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Research and Data Collection to Measure and Evaluate What We Do. National Study Center for Trauma & EMS. Outline. Traffic Records Data in Maryland Statistical Overview Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) Previous research studies Younger v older Motorcycle type Helmet study

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slide1

Research and Data Collection to Measure and Evaluate What We Do

National Study Center for Trauma & EMS

outline
Outline
  • Traffic Records Data in Maryland
    • Statistical Overview
    • Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES)
  • Previous research studies
    • Younger v older
    • Motorcycle type
    • Helmet study
  • Ongoing studies
    • Promising practices
    • Rider observations
    • Behavioral surveys
crashes injuries and fatalities in maryland
Crashes, Injuries and Fatalitiesin Maryland…
  • Motorcyclist fatalities have decreased since 2007 by close to 27%, while total traffic fatalities decreased 21% during that period.
  • There were 3% fewer injuries and 4% fewer fatalities in 2011compared to 2010.
  • Motorcycle crash-related fatalities comprised 14.4% of all traffic fatalities in 2011, down slightly from 14.7% in 2010.
maryland trends
Maryland Trends
  • Motorcycle registrations decreased by 2.5% from 2009 to 2011
  • As of August 2012, a total 223,525 people held some class of motorcycle license
    • 15% ages 50-54
    • 14% ages 45-49
    • 13.5% ages 55-59
slide11

**In rear-end crashes, when the motorcycle sustains damage to the frontal plane they are assumed to be the striking vehicle

crash information
Crash Information
  • From 2008-2010, there were 129 same direction left turn crashes involving motorcycles.
  • In those crashes, the motorcycle was moving at a constant speed, accelerating, slowing or stopping, or passing in 103 of the crashes (80%).
  • The motorcycle was only turning left in 10 (8%) of those crashes.
top contributing circumstances in motorist fault collisions with mc
Top Contributing Circumstances in Motorist-Fault Collisions with MC
  • Failure to Give Full Time and Attention
  • Failure to Yield Right of Way
  • Following Too Close
  • Improper Turn
licensure
Licensure
  • In 2010:
  • 2,037 motorcycle operators were involved in crashes
    • 1,544 were reported to have a MD license
      • 24% of total were out-of-state operators
    • 1,513 linked to MVA licensure files
      • 896 (59%) had an M endorsement on record
      • However, only 339 (22%) had an M in the class field on the crash report
slide19

Police Crash

Reports

Ambulance

& EMS Logs

ED Data

Hospital

Records

CODES Data Integration

To analyze correlations between crash circumstances, EMS response, and clinical treatment to understand crash causes and outcomes

traffic records performance measures
Traffic RecordsPerformance Measures
  • Timeliness
  • Consistency
  • Completeness
  • Accuracy
  • Accessibility
  • Data Integration
  • Program management and evaluation
  • Research and program development
  • Policy development
  • Private sector and public requests

