Introduction to engineering design
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Introduction to Engineering Design . William Oakes, P.E. Learning Objectives. At the end of this session, you will be able to: Describe design List at least three steps in the EPICS design process Identify resources to help with design Describe how users are important to the design process.

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Introduction to engineering design

Introduction to Engineering Design

William Oakes, P.E.


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • At the end of this session, you will be able to:

    • Describe design

    • List at least three steps in the EPICS design process

    • Identify resources to help with design

    • Describe how users are important to the design process


Design is

Design is…

One of the activities of engineering.

  • Design

  • Development

  • Research

  • Test

  • Analysis

  • Production

  • Sales

  • Technical Support

  • Other

    Source: Oakes, Leone, and Gunn (2004). Engineering Your Future. Okemos, MI: Great Lakes Press.


Many definitions of design

Many definitions of design…

  • Design is art

  • Design as problem solving

  • Design activity as applying scientific knowledge

  • Design is a social process in which individual object worlds interact, and design parameters are negotiated.

    Source: Dr. Robin Adams ENE 696G course notes


Introduction to engineering design

Crismond (2007) draws from many sources in his definition of design as “’goal-directedproblem-solving activity’ (Archer, 1965) that initiates change in human-made things(Jones, 1992), and involves optimizing parameters(Matchett, 1968) and the balancing of trade-offs(AAAS, 2001)to meet targeted users needs(Gregory, 1966).”

Source: Crismond, D. (2007). Contrasting strategies of beginning and informed designers: One representation of learning progressions in engineering design.


The design process

Few Specifications

Many Specifications

Design Process

Infinite Variety of Designs

Most -----Least InfluentialChoices

One Design

The Design Process

=====>

Design is done by many disciplines


The design process1

The Design Process

  • Many formal models for the design process

  • ME uses Ullman’s Model for Design

    • The Mechanical Design Process, McGraw Hill, 1997, 2003

    • 6 steps

  • Engineering Your Future

    • 10 steps

  • Different Companies use different models

    • They use a process

  • EPICS teaches a model that fits our community-based design


Multiple valid solutions

Multiple Valid Solutions

  • Examples:

  • Cars

  • Cell phones

  • Computers


Good bad design activity

Good/Bad Design - Activity

  • Think of 1 thing you think was well-designed. Think of 1 thing you think was poorly designed.

  • For each item:

    • Item

    • Why you think it was well/poorly designed

    • What did the designer understand/not understand in the design that made it good/bad.


Good bad design activity cont

Good/Bad Design Activity, cont

  • Get in groups of 3 or 4

  • Talk about your answers

  • Pick one or two things from the group to present:

    • Item

    • Why you think it was well/poorly designed

    • What did the designer understand/not understand in the design that made it good/bad.


Epics balance

EPICS Balance

  • Service-learning is a balance of the learning of design and the service we contribute the communities through completed designs and support

  • Service

  • To our partners, meeting needs in the community

  • Learning

  • Becoming good designers, professionals & active citizens

Complimentary goals that enhance each other


Introduction to engineering design

From IDEO HCD Toolkit

What do people desire?

What is technically and organizationally feasible?

What can be financially viable?


Epics design process

EPICS Design Process

Six Phases

  • Problem Identification

  • Specification Development

  • Conceptual Design

  • Detailed Design

  • Production

  • Service/Maintenance

  • Redesign or retirement


The epics design cycle

Problem Identification

Specification

Development

Redesign

Retirement

Conceptual

Design

Detailed Design

Service

Maintenance

Production

The EPICS Design Cycle

Disposal


Human centered design basic principles

Human-centered Design: Basic Principles

Early focus on users

Designing for and with users

Empirical measurement and evaluation

Iteration


Human centered design

Human Centered Design

  • Formal/Informal Interviews

    • Focus groups– interviews with multiple people

  • Persona

    • Prototypical user, described in detail

  • Scenarios

    • “before and after” stories of your persona using your product

      • Focus on the user’s need and how their life might be improved

  • Role-playing: put yourself in the user’s shoes, chair, and/or space

    • Empathic modeling: Simulating the sensory/motor/cognitive constraints


Human centered design1

Human-Centered Design

  • Interactions with Stakeholders

  • Prototypes/communications at all stages


Epics design process1

EPICS Design Process

Six Phases

  • Problem Identification

  • Specification Development

  • Conceptual Design

  • Detailed Design

  • Production

  • Service/Maintenance

  • Redesign or retirement


Example project identification phase

Example….Project Identification Phase

  • One of the deliverables is the Project Charter

    • Description – Describe and summarize what you or your team will be doing.

      • E.g., What is the problem that you will be solving and for whom?

    • Objectives- List the project objectives.

      • E.g., Why are you doing the project (i.e., what is the motivation or desired need for the project?)


Project charter continued

Project Charter, continued

  • Outcomes or deliverables

    • E.g., What are going to be the project results?

  • Duration

    • E.g., When will the project be started, and when will it meet the objectives and deliver the outcomes?

  • Community Partners

    • E.g., With whom are you serving on this project?

  • Stakeholders

    • E.g., Who will be affected by your project other than your customer?


