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Unit 2 – Day 7. Functional Groups. Functional Groups. Functional groups are groups of atoms that affect the way hydrocarbons behave. They replace a hydrogen on the hydrocarbon. Methanol. Methane. Organic Families.

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Unit 2 day 7

Unit 2 – Day 7

Functional Groups


Functional groups
Functional Groups

  • Functional groups are groups of atoms that affect the way hydrocarbons behave.

  • They replace a hydrogen on the hydrocarbon.

Methanol

Methane


Organic families
Organic Families

  • If hydrocarbons have the same functional groups, they tend to behave the same way.

  • For this reason, organic families of chemicals are grouped based on functional groups.




Alcohols
Alcohols

  • All alcohols have the hydroxyl group.

  • This is a polar covalent bond, which allows alcohols to be volatile liquids.

  • They are all toxic and flammable.


Naming alcohols
Naming Alcohols

  • We name alcohols using the same prefix and suffix system used for hydrocarbons.

  • The prefix indicates the number of carbons.

  • All alcohols end in “–anol”

  • We use a number to indicate which carbon has the hydroxyl group.


Examples
Examples:

  • CH3-CH2OH

  • CH2OH-CH2-CH2-CH3

  • Draw 2-pentanol


Carboxylic acids
Carboxylic Acids

  • Carboxylic acids all contain the carboxyl group.

  • This group easily loses its hydrogen atom in water, which makes these molecules acidic.

  • They are corrosive like other acids, and also volatile like organic compounds.

  • One example is vinegar (acetic acid)


Naming carboxylic acids
Naming Carboxylic Acids

  • We name acids using the same system.

  • The prefix indicates the number of carbons.

  • The suffix for all carboxylic acids is “-anoic acid”.

  • The carboxyl group can only go on the end carbon, so no number is required.


Examples1
Examples:

  • CHOOH

  • CH3CH2COOH

  • Draw butanoic acid


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