Piaget s psychological development
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Piaget’s Psychological Development. Piaget (1896 - 1980). Swiss Psychologist, worked for several decades on understanding children’s cognitive development Most widely known theory of cognitive development.

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Piaget’s Psychological Development

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Piaget s psychological development

Piaget’s Psychological Development


Piaget 1896 1980

Piaget (1896 - 1980)

  • Swiss Psychologist, worked for

    several decades on understanding

    children’s cognitive development

  • Most widely known theory of cognitive

    development.

  • Was intrigued by kids’ thoughts & behavior, & worked to understand their cognitive development


Piaget background

Piaget: Background

  • Young Piaget was incredibly precocious

    • Published first paper at 10

    • Wrote on mollusks, based on these writings was asked to be curator of mollusks at a museum in Geneva (he declined in order to finish secondary school)

    • Earned his doctorate in natural sciences at 21

    • Began to study psychology, applying intelligence tests to school children


Constructivism

Constructivism

  • Assumption that learning is an active process of construction rather than a passive assimilation of information or rote memorization.

  • Credited for founding constructivism

  • Has had a large influence on American schools


Piaget and constructivism

…Piaget and Constructivism

  • Best known for idea that individuals construct their understanding, that learning is a constructive process

    • Active learning as opposed to simply absorbing info from a teacher, book, etc.

    • The child is seen as a ‘little scientist’ constructing understandings of the world largely alone


Piaget constructivism

….Piaget & Constructivism

  • believed all learning is constructed, whether it is something we are taught or something we learn on our own.

  • Whether or not we are taught in a “constructivist” manner, Piaget believed we are constructing knowledge in all our learning.


Piaget learning

Piaget & Learning

  • Two main states – equilibrium & disequilibrium

  • Believed that we are driven or motivated to learn when we are in disequilibrium

    • We want to understand things


Piaget s psychological development

Piaget & Learning

  • Equilibration: assimilation & accommodation

    • We adjust our ideas to make sense of reality

  • Assimilation:

    • process of matching external reality to an existing cognitive structure.

  • Accommodation:

    • When there’s an inconsistency between the learner’s cognitive structure & the thing being learned the child will reorganize her thoughts


Example of learning

Example of Learning….


Constructivism learning education

Constructivism, Learning, & Education

  • Not interested in applying his theory to school-based education, he called this “The American question”

  • Constructivist educators create an environment which encourages children to construct their own knowledge.

    • But according to Piaget, we construct our learning regardless of how it is presented.


Piaget s stages of cognitive development

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

  • A child’s capacity to understand certain concepts is based on the child’s developmental stage


Piaget s four stages

Piaget’s Four Stages

  • Believed that all children develop according to four stages based on how they see the world.

    • He thought the age may vary some, but that we all go through the stages in the same order.

      1. Sensori-motor (birth –2 years)

      2. Preoperational (~2-7)

      3. Concrete operational (~7-11)

      4. Formal operations (~12-15)


Sensorimotor stage

Sensorimotor Stage

  • Birth to about 2 years, rapid change is seen throughout

  • The child will:

    • Explore the world through senses & motor activity

    • Early on, baby can’t tell difference between themselves & the environment

    • If they can’t see something then it doesn’t exist

    • Begin to understand cause & effect

    • Can later follow something with their eyes


Preoperational stage

Preoperational Stage

  • About 2 to about 7

    • Better speech communication

    • Can imagine the future & reflect on the past

    • Develop basic numerical abilities

    • Still pretty egocentric, but learning to be able to delay gratification

    • Can’t understand conservation of matter

    • Has difficulty distinguishing fantasy from reality (ex: cartoon characters are real people).


More preoperational

…more preoperational

  • Conservation of matter – understanding that something doesn’t change even though it looks different, shape is not related to quantity

  • Ex: Are ten coins set in a long line more than ten coins in a pile?

  • Ex: Is there less water if it is poured into a bigger container?


Concrete operational stage

Concrete Operational Stage

  • From about 7 to about 11

    • Abstract reasoning ability & ability to generalize from the concrete increases

    • Understands conservation of matter


Formal operations

Formal Operations

  • From about 12 to about 15

    • Be able to think about hypothetical situations

    • Form & test hypotheses

    • Organize information

    • Reason scientifically


Piaget s development

… Piaget’s Development

  • Development happens from one stage to another through interaction with the environment.

  • Changes from stage to stage may occur abruptly and kids will differ in how long they are in each stage.

  • Cognitive development can only happen after genetically controlled biological growth occurs.


Piaget s development1

…Piaget’s Development

  • Development leads to learning

    • Drive for development is internal

    • The child can only learn certain things when she is at the right developmental stage

    • Environmental factors can influence but not direct development

    • Development will happen naturally through regular interaction with social environment


Piaget education

Piaget & Education

  • Piaget did not think it was possible to hurry along or skip stages through education

  • Regardless, many American schools will try to teach to the stages in an attempt to accelerate development


Problems with piaget s theory

Problems with Piaget’s Theory

  • Children often grasp ideas earlier than what Piaget found

  • Cognitive development across domains is inconsistent (e.g. better at reading than math)

  • Studies have shown that development can to some degree be accelerated


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