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Intro to Weimar, and Hitler and the NAZI’s. Revolution of 1918. November 9 th : –Kaiser abdicates and flees to Holland – new temporary civilian government under the leader of Social Democrats (SD) Friedrich Ebert whose party had the most votes in recent elections (the Republic is declared)

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Intro to Weimar, and Hitler and the NAZI’s

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Intro to weimar and hitler and the nazi s

Intro to Weimar, and Hitler and the NAZI’s


Revolution of 1918

Revolution of 1918

  • November 9th :

    –Kaiser abdicates and flees to Holland

    – new temporary civilian government under the leader of Social Democrats (SD) Friedrich Ebert whose party had the most votes in recent elections (the Republic is declared)

  • November 10th: Deal struck between new government and army (for support)

  • November 11th – representatives of new government meet with Allies and agree to armistice at 11/11 11AM

Kaiser Wilhelm II in Exile

Ebert


Support for the revolution

Support for the Revolution

….And some Germans (like Prince Max who convinced the Kaiser to abdicate) feared a civil war would break out if things didn’t change

….And Wilson refused to offer peace without a “democratic” government in Germany


Structure of government

Structure of Government

Government under Kaiser

Weimar Government 1919 - 34

Kaiser Wilhelm II

President Hindenburg


A closer look

A closer look


Intro to weimar and hitler and the nazi s

Elections January 1919

…Yeah in the midst of all this!

*remaining 10% or so was divided among 4 small regional parties*


German political parties

German Political Parties

Right-wing

Left-wing


Intro to weimar and hitler and the nazi s

First act of new government?

Signing the Treaty of Versailles

Note: Germany is divided into two parts by the ‘Polish Corridor’


Intro to weimar and hitler and the nazi s

  • Result:

    • The Army (General Ludendorff) accuses the new government of “a stab in the back” (betraying the army while it was fighting the war – not defeated)

    • Representatives of the new government branded as the November Criminals by the Nationalists and later the NAZIs for signing the armistice and the Treaty of Versailles.


Four putsches

Four Putsches

  • “Red Bavaria”:

    • Leninists take over in Bavaria

    • Late 1918 to early 1919

  • Spartacist Revolt

    • January 1919

    • Leninists fail to take over in Berlin after defeat by the Freikorps

  • Kapp Putsch

    • March 1920

    • Berlin nearly falls to rightists

    • Freikorps led by Dr. Wolfgang Kapp

  • Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch

    • November 1923


Intro to weimar and hitler and the nazi s

Young Hitler

  • Modest origins

    • Father - minor customs official

    • Born in German-Austrian border town of Braunau, Austria in 1889

  • Dropped out of school at 16 in 1905

    • Dreams of art or architecture

  • In 1907 moves to Vienna

    • Failed to gain admission to Vienna Fine Arts or Vienna School of Architecture

    • Mom dies


Hitler s painting village scene

Hitler’s Painting: ‘Village Scene’


Was hitler jewish

Was Hitler Jewish?

  • It is possible though unproven

  • Hitler’s paternal grandfather is unknown

    • Hitler’s dad’s mom was named Schicklgruber & Hitler’s dad was born illegitimate

  • She later married a man named Hiedler who formally adopted Hitler’s dad & gave him the name Hitler


Hitler up to wwi

Hitler up to WWI

  • Aimless in Austria

    • From 16 to 23 years of age

  • Lived on small inheritance & orphan’s pension

  • Sold tourist postcards to make ends meet

  • Picked up anti-Semitic views living on the street & in flophouses / hostels

  • 1913 - moved to Munich, Bavaria, Germany


Hitler world war i

Hitler & World War I

  • Caught up in war fervor when Germany declares war (photo)

  • Enlisted as soldier in WWI

    • Dispatch runner at the front

    • Wounded twice, decorated five times including Iron Cross (HIH video)

  • War ended 1918

    • Hitler in hospital temporarily blind from poison gas

  • Believes German republic stabbed Germans in the back for seeking peace


Hitler the nazis

Hitler & The Nazis

  • Unemployed after war

  • Took job spying on political parties for the army

  • Joined one of them instead: German Workers’ Party

    • Became National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party)

  • Became exceptional speaker

    • Practice and determination

Hofbrauhaus where Hitler gave many

Speeches to his followers


Beer hall putsch pooch

Beer Hall Putsch ‘Pooch’

  • 1921 Hitler became leader of Nazi Party

  • Called ‘Der Fuhrer’

  • 1923 Hitler plans coup in Munich

  • To be followed by March on Berlin

    • Remind you of anything?

      Mussolini’s March on Rome (a year earlier)

What the king conquered,

The prince shaped,

The field marshall defended,

Was rescued & united by the soldier.


Storm troopers sa

Storm Troopers -- SA

  • ‘Strong-arm’ squads

  • Hitler’s paramilitary force

  • Many unemployed & ex-WWI vets (Freikorps)

  • Sturm Abteilung

    • “Storm troopers”

    • AKA “brown shirts”

      (not to be confused with Mussolini’s “Blackshirts”!)

Stormtroopers


Schutzstaffel ss

Schutzstaffel SS

  • Led by Himmler

  • Began as Hitler’s bodyguard

  • Slowly grew to huge operation after he comes to power

    • Concentration camps

    • Dirty work


Intro to weimar and hitler and the nazi s

  • Leader of Bavaria von Kahr called meeting to debate Stresemann’s new policies

    • Buergerbrau beer hall

  • Hitler & SA interrupted, fired a shot into ceiling, & declared ‘The national revolution has broken out’.

  • Hitler declared takeover of local government, followed by a march on Berlin

  • Ludendorff arrived on Hitler’s side

  • 9th Nov 1923 – Hitler and 3000 supporters were confronted by 100 armed policemen

  • 16 Nazis were killed, Hitler was wounded

  • The whole putsch (revolt) collapsed

Beer Hall Putsch ‘Pooch’


Intro to weimar and hitler and the nazi s

Why did the Nazi Putsch Fail ?

  • Tactical errors

    • Hitler left to resolve another crisis

    • Ludendorff allowed leaders to go home

  • Hitler had expected support from other right-wing groups, including the Bavarian government of von Kahr

  • The Nazis had little public exposure – few outside Munich had ever heard of them


Intro to weimar and hitler and the nazi s

Trial& Prison Term

  • Hitler & Ludendorff arrested & jailed

  • Ludendorff acquitted

  • Hitler found guilty of treason

  • However, Hitler obtained sympathy & fame

  • Sentenced to 5 years, served 9 months

  • Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

Hitler and supporters in Landsberg prison, 1924


Hitler s plan for the third reich

Hitler’s Plan for the Third Reich

  • ‘Mein Kampf’ = ‘My Struggle’

  • Extreme nationalism

  • Unite all German-speaking people in an Empire, The Third Reich including:

    • Dutch, Scandinavians, English, half of Belgiums

    • Germans in Austria, Poland, Sudetenland

  • Expand territory, Lebensraum, into Ukraine & lands between

  • Enforce racial “purification”

    • Most loathsome: Jews

    • Master race prevails

  • Anti-Democracy

Hitler Comes to Power.mov


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