Roadway

Crash

Driver/Vehicle

Enforcement

Adjudication

EMS/Trauma

slide21

Police Crash

Reports

Ambulance

& EMS Logs

Driver Citations

MVA Licensing

ED Data

Hospital

Records

Vital

Statistics

Autopsy

Records

Statewide

Trauma Registry

Toxicology

Available Injury Data Sources in Maryland

challenges
Challenges
  • Motorcycle safety is not just one problem, but several problems:
    • Rider Vulnerability
    • Rider Inexperience
    • Driver Inattention
    • Driver Awareness and Attitudes
    • Rider Impairment
    • Aggressive Riding
rider vulnerability
Rider Vulnerability
  • Represent 2.5% of all registered motor vehicles
  • Are involved in 15% of fatal motor vehicle collisions
  • Motorcycle operators are 4 times more likely to be injured or die in a in a crash than other drivers
  • 1 in 25 motorcycle crashes result in a fatality
motorcycle research projects
Motorcycle Research Projects
  • Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators in MD
    • Motorcycle Body Type
    • Helmet Photographs
    • Promising Practices
    • On-road Observational Study
    • Motorcyclist Survey (riding behaviors)
  • Injury Patterns – Hospitalized Younger and Older Motorcycle Operators
  • The Association Between Age, Injury and Survival to Hospital Among a Cohort of Injured Motorcyclists
motorcycle class information
Motorcycle Class Information
  • 11 character (de-identified) VIN numbers from Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA) registration file provided to Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)
  • IIHS returned motorcycle ‘class name’ information for each VIN number
    • Cruiser
    • Sport
    • Sport Touring
    • Super Sport
    • Touring
    • Other (chopper, dual purpose, off road, scooter, sidecar, standard, unclad sport)
motorcycle class information1
Motorcycle Class Information
  • ‘Class name’ data merged back to Maryland motorcycle registration data from MVA
  • In 2008 data file, 74% of registered motorcycles in MD have a ‘class name’
    • It is speculated that the remaining 26% could not be categorized for a variety of reasons (modifications, specialized models, old registrations, etc.)
crash data
Crash Data
  • The updated MVA registration file (with ‘class name’) was merged with 14 years of police crash report data (1998-2011)
  • The files were merged by VIN number
    • 50% match
      • It is speculated that the remaining 50% could not be matched for a variety of reasons (missing fields, poor VIN capture, etc.)
  • The following slides include information based on the records that matched (50%) of all motorcycles in crashes and their operator
cruiser class
Cruiser Class
  • 33.2% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011
    • Trend remained steady over the 14 years (36.7% - 1998; 30.6% - 2002; 30.9% - 2007; 36.0% - 2011)
  • Of all cruiser motorcycles in crashes, 4.5% of the operators were fatally injured
    • 78.1% injured
  • Crash characteristics
    • 14.0% involved speed
    • 2.5% involved aggressive riding
    • 12.5% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)
sport class
Sport Class
  • 11.1% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011
    • Trend fluctuated over the 14 years (12.8% - 1998; 16.7% - 2000; 9.5% - 2007; 8.6% in 2011)
  • Of all sport motorcycles in crashes, 6.3% of the operators were fatally injured
    • 75.2% injured
  • Crash characteristics
    • 27.4% involved speed
    • 5.9% involved aggressive riding
    • 5.1% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)
sport touring class
Sport Touring Class
  • 0.7% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011
    • Trend remained steady over the 14 years (0.8% - 1998; 0.4% - 2002; 1.0% - 2007; 1.1% in 2011)
  • Of all sport touring motorcycles in crashes, 5.3% of the operators were fatally injured
    • 66.7% injured
  • Crash characteristics
    • 16.0% involved speed
    • 4.0% involved aggressive riding
    • 2.7% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)
super sport class
Super Sport Class
  • 35.9% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011
    • Trend increased over the 14 years (30.0% - 1998; 36.2% - 2002; 39.7% - 2007; 33.7% in 2011)
  • Of all super sport motorcycles in crashes, 6.4% of the operators were fatally injured
    • 74.0% injured
  • Crash characteristics
    • 32.5% involved speed
    • 8.5% involved aggressive riding
    • 5.6% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)
touring class
Touring Class
  • 12.0% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011
    • Trend remained steady over the 14 years (9.6% - 1998; 12.1% - 2002; 11.0% - 2007; 13.6% - 2011)
  • Of all touring motorcycles in crashes, 3.9% of the operators were fatally injured
    • 73.4% injured
  • Crash characteristics
    • 12.1% involved speed
    • 2.0% involved aggressive riding
    • 9.3% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)
crash characteristics 1998 2007
Crash Characteristics (1998-2007)
  • 22.4% of all operators reported to be speeding in the crash
  • 5.1% of all operators reported to be riding aggressively in the crash
  • 8.4% of all operators reported to be impaired (alcohol and/or drugs) in the crash
crash characteristics
Crash Characteristics
  • Of all motorcycles reported to be speeding in a crash
    • 20.7% cruiser; 13.6% sport; 0.5% sport touring; 52.1% super sport; 6.5% touring
  • Of all motorcycles reported to be aggressive in a crash
    • 16.0% cruiser; 12.7% sport; 0.5% sport touring; 59.6% super sport; 4.7% touring
  • Of all operators reported to be impaired (alcohol and/or drugs) in a crash
    • 49.8% cruiser; 6.7% sport; 0.2% sport touring; 23.9% super sport; 13.4% touring
question how well do helmets work to prevent deaths
Question: How well do helmets work to prevent deaths?
  • Very well – can\'t prevent all deaths
  • Reduce the chances of a traumatic brain injury
  • Some helmets are not certified & will not provide protection (see example of bad helmet)
estimated effectiveness of helmets
Estimated effectiveness of helmets
  • Reduce chances of death in crash by 40% (Keng, 2005)
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: estimates helmets saved 1,316 motorcyclists\' lives in 2004
deaths per 10 000 registered motorcycles before and after helmet law maryland auman et al 2002
Deaths per 10,000 registered motorcycles before and after helmet law, Maryland(Aumanet al., 2002)
characteristics of motorcycle operators
Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators
  • 2007-2009 (n=189)
  • 94% men
  • 76% white
  • Education
    • 21%<12th grade
    • 27% High School, GED
    • 23% Some College
    • 22% College Graduate or higher
characteristics of motorcycle operators1
Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators
  • Motorcycle ridden most often
    • 36% Harley Davidson
    • 18% Suzuki
    • 10% Yamaha
    • 16% Honda
    • 8% Kawasaki
  • Motorcycle Type
    • 40% Sport
    • 33% Cruiser
    • 10% Touring
  • Ownership
    • 93% owner
    • 37% owned <1 year
characteristics of motorcycle operators2
Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators
  • Crash Type
    • 31% impact with object
    • 24% laid the bike down
    • 15% multiple vehicle intx
    • 17% multiple vehicle not at intx
  • Road Type
    • 26% county road/rural area
    • 29% suburban
    • 22% interstate
    • 14% city street/urban area
characteristics of motorcycle operators3
Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators
  • Training
    • 60% motorcycle safety course
      • 48% basic
      • 10% intermediate
      • 8% experienced
  • Licensing
    • 89% valid motorcycle endorsement
  • 77% under the age of 21 when they began riding
helmet type
Helmet Type
  • STC Helmet Photos (n=242)
  • Type
    • 55% full face
    • 10% three-quarter
    • 35% half-shell
  • Compliant
    • 80% FMVSS compliant
slide51
Injured Body Regions (AIS>1)All Motorcyclists admitted to RAC Shock Trauma Center (July 2007-June 2009)

