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Racism in Global Context. Dr. Kristin Lozanski Dept. of Sociology King’s University College. Overview. Definition of racism Typologies of racism Typologies in global context Solutions . What is racism?. Definition.

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Racism in Global Context

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Racism in global context

Racism in Global Context

Dr. Kristin Lozanski

Dept. of Sociology

King’s University College



  • Definition of racism

  • Typologies of racism

  • Typologies in global context

  • Solutions

What is racism

What is racism?



  • “Racism is the generalized and final assigning of value to real or imaginary differences, to the accuser’s benefit and at his victim’s expense, in order to justify the former’s own privileges or aggression”

    • (Alberto Memmi, 2000 [1982], p.169)

Examples of racism

Examples of racism?

Overt racism

Overt racism

  • Public statements about inferiority

Polite racism

Polite racism

  • Disguise dislike through acceptable behaviour

    • “Where are you from?”

Institutionalized racism

Institutionalized racism

  • Policies & practices that deliberately exclude minorities

Subliminal racism

Subliminal racism

  • Unconscious racism

  • Contradiction in values that

    • support racial equality; &

    • resent change to accommodate others

Systemic racism

Systemic racism

  • Practices & procedures with the unintended consequence of excluding minorities

Gauging prejudice social distance

Gauging prejudice: “social distance”

  • I would:

    • marry or accept as a close relative

    • accept as a close friend

    • accept as my next-door neighbour

    • accept in my school or church

    • accept in my community, but not have contact with

    • accept as a resident of my country, but not of my community

    • not accept even as a resident of my country



  • “Privilege exists when one group has something of value that is denied to others simply because of the groups they belong to, rather than because of anything they’ve done or failed to do.” (Johnson, 2001:21)

  • Symbolic

  • Material

Racial privilege

Racial Privilege

  • I can talk with my mouth full and not have people put this down to my color.

  • I am never asked to speak for all the people of my racial group.

  • I can worry about racism without being seen as self-interested or self-seeking.

  • If my day, week or year is going badly, I need not ask of each negative episode or situation whether it had racial overtones.

Privilege in global context

Privilege in Global Context

  • I can remain oblivious of the language and customs of persons of color who constitute the world's majority without feeling in my culture any penalty for such oblivion.

  • I can assume my colour will not draw additional attention to me when clearing security

  • I can expect to travel to the majority of countries in the world and be treated respectfully

Racism in global context1

Overt Racism

Racism in global context

Uganda 1972

Uganda – 1972

  • IdiAmin

    • “The Last King of Scotland”

    • Launched intranational “economic war”

      • Expulsion of 80 000 Asians & seizure of property

South africa 1948 1994

South Africa – 1948-1994

  • Apartheid – “the status of being apart”

Racism in global context2

Institutionalized Racism

Racism in global context

Canada 1914

Canada – 1914

  • Immigration Act, 1908

    • KomagataMaru

Australia 2001 2007

Australia – 2001-2007

  • “Pacific Solution”

Racism in global context3

Subliminal Racism

Racism in global context

Canada 1985

Canada – 1985-

  • Multiculturalism Act

Usa 2001

USA – 2001-

  • Security from terrorism

    • 675 million people on watchlist

Racism in global context4

Systemic Racism

Racism in global context

Canada 2010

Canada - 2010

  • Changes to Investor & Entrepreneur immigration requirements

    • $800 000 to $1.6 M

    • $400 000 to $800 000

  • Unintentional?



Colour blindness


  • “I don’t see skin colour”

    • Political correctness

  • Colour-blindness = power-evasiveness?

Positive stereotyping

Positive Stereotyping

  • “Model Minority Myth” of Asians

Positive stereotyping1

Positive Stereotyping

  • Blacks as amazing athletes



Situating exclusion

Situating exclusion

  • Complex personhood

  • Intentions vs. Outcomes

  • Context

    • Historical

    • Contemporary

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