Energy saving opportunities in pumping systems
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Energy-saving opportunities in Pumping Systems:. Where they are and how to recognize them. MAM-001aR1. Big Picture Perspectives: Industrial Motor Systems. Industrial motor systems: -are the single largest electrical end use category in the American economy

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Energy saving opportunities in pumping systems

Energy-saving opportunities inPumping Systems:

Where they are and how to recognize them

MAM-001aR1


Big picture perspectives industrial motor systems

Big Picture Perspectives: Industrial Motor Systems

Industrial motor systems:

-are the single largest electrical end use category in the American economy

-account for 25% of U.S. electrical sales


Motor loads dominate industrial electrical energy consumption

Motor loads dominate industrial electrical energy consumption

Lighting

& Other

Process

Heating

Electrolytics

Motor-Driven

Equipment


Over 60 of industrial motor system energy consumption involves fluid handling

Over 60% of industrial motor-system energy consumption involves fluid handling

Just over 1/3 of the

motor population

accounts for almost

2/3 of the energy

Other

4.3%

Pumps

24.8%

Material processing

22.5%

Material handling

12.2%

Fans

13.7%

Refrigeration

6.7%

Compressed Air

15.8%

A large portion are

centrifugal devices


A small fraction of the motor population is responsible for most of the energy consumption

A small fraction of the motor population is responsible for most of the energy consumption

Energy

100

90

80

70

60

10% population

uses 80% energy

50

Percent of energy/population

40

30

Population

20

10

0

> 5

> 1

> 50

> 20

> 500

> 200

> 100

> 1000

Cumulative motor horsepower range

Note the descending order (left to right)


Comparing life cycle costs automobile and pump motor combination

Comparing life cycle costs: automobile and pump/motor combination

Common assumptions

Discount rate = 8%

Non-energy inflation rate = 4%

Lifetime = 10 years

ItemAutomobilePump & motor

Initial energy cost rate $1.50/gal 5 cents/kWhr

Energy inflation rate 10%/yr 5%/yr

Operating extent12,500 miles/yr7000 hr/yr (80%)


Life cycle cost example automobile full size vehicle 28 000 price tag 24 mpg

Life cycle cost - example automobileFull size vehicle, $28,000 price tag, 24 mpg

Miscellaneous

2%

Energy

16%

Purchase:

51%

Maintenance,

Insurance

31%


Life cycle cost 250 hp pump and motor 28 000 initial cost 95 motor efficiency

Life cycle cost - 250-hp pump and motor$28,000 initial cost, 95% motor efficiency

Miscellaneous

Purchase

operations

3%

2%

Maintenance,

downtime

21%

First year energy cost = $69,000

First year energy cost = $69,000

First year energy cost = $69,000

Energy

74%


Higher first cost pump and motor 56k low service time 2 000 hrs year

Higher first cost pump and motor ($56K),low service time (2,000 hrs/year)

Miscellaneous

operations

6%

Purchase

20%

Maintenance

15%

Energy

First year energy cost = $19,600

First year energy cost = $19,600

First year energy cost = $19,600

59%


Pump and motor component efficiencies seventy years of progress

Pump and motor component efficiencies:Seventy+ years of progress

PumpMotor

Yearefficiency (%)efficiency(%)

19288087.5

19558590.5

20028895.4

Achievable efficiency estimates for commercially available 75-hp pump and motor


What can you deduce about the surroundings from this picture

What can you deduce about thesurroundings from this picture?


Are you in a lush forest

Are you in a lush forest?


Or the badlands

Or the Badlands?


With pumping systems motor and pump performance is just part of the bigger picture

With pumpingsystems, motor and pump performance is just part of the bigger picture


The pareto principle or the vital few and trivial many

The Pareto Principle or "the vital few and trivial many"

J. M. Juran, who first used the term "Pareto Principle" also coined a more descriptive phrase:

"The VITAL FEW and the trivial many"

(Relatively few are responsible for relatively much)

Input

Output

80%

20%

80%

20%


Prescreening to narrow the field of focus i e to select the vital few for further review

Prescreening to narrow the field of focus - i.e., to select the VITAL FEW for further review

Big loads

that run a lot

Big centrifugal

loads that run a lot

Filter 1

Filter 2

Symptom or

experienced-based

segregation

Seldom used,

small loads

Large non-

centrifugal loads

*

*

Moderate

priority

Highest

Priority

* Productivity/reliability-critical systems sent to higher priority levels

All plant

motor systems

Policies and

practices bin


Example symptoms in pumping systems that indicate potential opportunity

Example symptoms in pumping systems that indicate potential opportunity

  • Look for:

    • Throttle valve-controlled systems

    • Bypass (recirculation) line normally open

    • Multiple parallel pump system with same number of pumps always operating

    • Constant pump operation in a batch environment or frequent cycle batch operation in a continuous process

    • Cavitation noise (at pump or elsewhere in the system)

    • High system maintenance

    • Systems that have undergone change in function


Many life cycle elements influence reliability cost and productivity of motor driven systems

Many life cycle elements influence reliability, cost, and productivity of motor-driven systems

  • Design

  • Procurement

  • Construction/Installation

  • Testing/Troubleshooting

  • Operation

  • Maintenance

  • Insurance

  • Regulations

  • Decommissioning

  • Down time

  • etc….

.


Most of these elements are interdependent

Most of these elements are interdependent

Design

Procurement

Construction/Installation

Testing/Troubleshooting

Operation

Maintenance

Insurance

Regulations

Decommissioning

Down time

Example: other factors do or may affect maintenance

Affect

Maintenance


Just like any stable control system optimal asset management requires feedback

Just like any stable control system, optimal asset management requires feedback

Design

Procurement

Construction/Installation

Testing/Troubleshooting

Operation

Maintenance

Insurance

Regulations

Decommissioning

Maintenance

does, should

or may affect

Down time

Unfortunately, feedback is often weak or non-existent


Life cycle elements are an integrated system much like the physical systems themselves

Life cycle elements are an integrated system, much like the physical systems themselves

  • The elements can be treated as components

    • For example, procurement can be on lowest first cost basis, without regard to the effect on maintenance or operations

  • The elements can be treated as a system

    • For example, procurement considers all the elements of cost and is based on lowest total life cycle cost


Ideally all the life cycle elements could be analyzed with a single common denominator

Ideally, all the life cycle elements could be analyzed with a single common denominator

  • Design

  • Procurement

  • Construction/Installation

  • Testing/Troubleshooting

  • Operation

  • Maintenance

  • Insurance

  • Regulations

  • Decommissioning

  • Down time

  • etc….

Cost


When considering options some elements can often be disregarded even at the system level

When considering options, some elements can often be disregarded - even at the system level

  • Insurance

  • Regulations

  • Decommissioning


Alternatives supplements to life cycle cost analysis

Alternatives & supplements to life cycle cost analysis

  • Probabilistic analysis of reliability & risk (commercial software is available)

  • Engineering judgment

  • Weighted/graded evaluation

  • Sole-source contracting (initial selection would involve overall cost/reliability considerations)

  • Outsourcing - shed some of the decision-making responsibility


Contingency planning making the change when a failure occurs

Contingency planning - making the change when a failure occurs

  • The alternatives evaluation picture changes dramatically when failures occur

  • Changes that couldn't be justified when the system was functional may very well be after failure

  • The alternative may actually be less costly than simple repair/replace of the existing component


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