Mean Age = 38 yrs

Mean ISS = 14.9

next steps
Next steps….
  • Promising Practices
    • Analyze new exposure data (odometer readings = new measure of miles traveled)
    • Analyze new baseline data (motorcycle safety training course test scores and reported riding histories)
  • Behavioral Surveys
    • Quantify and analyze knowledge, attitudes and behaviors
      • Motorcycle operators/riders
      • Motor vehicle drivers
slide58

Injury Patterns and Severity Among Hospitalized Motorcyclists: A Comparison of Younger and Older Riders

Patricia Dischinger, Gabriel Ryb, Shiu Ho,

Elisa Braver

National Study Center for Trauma & EMS

Baltimore, MD

summary
Summary

Older riders had a significantly higher incidence of thoracic injury, most notably multiple thoracic injuries (including 3+ rib fractures)

Older riders are more likely to ride larger motorcycles (bigger engine sizes) and wear helmets

summary cont d
Summary (cont’d)
  • Older motorcyclists are more likely to overturn or strike a highway structure (embankments, fences, bridge overpasses, etc)
  • Large engine sizes were associated with increased risk of head and thoracic injuries, but not abdominal injuries
summary cont d1
Summary (Cont’d)

The magnitude of increased risks related to 1000+cc engine size was higher among older motorcyclists than younger motorcyclists

the association between age injury and survival to hospital among a cohort of injured motorcyclists

The Association Between Age, Injury and Survival to Hospital Among a Cohort of Injured Motorcyclists

Patricia Dischinger, Gabriel Ryb, Shiu Ho,

Cynthia Burch

summary1
Summary

Older riders more likely to wear helmets and ride motorcycles with larger engines

Majority of fatally injured riders died at the scene

Older riders more likely to survive to hospitalization

summary2
Summary
  • Older riders: significantly more thoracic injuries, especially multiple thoracic injuries
  • Injuries to the spine significantly more common among younger operators
  • Median ISS for fatally injured riders was significantly lower among the older group
summary3
Summary

BAC+ rates similar for both age groups

BAC levels significantly higher in the older rider group

Among younger riders, those BAC+ had higher death rates

key participants
Key Participants
  • Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration
  • Maryland Highway Safety Office
  • Maryland State Police
  • Maryland District Court
  • University of Maryland, Baltimore – National Study Center for Trauma & EMS
baseline
Baseline
  • Before 2009, we could not quantify riding exposure/experience or prior training
  • Before 2009, we could not correlate rider exposure or training with outcomes (crash and citation)
promising practices
Promising Practices
  • Major components of the program
    • Data collection
    • Data analysis
  • What we did
    • Instituted new policies at all MVA licensing sites to collect exposure data
promising practices1
Promising Practices
  • Why we did it the way we did it
    • Motorcycle riding exposure is difficult to capture
      • VMT not accurate
    • Two methods for getting a motorcycle endorsement in MD
      • Conventional at MVA center (~3,000/year)
      • Upon completion of training class (~7,000/year)
    • Two ways to quantify exposure
      • Self-report
      • Odometer readings
md mva promising practices demo project
MD MVA Promising Practices – Demo Project

New Process, New Data

New processes and new data will provide unprecedented insight into prior and new training, skill, exposure, vehicle usage and behavior for motorcyclists.

Prior training and

prior exposure history

for all new motorcycle

license applicants

and transfers.

(PERSISTENT)

SOUNDEX

Medical Examiner’s Office

(fatalities)

Trauma Center Discharge

Data

New Process, New Data

New Process, New Data

National Study Center

CODES

Linkage to External Records

Analysis

Reports

Learner’s Permit

Process:

Dates and scores

for all applications,

all tests and all awards.

