rent parties
    • Liquor
    • White and black worlds
slide62
Musical origins
    • African American
    • Southern
    • poor
    • rural
    • Blues, Negro Spirituals, Ragtime
slide63
Criticism of jazz
    • as music
      • “cacophpony” and “deliberate vulgarity”
      • “Bolshevistic smashing of the rules of music”
      • Jazzing and ad libbing
slide64
as a cultural influence
    • Promoted “daring couple dancing”
    • The “sex-exciting” music affected girls morals and threatened chaste girls
white clubs
segregated

shows and music

black staff

dance shows

light-skinned girls

5’6” or taller

under 21

White Clubs
negrotarians
NEGROTARIANS
  • Hurston’s name for whites interested in Harlem life
    • fascinated with Negro culture
    • still condescended with views of exoticism and a lack of civilization
connie s inn
Connie’s Inn
  • Fats Waller
  • Bill “Bojangles” Robison
  • Louis Armstrong

cotton club
Cotton Club
  • Cab Calloway
  • Duke Ellington

black clubs
Black Clubs
  • for blacks
  • less expensive
  • food, music, no shows
duke ellington 1899
Duke Ellington, 1899 - ?
  • Went to NYC at 23
  • Played with bands & then formed own
  • pianist, conductor, orchestrator
  • Improvised well
  • Rose to prominence from 1928 – 1934 playing at the Cotton Club in Harlem
slide71
Jazz compositions 1928-34
    • “The Mooche”
    • “It Don’t Mean a Thing If It Ain’t Got That Swing”
    • “Mood Indigo”
    • “Sophisticated Lady”
2 negro spirituals
2. Negro Spirituals
  • Sung for musical merit
  • Not baggage of slavery
  • Performers
      • Marian Anderson
      • Paul Robeson
3 broadway
3. BROADWAY
  • Eubie Blake & Noble Sissle
    • Shuffle Along, 1921
    • Chocolate Dandies, 1924
  • Fats Waller
    • Ain’t Misbehavin’
slide75
White writers supported movement
    • Sherwood Anderson,

Sinclair Lewis, & Eugene O’Neil

  • Secret financial benefactors
    • Tried to encourage the exoticism
paul robeson
Paul Robeson
  • Lawyer
  • Athlete
  • Singer
  • Actor
  • Political radical
slide77
Robeson won the title role in Eugene O’Neil’s Broadway play The Emperor Jones on a lark and improvised on stage into success
slide78
George Gershwin
    • Porgy and Bess
  • Jerome Kern & Oscar Hammerstein
    • Showboat
  • Eugene O’Neil
    • The Emperor Jones
    • All God’s Chillun Got Wings
slide79
In London
    • The Emperor Jones
    • Showboat, 1928
    • Othello, 1930 (picture on left from 1944)
slide80
Better treatment in Europe led him to radicalism
    • Socialism
    • Communism
    • Ties to U.S.S.R.
josephine baker
Josephine Baker
  • Born in St. Louis
  • Performing by 15 as a singer and dancer
  • Expatriate
slide82
Shuffle Along, 1921-23
    • danced
    • sang
    • clowned
    • improvised
la revue negre
La Revue Negre
  • Paris, France
    • scantily clad
    • erotic dancing
    • suggestive music
la folie du jour
“La Folie du Jour”
  • Paris, France, 1926
    • Folies Berger night club
    • topless, banana skirt, climbs down a tree like an animal
    • danced the charleston
    • erotic and comic
the end of a movement
The end of a movement
  • By the late 20s & early 30s
  • Economic hardships with the Depression
  • Participants “moved on”
  • Some prospered throughout the 30s
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Harlem Renaissance
    • http://www.si.umich.edu/CHICO/Harlem/index.html
  • Josephine Baker
    • http://www.cmgww.com/stars/baker/home.html
  • Claude DeBussy
    • http://www.duke.edu/~aparks/class4.html
  • Marcus Garvey
    • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/index.html
    • http://www.isop.ucla.edu/mgpp/sound.htm
    • http://www.isop.ucla.edu/mgpp/facts.htm
  • Amedeo Modigliani
    • http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/modigliani/gallery_wall.html
    • http://www.trindera.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/Year%209/modigliani_and_african_art.htm
  • Pablo Picasso
    • http://www.moma.org/collection/depts/paint_sculpt/blowups/paint_sculpt_006.html
    • http://www.moma.org/collection/conservation/demoiselles/analysis_1_la.html
    • http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/african-american/twentieth_century/cubism.htm
    • http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~bcr/African_Mask.html
  • Red Summer
    • http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_red.html
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