Specification phase

Specification Phase

  • Tasks:

  • Basic functional decomposition

  • User interaction – crude prototypes as communication devices

  • Benchmark research

  • Customer specifications development

  • Develop Design Specifications - MEASURABLE


Specification development

Specification Development

  • Deliverables-

    • Project Specification Document

      • Measureable specifications

    • Mock-ups or rough prototypes to help narrow the specifications

  • Interacting with the community partner

    • User-centered, human-centered


Introduction to engineering design

  • Take functional decomposition and brainstorm on each of the functions

    • How can we ______ ?

    • Capture the best of each idea

    • Rebuild the system as combinations


Conceptual design

Conceptual Design

  • Deliverables-

    • Project Conceptual Design Report

    • Systems level design

      • Details need to be designed

    • Sketch/mock-up/prototype demonstrates concept


Detailed design

Detailed Design

  • Deliverables

    • Project Detailed Design Report

      • Full details of all parts

      • Dimensions, sizes, all details

      • Documentation of all parts

    • Full prototype version of project


Introduction to engineering design

Fielded projects are evaluated with partners for repair, retirement or redesign


The epics design cycle1

Problem Identification

Specification

Development

Redesign

Retirement

Conceptual

Design

Detailed Design

Service

Maintenance

Production

The EPICS Design Cycle

Disposal


Iterations in the design process

Problem Identification

Specification

Development

Redesign

Retirement

Conceptual

Design

Detailed Design

Service

Maintenance

Production

Iterations in the Design Process

Disposal


Iteration and test

Test

Test (Users)

Generate

Ideas

Generate

Ideas

Implement

Implement

Define Measurable Specifications

Define Measurable Specifications

Iteration and Test

Back to previous phase

Go to next phase


Iteration and testing

Iteration and testing

Prob ID

Spec Dev

Con Des

Det Des

Prod

Main and serv.

  • Document

    • Why advanced

    • Why interated


Human centered design2

Human-Centered Design

  • Tests are often done with stakeholders during the design process


Curriculum diagram

Curriculum Diagram

Exit 2: Specification Development Ave Road

Exit 4: Detailed Design St.

Exit 1: Problem Identification Rd.

Exit 7: Retirement Rd.

Figure 1 (DRAFT skeleton): EPICS Design Model


Seeking and selecting

Seeking and Selecting

Diverge

Seek Possibilities

Problem

Identification

Converge

Narrow Choices

Diverge

Seek Possibilities

Specification

Development

Converge

Narrow Choices

Diverge

Seek Possibilities

Conceptual Design

Converge

Narrow Choices

Each phase of the design process requires creative solutions and has a divergent component where ideas are sought and a convergent component where options are selected


Why is design difficult

Why is design difficult?

  • Engages different types of thinking

  • Requires designers to manage so many ideas and aspects

  • Addresses different types of problems


Good design

Good design…

  • Good designs involve diverse perspectives and expertise

  • IDEO – industry leader in design and innovation

    • Design thinking is a crucial business asset—one that can, indeed, move a company forward and improve the bottom line. To optimize this impact, (we) advise thoughtfully structuring the innovation process. They stress working on projects that improve people’s lives..

      - Ryan Jacoby and Diego Rodriguez, Innovation, Growth, and Getting to Where You Want to Go, Design Management Review Vol. 18 No. 1


Human centered design3

Human Centered Design

  • Formal/Informal Interviews

    • Focus groups– interviews with multiple people

  • Persona

    • Prototypical user, described in detail

  • Scenarios

    • “before and after” stories of your persona using your product

      • Focus on the user’s need and how their life might be improved

  • Role-playing: put yourself in the user’s shoes, chair, and/or space

    • Empathic modeling: Simulating the sensory/motor/cognitive constraints


Caution

Caution!

  • These tools should not replace getting feedback and information from the users and stakeholders themselves!

  • Just because you have “pretended” to have a disability or in a certain situation, doesn’t mean you understand what it really like for those users and stakeholders.


Prototypes

Prototypes

  • Prototyping….rough, quick, very iterative

    • IDEO working with Gyrus ACMI to design new apparatus for operatingon delicate nasal tissues

    • Prototype: whiteboard marker, 35 mm film canister and clothespin

    • Mouse for Apple

    • Prototype: roller ball from tube of Ban Roll-on deodorant to the base of plastic butter dish


Personas

Personas

  • Fictional character with all the characteristics of the user

  • Created after the field research (observations, interviews)

  • Members of the primary stakeholders (users)

  • Depicts the "typical" or "average" individual in the primary stakeholder group

  • Include a name and picture, demographics, roles and responsibilities, goals and tasks, motivations and needs, environment and context, and a quote that can represent the character's personality.


Personas1

Personas

  • May be several personas for the same group to reflect diversity of that group

  • Secondary personas, their needs should be met and problems solved if possible.

  • Create a common shared understanding of the user group

  • Prioritize the design considerations by providing a context of the user needs

  • Provide a human face and existence to a diverse user group


Your design projects

Your Design Projects

  • Problem Identification

    • Using personas and role playing

  • Specification Development

    • List of specifications, early prototypes

  • Conceptual Design

    • Early prototype and proof of concept

  • Detailed Design

  • Production

  • Service/Maintenance

  • Redesign or retirement


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