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Unit 2 – Day 7. Functional Groups. Functional Groups. Functional groups are groups of atoms that affect the way hydrocarbons behave. They replace a hydrogen on the hydrocarbon. Methanol. Methane. Organic Families.

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unit 2 day 7

Unit 2 – Day 7

Functional Groups

functional groups
Functional Groups
  • Functional groups are groups of atoms that affect the way hydrocarbons behave.
  • They replace a hydrogen on the hydrocarbon.

Methanol

Methane

organic families
Organic Families
  • If hydrocarbons have the same functional groups, they tend to behave the same way.
  • For this reason, organic families of chemicals are grouped based on functional groups.
alcohols
Alcohols
  • All alcohols have the hydroxyl group.
  • This is a polar covalent bond, which allows alcohols to be volatile liquids.
  • They are all toxic and flammable.
naming alcohols
Naming Alcohols
  • We name alcohols using the same prefix and suffix system used for hydrocarbons.
  • The prefix indicates the number of carbons.
  • All alcohols end in “–anol”
  • We use a number to indicate which carbon has the hydroxyl group.
examples
Examples:
  • CH3-CH2OH
  • CH2OH-CH2-CH2-CH3
  • Draw 2-pentanol
carboxylic acids
Carboxylic Acids
  • Carboxylic acids all contain the carboxyl group.
  • This group easily loses its hydrogen atom in water, which makes these molecules acidic.
  • They are corrosive like other acids, and also volatile like organic compounds.
  • One example is vinegar (acetic acid)
naming carboxylic acids
Naming Carboxylic Acids
  • We name acids using the same system.
  • The prefix indicates the number of carbons.
  • The suffix for all carboxylic acids is “-anoic acid”.
  • The carboxyl group can only go on the end carbon, so no number is required.
examples1
Examples:
  • CHOOH
  • CH3CH2COOH
  • Draw butanoic acid
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