Migration

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Why do people migrate?. Push Factors Pull Factors. Major International Migration Patterns, Early 1990s. Slide graphic courtesy of Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Hofstra University. Types of Migration. Emigration and immigrationChange in residence.Relative to origin and destination.Requires information on:People and conditions.Two different places.Two different times.Duration:Permanent.Seasonal / Temporary.Choice / constraint:Improve one's life.Leave inconvenient / threatening conditions..

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Migration

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1. Migration

2. Why do people migrate? Push Factors Pull Factors

3. Types of Migration Emigration and immigration Change in residence. Relative to origin and destination. Requires information on: People and conditions. Two different places. Two different times. Duration: Permanent. Seasonal / Temporary. Choice / constraint: Improve one’s life. Leave inconvenient / threatening conditions.

4. Types of Migration Gross migration Total number of people coming in and out of an area. Level of population turnover. Net Migration Difference between immigration (in-migration) and emigration (out-migration). Positive value: More people coming in Population growth. 44% of North America and 88% of Europe. Negative value: More people coming out. Population decline.

5. Types of Migration International Migration Emigration is an indicator of economic and/or social failures of a society. Crossing of a national boundary. Easier to control and monitor. Laws to control / inhibit these movements. 2 million and 3 million people emigrate each year. In 1995, 125 million people lived outside their country of birth. Before World War I Open policy. Many countries welcomed immigrants as a source of labor. Most migration was from developed to developing countries. The 1920s and 1930s Closing the doors. Years of economic depression. Deportation of immigrants.

6. World Migration Routes Since 1700 Source: adapted from Getis et al. (1991) “Introduction to Geography”. 3rd edition. Source: adapted from Getis et al. (1991) “Introduction to Geography”. 3rd edition.

8. U.S. Immigration Prior to 1840, 90% of U.S. immigration was from Britain Two Big Waves: 1840 - 1930: W. and N. European transitioning to Southern and Eastern European by 1910 Irish (potato famine in 1840s) and Germans During 1900s: Italians, Russians, Austria-Hungary (Czech, Poland, Romania, etc.) 1950 - Today: Asians and Latin Americans; declining Europeans Asians: China, India; 1980s -1990s: Phillipines, Vietnam, and South Korea Latin America: Mexico, Dom. Rep., El Salvador, Cuba, Haiti 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act admitted former illegals in 1990, 1991.

9. U.S. Migration Prior to 1840, 90% of U.S. immigration was from Britain Three trends: Destinations of U.S. Immigrants - ethnic neighborhoods often result of chain migration Mexicans: California, Texas, Illinois, New York Caribbean: Florida or New York Chinese and Indians: New York & California Other Asians: California Armenians: ????

10. U.S. Immigration Policies 1882, Bars Asian immigration for ten years (extended) 1921, Quota Act - country by country quotas 1924 National Origins Act - country by country quotas 1965, Immigration Act - quotas for countries replaced, in 1968, with hemisphere quotas of 170, 000 for East and 120,000 for West 1978, Immigration Act - global quota of 290, 000 1980, Refugee Act - quotas do not apply to those seeking political asylum 1986, Immigration Reform and Control Act admitted large numbers of former illegals. 1990, Immigration Act raised global quotas to roughly 675,000 1995, visas issued Preferentially: 480,000 - to relatives of people here 140,000 - to those with special skills and education 55,000 - to diversity candidates (i.e., mostly not from Latin Amer. or Asia) Current Total: 675,000

12. US Population by Race and Ethnicity, 1990-2050 Source: US Census Bureau.Source: US Census Bureau.

13. Top 10 Countries of Origin for US Legal Immigrants, 1998 Source: INS.Source: INS.

14. Illegal Aliens in the United States by Country of Origin, 1996 (in 1,000s) About 5.0 million undocumented immigrants were residing in the United States in October 1996, with a range of about 4.6 to 5.4 million (about 1.9% of the total US population). The population was estimated to be growing by about 275,000 each year. 41 percent, of the total undocumented population in 1996 are nonimmigrant overstays. That is, they entered legally on a temporary basis and failed to depart. Source: US INS.About 5.0 million undocumented immigrants were residing in the United States in October 1996, with a range of about 4.6 to 5.4 million (about 1.9% of the total US population). The population was estimated to be growing by about 275,000 each year. 41 percent, of the total undocumented population in 1996 are nonimmigrant overstays. That is, they entered legally on a temporary basis and failed to depart. Source: US INS.

15. Population Pyramid of Native and Foreign Born Population, United States, 2000 (in %) Source: US Census Bureau, 2000.Source: US Census Bureau, 2000.

16. Types of Migration Internal Migration Within one country. Crossing domestic jurisdictional boundaries. Movements between states or provinces. Little government control. Factors: Employment-based. Retirement-based. Education-based. Civil conflicts (internally displaced population).

17. Migration by Major Metropolitan Areas in the United States, 1990-98 (in 1,000s) Source: The Economist, March 11th 2000.Source: The Economist, March 11th 2000.

18. The Ten Fastest-Growing Metropolitan Areas, 1990–2000 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000; 1990 Census. Web: www.census.gov

19. Types of Migration Circular migration A type of temporary migration. Associated with agricultural work. The migrant follows the harvest of various crops, moving from one place to another each time. Very common in the US Southwest (Mexican farm workers) and in Western Europe (Eastern European farm workers).

20. Types of Migration Voluntary migration The migrant makes the decision to move. Most migration is voluntary. Forced Migration Involuntary migration in which the mover has no role in the decision-making process. Slavery. About 11 million African slaves were brought to the Americas between 1519 and 1867. In 1860, there were close to 4 million slaves in the United States. Refugees. Military conscription. Children of migrants. Situations of divorce or separation.

21. Key Term: Forced Migration

22. Forced Migration

23. Slaves Reaching British North America, 1601-1867 (in 1,000s) Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 68.1, January 2001.Source: The William and Mary Quarterly, 68.1, January 2001.

24. Interregional Migrations U.S. population has been moving Westward and Southward Gold Rush (1849) and Donner Party just the most dramatic examples of hardship. Wells, Pumps, Aqueducts, Mosquito Control and Air Conditioning have allowed this move which otherwise would be impossible. Loss of Industrial Jobs in east compliments increase in Sunbelt service sector (biotech, communications).

25. Voluntary African-American Migrations Blacks moved to Industrial Belt (i.e., Chicago, New York, Detroit) and Los Angeles during World Wars (labor shortages).

26. Types of Migration Local Migration No state boundaries are crossed. Buying a new house in the same town or city. Difficult to research since they are usually missed in census data. Based on change of income or lifestyle. Often very high levels of local migration.

27. Intraregional Migrations in U.S. U.S. population has been moving out of the city centers to the suburbs: suburbanization and counterurbanization

28. Intraregional Migrations in LDCs Populations in the less developed world are rushing to cities in search of work and income.

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