(PERSISTENT)

SOUNDEX

Training Process:

Dates and scores

for all training and

all license awards

(PERSISTENT)

SOUNDEX

District Court

Citation Records

EMS Report Data

MVA

Production Database

SOUNDEX

All license information,

all demographic data,

all conviction history data,

all currently registered

vehicle data.

NEW PERSISTENT DATA

New Process, New Data

Persistent

Title Transfer Data

SOUNDEX

Ownership, VIN,

Odometer,

Date

Maryland State

Crash Reports

Motorcycle Classification

program goals data improvements
Program Goals: Data Improvements
  • Completeness: rider exposure and prior training information on all MD licensed riders
  • Uniformity: collect standard information regardless of licensure method (conventional/training)
  • Integration: merge exposure and training data with CODES to create a new dataset
program goals improving safety
Program Goals: Improving Safety
  • Exposure data will help to identify types of riders and analyze correlations with outcomes (crash, citation, medical)
  • Training information may correlate with riding habits (crash outcomes)
  • Linking new data with CODES enhances MD traffic safety data (including IIHS body types)
  • Analytical results may inform rider education and policy changes
project milestones
Project Milestones
  • 2006-2008
    • Project planning (NHTSA, MVA, NSC)
  • 2009
    • Began data collection
  • 2010
    • Finalized analysis plans
  • Future
    • Conduct analyses
    • Examine results for policy implications
sample analyses
Sample Analyses
  • In 2009
    • 6,863 people completed the Basic Rider Course
      • 1,155 (16.8%) reported some riding exposure > 0 months
        • 45% reported 1 month to 1 year
        • 13% reported 13 months to 2 years
        • 18% reported 25 months to 5 years
  • Of those, how many were involved in crashes before the course? After?
sample analyses1
Sample Analyses
  • 2010 citation profile
    • For those 6,863 who completed the course in 2009
      • 848 speeding citations
      • 183 belt use violations
      • 131 impaired driving violations
      • 105 red light running violations
    • Next steps
      • Comparisons between groups
      • Motorcycle specific violations
measurable success
Measurable Success
  • We successfully captured riding and training histories for 100% of riders who were licensed/permitted in Maryland since 2009.
  • We successfully merged exposure and prior training data with CODES (crash, hospital, citation) data.
  • We improved safety by reducing motorcycle crash involvement of trained riders using the information we gleaned from our merged dataset.
other benefits
Other Benefits
  • We enhanced motorcycle safety data collection and awareness throughout the MVA.
  • We utilized the resulting merged dataset in other research projects.
    • Cambridge Systematics project
  • We enhanced CODES and motorcycle safety data in MD for all analyses and planning.
cambridge motorcycle project
Cambridge Motorcycle Project
  • On-road observational study
    • Operators using both methods of licensure will be recruited into the study
      • Conventional – at MVA
      • Training
    • Matched pairs will be selected for comparison
      • Age, gender, riding exposure
    • Participants will be observed and evaluated
    • Analysis will compare trained v untrained operators
      • using MVA-collected and observational data
summary conclusions
Summary/Conclusions

This is an innovative idea to address a major gap in traffic safety data (motorcycle exposure).

This project is an example of collaboration between numerous state agencies.

This project involved a comprehensive implementation throughout Maryland.

The resulting dataset provides a wealth of analysis possibilities for MD and motorcycle safety in general.

behavioral surveys

Behavioral Surveys

Recent Efforts and Outputs

2010 amt results
2010 AMT Results
  • 58% of respondents from selected jurisdictions* reported they wear a DOT helmet all of the time when riding a motorcycle, as opposed to 83% in the rest of the state.
  • Over 60% of people 18 years and younger did not consider excessive speeding, riding between lanes, and stunt riding to be risky riding behaviors.
  • More than 50% of respondents from all age groups reported riding while intoxicated as a risky behavior.
  • 80% of respondents from other jurisdictions (not those originally selected) indicated that they were not likely to exceed the speed limit by 20 mph.

* Baltimore County, Montgomery County, Prince George’s County and Baltimore City

2010 amt results1
2010 AMT Results

n= 16 n=72 n=20 n=94 n=17

Within the 25-44 age group (the group with the fewest respondents), the majority identified all behaviors as risky, but the fewest number of respondents reported riding between lanes to be risky. All groups, except for the 65 and over age group, reported riding while intoxicated as the riskiest behavior.

next steps1
Next steps….
  • Reconstruction studies?
    • Biomechanics of injury
    • Effectiveness of safety equipment (all gear)
contacts
Contacts

Andrew Krajewski - [email protected]

Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration

Tim Kerns – [email protected]

Cindy Burch – [email protected]

National Study Center for Trauma & EMS

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