The ev1 electric car of the 90s
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The EV1: Electric Car of the 90s. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. World Solar Challenge. First solar vehicle competition Held in Australia in November 1987 Major US car manufacturers like Ford and GM participated Results stimulated interest in

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The EV1: Electric Car of the 90s

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The ev1 electric car of the 90s

The EV1: Electric Car of the 90s

Figure 1


The ev1 electric car of the 90s

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5


World solar challenge

World Solar Challenge

  • First solar vehicle competition

  • Held in Australia in November 1987

  • Major US car manufacturers like Ford and GM participated

  • Results stimulated interest in

    electric cars in the automobile

    industry

Figure 6


California and the ev1

California and the EV1

  • During the 1990s California had a tremendous smog and pollution problem that needed to be addressed.

  • California Air and Resources Board (CARB) passed a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate

  • Required car manufacturers to sell ZEVs if they wanted to sell cars in California

  • Lead to the development of EV cars


Design and technology

Design and Technology

  • Two seat cabin


The ev1 electric car of the 90s

Figure 7


Design and technology1

Design and Technology

  • Two seat cabin

  • No key required


The ev1 electric car of the 90s

Figure 9

Figure 8


Design and technology2

Design and Technology

  • Two seat cabin

  • No key required

  • Accelerates from 0-60 in 8 seconds


Design and technology3

Design and Technology

  • Two seat cabin

  • No Key required

  • Accelerates from 0-60 in 8 seconds

  • Top average speed = 80 mph

    • Highest clocked speed = 183 mph


The ev1 electric car of the 90s

Figure 10


The ev1 electric car of the 90s

Figure 11


Battery specs

Battery Specs

  • 1st generation EV1 carried a 26 lead-acid cell battery

  • Average range: 60-80 miles per charge

  • Complete charge takes approx. 3 hrs

    • 220 volt 6kW charger

    • Charger plugs into the front of the car

Figure 13


Charging unit

Charging Unit

Figure 14


Battery specs1

Battery Specs

  • 2nd generation EV1 carried a NiMH battery

    • Developed by Stan Ovshinsky

  • Range: 100-120 miles

  • Complete charge in approx. 5 hrs

  • Used the same charger as 1st gen.


The ev1 electric car of the 90s

Figure 15

Figure 16


Cost of the ev1

Cost of the EV1

  • Sold at ~$33,995, or leased for about $399 a month

  • Cost of operating an EV1 = Cost of operating a gasoline car EXCEPT gas costs 0.60 cents a gallon!

  • Maintenance is minimal

    • Performed every 5000 miles

    • No extra products


What happened to the ev1

What happened to the EV1?

  • Approximately 4,000 leased

  • GM recalled and took back every car in less than 10 years

  • Crushed, shredded and destroyed

Before

Figure 17

Figure 18

After


Who killed the ev1

Who Killed the EV1?

  • Consumers

  • Government

  • Oil Companies

  • Automotive Industry


General motors

General Motors

  • Poor marketing

  • http://noolmusic.com/myspace_videos/general_motors_ev-1_tv_commercial_4.php

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGdNTOdemBw


Gm claims

GM Claims

  • Claim: Wasn’t enough demand

  • Truth: EV1 had a waiting list of thousands of buyers.

  • Claim: Cars and batteries were too expensive to make.

  • Truth: Mass production could have helped streamline costs.


Gm motive

GM Motive

  • Why would GM want to get rid of the EV1?

    • Profit Loss

    • No need for servicing parts like oil filters

    • Oil company connection?


Oil companies

Oil Companies

  • Funded opposition to the EV1

  • Profit loss

    • Trillions of dollars of profits still left in oil reserves

    • 13.5 million barrels a day in 2004


Government

Government

  • Bush’s 2004 Economic Incentive Plan

    • Tax credit for EVs: $4,000

    • Tax credit for luxury SUVs: $100,000

  • Joined Automotive Companies in suing CARB over the ZEV Mandate

  • Emphasis on Hydrogen Fuel Cell Development

  • Fuel economy standards have not improved since CAFÉ standards were adopted in 1975s

  • OPEC dropped oil prices


Consumers

Consumers

  • Consumers were cautious to accepting the electric car

  • Many were ignorant to that it even existed

  • Many couldn’t see the difference between gas cars and EV cars

  • Consumers will buy what you market to them that they need to buy


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Although the EV1 did have limitations, it possessed the potential to be a viable vehicle alternative.

  • Had the EV1 remained on the market, significant progress in the development of electric vehicles could have been made.


Figures work cited

Figures Work Cited

  • "EV1." Photograph. Carfree World.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.carsareevil.com/images/gm_ev1.jpg>.

  • "1998 Electric Ford Ranger." Photographs. How Stuff Works.9 Nov. 2008 <http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/1990-1999-ford-trucks-40.jpg>.

  • "Ford Think." Photograph. 21stcentury.co.uk. 9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.21stcentury.co.uk/images/cars/ford_th!nk.jpg>.

  • "Honda EV Plus." Photograph. AutoWorld.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.autoworld.com/news/Honda/ev_plus.jpg>.

  • "Nissan Altra." Photograph. The Auto Channel.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.theautochannel.com/cybercast/laautoshow98/images/nissan_altra_ev.jpg>.

  • "World Solar Challenge." Photograph. 1990 World Solar Challenge.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www-personal.umich.edu/~sdbest/solarcar/Wsc1990.htm>.

    7-9, 12, 14. "Miscellaneous EV1." Photograph. EV1 FAQ.9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.ev1.pair.com/charge_across_america/charge_html/faqs.html#anchor2778139. >.

    10-11. "Inside the EV1." Diagram. EV1 Club.6 Nov. 2008 <http://ev1-club.power.net/evpics.htm>.

    13. "EV1 Engine." Photograph. Motortrend Blog.9 Nov. 2008 <http://image.motortrend.com/f/editorial/no-one-killed-the-electric-car-it-was-dead-on-arrival/9814174+cr1+re0+ar1/gm-ev1-engine.jpg>.

    16. "EV1 Battery." Photograph. JCWinni-Photobucket.9 Nov. 2008 <http://i160.photobucket.com/albums/t175/jcwinni/gmphev5.png>.

    17. "EV1 Graveyard - December, 2003- Before." Digital Photograph. EV1 Club.5 Nov. 2008 <http://ev1-club.power.net/archive/031219/jpg/before1.htm>.

    18. "EV1 Graveyard - December, 2003- After." Digital Photograph. EV1 Club.5 Nov. 2008 <http://ev1-club.power.net/archive/031219/jpg/after2.htm>.


References

References

  • "History of Electric Vehicles from 1990 to 1998." EV History. 1 About.com. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectric2a.htm>.

  • Trexlar, Kris. Charge Across America. 1 Jan. 9 Nov. 2008 <http://www.ev1.pair.com/charge_across_america/charge_html/faqs.html#anchor2843536>.

  • "United States." The World Factbook. 1 CIA. 9 Nov. 2008 <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/us.html>.

  • Who Killed the Electric Car. Dir. Chris Paine: DVD. Sony Pictures, 2006.

  • "Who Killed the Electric Car." NOW. 9 June 2006. PBS. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/223/>.

  • Who Killed the Electric Car. Sony Pictures Classics. 5 Nov. 2008 <http://www.sonyclassics.com/whokilledtheelectriccar/electric.html>.


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