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The Musical Museum and the Return of the Symphony. New Halls and New Orchestras. The Leipzig Gewandhaus (1781), new hall built in 1884 Vienna, Musikverein (Music Society) “Golden Hall” (1870) Dresden, Gewerbehaussaal (1870) America, New York’s Music Hall (Carnegie Hall) (1891).

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The musical museum and the return of the symphony

The Musical Museum and the Return of the Symphony


New halls and new orchestras
New Halls and New Orchestras

  • The Leipzig Gewandhaus (1781), new hall built in 1884

  • Vienna, Musikverein (Music Society) “Golden Hall” (1870)

  • Dresden, Gewerbehaussaal (1870)

  • America, New York’s Music Hall (Carnegie Hall) (1891)


New halls and new orchestras1
New Halls and New Orchestras

  • Vienna Philharmonic (founded 1842)

  • Dresden Hofkapelle

  • Paris, Société des Concerts du Conservatoire (1828); Société des Jeunes Artistes du Conservatoire (1853)

  • Russia, first professional orchestra in St. Petersburg (1859)

  • New York Philharmonic (1842)

  • Boston Symphony Orchestra (1881)


The triumph of museum culture
The Triumph of Museum Culture

  • “Viennese Classics”

  • The concert hall as museum

  • Orchestral repertoire as “complete and finished”


New paths johannes brahms
New Paths:Johannes Brahms

  • Brahms (1833–1897)

  • Brahms, Joseph Joachim, and Schumann

  • Schumann, “NeueBahnen” (New Paths) (1853)


Johannes brahms
Johannes Brahms

  • Symphonic Attempts

    • Sonata in D Minor for Piano Duet (1854)

      • adapted into the First Piano Concerto and Requiem

    • The Serenade No. 1 in D Major, Op. 11 (1859)


Johannes brahms1
Johannes Brahms

  • Chamber Music and “Developing Variation”

    • Piano Quartet in G Minor, Op. 25 (1861) [Anthology 2-59]

      • Expansive first movement

      • Intermezzo

      • Andante con moto

      • Rondo allaZingarese(“the Hungarian style”)

    • sophisticated motivic elaborations and transformations (“developing variation”)


Johannes brahms2
Johannes Brahms

  • Choral Fame

    • A German Requiem (1869)

    • Triumphlied(“Song of Victory,” 1871)


Inventing tradition
Inventing Tradition

  • The German past

  • Variations for Orchestra on a Theme by Joseph Haydn

    • also inspired by Spitta’s biography of Bach

  • First Symphony in C minor (1876)

    • the key of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony

    • allusions to Schumann’s Manfred, Wagner’s Tristan un Isolde, Beethoven’s Fifth and Ninth Symphonies


Victory through critique
Victory Through Critique

  • Brahms, First Symphony, movement 4 [Anthology 2-60]

    • Goal-oriented toward fourth movement

    • alphorn theme

    • chorale theme, resemblance to Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy” theme


Reconciliation and backlash
Reconciliation and Backlash

  • Hans von Bülow, “the Tenth Symphony” “Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms” (“the three B’s”)

  • Wagner, “On Poetry and Composition”

    • “guise of a highly respectable symphony dressed up as Number Ten.”


The symphony as sacrament
The Symphony as Sacrament

  • Anton Bruckner (1824–1896)

    • trained as organist and church choirmaster

    • worked in Linz and Vienna

    • organist for the Imperial Court Chapel in Vienna


The symphony as sacrament1
The Symphony as Sacrament

  • Anton Bruckner (1824–1896)

    • Masses

      • D minor, E minor, and F minor masses

    • Symphonies

      • style influenced by his experience as an organist

      • influence of Wagner

      • “study” symphony in F minor (1863)

      • 8 symphonies and an unfinished 9th

      • many revisions

      • cyclicism


Anton n dvo k 1841 1904
AntonínDvořák(1841–1904)

  • Categorized as a Czech composer though he never used authentic Czech melodies

  • Piano Quintet in A Major, Op. 81 [Anthology 2-61]

  • Piano Concerto (1876)

  • Violin Concerto (1879)

  • Cello Concerto (1894–95)

  • 9 symphonies


Dvo k in the new world
Dvořák in the New World

  • Lived in the United States (1892–95)

  • Symphony in E Minor Z novéhosvěta (From the New World) [Anthology 2-62]

    • Ninth Symphony

    • first performance: 16 December 1893 in Carnegie Hall with New York Philharmonic

    • African American Spirituals


An american response
An American Response

  • Edward MacDowell (1860–1908)

    • born in New York

    • studied in Germany

    • Character pieces for piano

      • Sea Pieces

      • Fireside Tales

      • New England Idyls

      • Woodland Sketches

        • “To a Wild Rose”


An american response1
An American Response

  • “Boston School” or “Second New England School”

    • MacDowell

    • John Knowles Paine (1839–1906)

      • Harvard

    • George Whitefield Chadwick (1854–1931)

      • New England Conservatory

    • Horatio Parker (1863–1919)

      • Yale


An american response2
An American Response

  • Amy Marcy Beach (1867–1944)

    • First Symphony (1894)

    • “Irish-Gaelic” folk songs

    • premiered by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1896


War brings symphonies to france
War Brings Symphonies to France

  • SociétéNationale de Musique (National Musical Society)

    • Camille Saint-Saëns (1835–1921)

      • Symphony No. 3 in C Minor “Organ” (1886)

    • César Franck (1822–1890)

      • Symphony in D Minor (1889)

      • cyclic form

      • students

        • Vincent d’Indy (1851–1931)

        • Ernest Chausson (1855–1899)


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