Minerals
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Minerals. Minerals vs. Rocks. Rock – an aggregate of minerals (mixture of minerals). Mineral – naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solids, with a definite chemical composition. All minerals are rocks, but not all rocks are minerals!. Granite (rock). mixture of:. Quartz

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Minerals

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Minerals

Minerals


Minerals vs rocks

Minerals vs. Rocks

  • Rock – an aggregate of minerals (mixture of minerals).

  • Mineral – naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solids, with a definite chemical composition.

    All minerals are rocks, but not all rocks are minerals!


Minerals

Granite

(rock)

mixture of:

Quartz

(mineral)

Feldspar

(mineral)

Biotite

(mineral)


Properties of minerals

Properties of Minerals

1. Crystal Form

  • External expression of a mineral’s internal orderly arrangement of atoms.

  • Size of the crystal is based on time & available space.


Minerals

Crystal Shapes:

Hexagonal

Tetragonal

Cubic

Monoclinic

Orthorhombic

Triclinic


Properties of minerals1

Properties of Minerals

2. Luster

  • Appearance /quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral.

  • Metallic vs. Nonmetallic.


Minerals

Choosing the Luster:

Luster

Shiny like a metal?

Yes

Metallic

No

Nonmetallic

What kind of nonmetallic?

Vitreous

(glassy)

Pearly

Silky

Resinous

Earthy


Properties of minerals2

Properties of Minerals

3. Color

  • Outer appearance.

  • Unreliable property.

  • A mineral may have several color varieties.


Properties of minerals3

Properties of Minerals

4. Streak

  • Color of the mineral in a powdered form.

  • Obtained by rubbing the mineral across a streak plate.


Properties of minerals4

Properties of Minerals

5. Hardness

  • Resistance to abrasion or scratching.

Mohs’ Scale

Talc

Gypsum

Calcite

Fluorite

Apatite

Feldspar

Quartz

Topaz

Corundum

Diamond

Softest

Hardest


Minerals

How to test a mineral’s hardness

Start by moving an unknown sample across a sample with a hardness of 1.

2. If the unknown scratches the known sample, then it is harder….so keep testing the others until it doesn’t scratch it.

3. If it doesn’t scratch it, then it is softer than the known sample so it is lower on the scale.

4. If they scratch each other, they are the same hardness.


Properties of minerals5

Properties of Minerals

6. Cleavage

  • Tendency for a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding.

  • Smooth surfaces.

  • Not to be confused with crystals.


Properties of minerals6

Properties of Minerals

7. Fracture

  • Opposite of cleavage.

  • Conchoidal fracture = curved edges.

  • Fibrous fracture = splinters/fibers.


Properties of minerals7

Properties of Minerals

8. Specific Gravity

  • Comparison between the weight of a mineral to the weight of an equal volume of water.

  • Comparison of densities.

  • Written as the number of times heavier/lighter than water.


Properties of minerals8

Properties of Minerals

9. Other Properties

  • Taste

  • Elasticity

  • Malleability

  • Texture

  • Magnetism

  • Double Refraction

  • Reaction to acids (HCl)


Mineral groups

Mineral Groups

  • 8 elements make up 98% of the Earth’s crust (by weight).

    • O

    • Si

    • Al

    • Fe

    • Ca

    • Na

    • K

    • Mg


Mineral groups1

Mineral Groups

  • Silicate Group

    • Minerals made of O and Si.

    • ¾ of the minerals in the continental crust are silicates.

    • Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (1 silicon to 4 oxygen) then bonded to another element(s).

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Quartz, Feldspars, Micas


Mineral groups2

Mineral Groups

  • Carbonates Group

    • Minerals made of CO3 bonded with other elements.

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Calcite & Dolomite

  • Halides Group

    • Minerals made with members of the halogen family.

    • Formed through evaporation.

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Halite & Fluorite


Mineral groups3

Mineral Groups

  • Sulfates Group

    • Minerals made of SO4 bonded with other elements.

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Gypsum

  • Oxides Group

    • Minerals made with Oxygen bonded with other elements.

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Hematite & Ice


Mineral groups4

Mineral Groups

  • Native Elements Group

    • Minerals that are pure elements (usually metals).

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Copper, Diamond, Graphite

  • Sulfides Group

    • Minerals made with Sulfur bonded with other elements.

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Pyrite


Mineral resources

Mineral Resources

  • Ores – useful metallic minerals that are mined at a profit.

    • EXAMPLES: Hematite (Iron), Sphalerite (Zinc), Galena (Lead), Cinnabar (Mercury).

  • Industrial rocks & minerals – useful nonmetallic minerals that are mined at a profit.

    • EXAMPLES: Fluorite, Sulfur, Halite (salt)

  • The amount of a mineral in a deposit must be concentrated several times it’s crustal percentage to be considered profitable.


Mineral resources1

Mineral Resources

  • Gemstones – Crystal forms of minerals that posses beauty of such quality that command a price when cut & polished.

    • Precious gems – have beauty, durability, size, and rarity.

      • Diamond

      • Emerald (Beryl)

      • Ruby (Corundum)

      • Sapphire (Corundum)


Mineral resources2

Mineral Resources

  • Semiprecious gems – only have one or two of the qualities of precious gems.

    • EXAMPLES: Amethyst , Topaz, Garnet, Zircon

  • Non-mineral gems – stones that have value, but are not minerals.

    • EXAMPLES: Coral, Amber, Pearl

  • Precious Metals – metallic minerals that have high value.

    • EXAMPLES: Gold, Silver, Platinum


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