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TAV Chapter 20 . Benito Mussolini. School teacher Fascist Party 1919 Empire building and national pride Promised full employment and social security Black shirts Militia threatened to march on Rome in 1922

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TAV Chapter 20

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TAV Chapter 20


Benito Mussolini

  • School teacher

  • Fascist Party 1919

    • Empire building and national pride

    • Promised full employment and social security

  • Black shirts

    • Militia threatened to march on Rome in 1922

    • King Victor Emanuel was convinced to make Mussolini the premier – Took over the country.

  • Anti-communist


Joseph Stalin

  • Following Lenin’s death Stalin took over the USSR in 1926

  • High output –Low wages (43%)

  • Collectives

  • Opposition

  • Communist


Adolf Hitler

  • Born in Braunau am Inn, Austria on April 20, 1889

  • WW I

    • Wounded twice

    • Twice awarded the Iron Cross

      for bravery

  • Military spy after WW I


Nazis

  • German Worker’s Party

  • Hitler changed the name to The National Socialist German Worker’s Party (NAZI)

  • Nov. 1923 the Nazis tried to take power in Munich (Beer Hall Putsch)

  • Mein Kampf

  • 1932 Nazis grew within the Reichstag

  • 1933 Hitler is appointed chancellor by Paul von Hindenburg


  • August 1934 Hindenburg

    died and Hitler became

    Der Fuhrer.


Economic Circle

United States

Germany

Great Britain & France


War Debt

  • Economic circle

  • Germany’s plight


Neutrality

  • Nye Committee-suggested that arms manufactures pushed the US into WW I.

  • Led to the Neutrality Act of 1935-No selling of arms to nations at war

  • Roosevelt warned that neutrality may eventually drag the US into war.


Attack on Manchuria

  • July 1937 Japan attacked China in order to take advantage of their natural resources.

  • Neutrality Act of 1937 did not apply so we sent arms to help out China

  • Tattoos


Neutrality


Chapter 20 Section 2

World War II Begins


Time Line

  • 1935, Hitler begins building up the military

  • March 1936, Rhineland

  • Feb. 1938, Hitler threatens to invade Austria unless Austrian Nazis were given important Govt positions.

  • The Austrian chancellor gave into demands and wanted a vote on unification.

  • Hitler sent troops into Austria in March 1938 declaring the Anschluss of Germany and Austria


Munich Conference

  • Hitler staked a claim on the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia b/c of the German speaking people there.

  • Sept. 29, 1938, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany met to decide about the Sudetenland


Appeasement

  • GB and France agreed to give the Sudetenland to Germany or Czech. would have to fight Germany alone.

  • GB’s Neville Chamberlain returned home touting, “ a peace with honor … peace in our time.”

  • March 1939, Germany sent troops into Czech

    • Divided into 2 (Slovakia) -Protectorate


Non-Aggression Pact

  • August 23, 1939, Germany and the USSR signed an agreement not to attack each other


Poland

  • Sept. 1, 1939, German troops rolled into Poland.

  • Blitzkrieg

  • GB and France declare war on Germany

  • Sept. 27th Warsaw fell to Germany

  • By October 5th Poland had fallen


Fall of France

  • Defensive bunkers – the Maginot Line

  • May 10, 1940 German troops attack France by going around the Maginot Line.

    • Through Belgium and Luxembourg and the Ardennes Forest

  • French and English troops were trapped at Dunkirk

    • 3 day delay made it possible for 338,000 troops to be rescued

  • Vichy France puppet govt.


Battle of Britain


Chapter 20 Section 3

The Holocaust


Nuremberg Laws

  • Targeted Jews mainly as well as others the Nazis saw as inferior

  • Sept. 1935 - Removed citizenship for German-Jews

  • Marriage

  • Public office


Kristallnacht

  • Nov. 7, 1938, a German diplomat was killed by a Jew

  • Nov. 9th Jews were targets in retaliation

  • Staged by Joseph Goebbels, the minister of propaganda

  • The following day the Gestapo arrested 30,000 Jews


The Final Solution

  • Wannsee Conference- Determine the Jewish question

  • Concentration Camps

  • Extermination Camps

  • 1937, Buchenwald was the first and largest concentration camp


Destroyers for Bases

  • 50 old destroyers


America First

  • Isolationists

  • 1940 Fight for Freedom Committee pushes for a stronger stand against Germany


Lend Lease Act

  • Lend or lease arms to any country vital to the defense of the US.

  • 40 billion in supplies to the Allies


Hemispheric Defense Zone

  • Western Atlantic was neutral

  • US ships would radio the location of German Submarines to the British


Atlantic Charter

  • Aug. 1941, FDR and Churchill met near Newfoundland

    • Post war world of democracy and free trade

    • Force an incident

  • German Sub. sank US destroyer Oct. 31, 1941

    • Reuben James

    • Shoot on sight order


Embargo Against Japan

  • July 1940, Congress gave FDR the power to restrict the sale of strategic materials

  • FDR blocked the sale of Airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan

    • Japan responded by joining the Axis of Germany and Italy

  • Japan sent troops into Indochina so we set up an oil embargo until they pull out.


Pearl Harbor

  • December 7, 1941, the Japanese launch a surprise attack on the US Naval Base

    • 2,403 killed

    • 1,178 injured


SURPRISE ATTACK AGAINST THE UNITED STATES BY THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN

HARRIS, George Ellsworth MM1c USN Illinois


JAPANESE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR

  • Dec. 7, 1941, Japan conducted a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    • 2,403 people died in the Sunday morning attack

    • Killed soldiers, sailors, & civilians

    • Destroyed 200 planes, 5 battleships, & 3 cruisers

  • Aircraft carriers were out to sea when the attack happened


The USS Arizona


December 7, 1941

  • “a date that will live in infamy”

  • The U.S. declares war against Japan

  • Dec. 11th Germany & Italy declare war on the U.S.


During The Attack


Torpedo Found In 1999


Oil From The USS Arizona


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