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Energy-saving opportunities in Pumping Systems:. Where they are and how to recognize them. MAM-001aR1. Big Picture Perspectives: Industrial Motor Systems. Industrial motor systems: - are the single largest electrical end use category in the American economy

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energy saving opportunities in pumping systems

Energy-saving opportunities inPumping Systems:

Where they are and how to recognize them

MAM-001aR1

big picture perspectives industrial motor systems
Big Picture Perspectives: Industrial Motor Systems

Industrial motor systems:

- are the single largest electrical end use category in the American economy

- account for 25% of U.S. electrical sales

motor loads dominate industrial electrical energy consumption
Motor loads dominate industrial electrical energy consumption

Lighting

& Other

Process

Heating

Electrolytics

Motor-Driven

Equipment

over 60 of industrial motor system energy consumption involves fluid handling
Over 60% of industrial motor-system energy consumption involves fluid handling

Just over 1/3 of the

motor population

accounts for almost

2/3 of the energy

Other

4.3%

Pumps

24.8%

Material processing

22.5%

Material handling

12.2%

Fans

13.7%

Refrigeration

6.7%

Compressed Air

15.8%

A large portion are

centrifugal devices

a small fraction of the motor population is responsible for most of the energy consumption
A small fraction of the motor population is responsible for most of the energy consumption

Energy

100

90

80

70

60

10% population

uses 80% energy

50

Percent of energy/population

40

30

Population

20

10

0

> 5

> 1

> 50

> 20

> 500

> 200

> 100

> 1000

Cumulative motor horsepower range

Note the descending order (left to right)

comparing life cycle costs automobile and pump motor combination
Comparing life cycle costs: automobile and pump/motor combination

Common assumptions

Discount rate = 8%

Non-energy inflation rate = 4%

Lifetime = 10 years

Item Automobile Pump & motor

Initial energy cost rate $1.50/gal 5 cents/kWhr

Energy inflation rate 10%/yr 5%/yr

Operating extent 12,500 miles/yr 7000 hr/yr (80%)

life cycle cost example automobile full size vehicle 28 000 price tag 24 mpg
Life cycle cost - example automobileFull size vehicle, $28,000 price tag, 24 mpg

Miscellaneous

2%

Energy

16%

Purchase:

51%

Maintenance,

Insurance

31%

life cycle cost 250 hp pump and motor 28 000 initial cost 95 motor efficiency
Life cycle cost - 250-hp pump and motor$28,000 initial cost, 95% motor efficiency

Miscellaneous

Purchase

operations

3%

2%

Maintenance,

downtime

21%

First year energy cost = $69,000

First year energy cost = $69,000

First year energy cost = $69,000

Energy

74%

higher first cost pump and motor 56k low service time 2 000 hrs year
Higher first cost pump and motor ($56K),low service time (2,000 hrs/year)

Miscellaneous

operations

6%

Purchase

20%

Maintenance

15%

Energy

First year energy cost = $19,600

First year energy cost = $19,600

First year energy cost = $19,600

59%

pump and motor component efficiencies seventy years of progress
Pump and motor component efficiencies:Seventy+ years of progress

Pump Motor

Year efficiency (%) efficiency(%)

1928 80 87.5

1955 85 90.5

2002 88 95.4

Achievable efficiency estimates for commercially available 75-hp pump and motor

the pareto principle or the vital few and trivial many
The Pareto Principle or "the vital few and trivial many"

J. M. Juran, who first used the term "Pareto Principle" also coined a more descriptive phrase:

"The VITAL FEW and the trivial many"

(Relatively few are responsible for relatively much)

Input

Output

80%

20%

80%

20%

prescreening to narrow the field of focus i e to select the vital few for further review
Prescreening to narrow the field of focus - i.e., to select the VITAL FEW for further review

Big loads

that run a lot

Big centrifugal

loads that run a lot

Filter 1

Filter 2

Symptom or

experienced-based

segregation

Seldom used,

small loads

Large non-

centrifugal loads

*

*

Moderate

priority

Highest

Priority

* Productivity/reliability-critical systems sent to higher priority levels

All plant

motor systems

Policies and

practices bin

example symptoms in pumping systems that indicate potential opportunity
Example symptoms in pumping systems that indicate potential opportunity
  • Look for:
    • Throttle valve-controlled systems
    • Bypass (recirculation) line normally open
    • Multiple parallel pump system with same number of pumps always operating
    • Constant pump operation in a batch environment or frequent cycle batch operation in a continuous process
    • Cavitation noise (at pump or elsewhere in the system)
    • High system maintenance
    • Systems that have undergone change in function
many life cycle elements influence reliability cost and productivity of motor driven systems
Many life cycle elements influence reliability, cost, and productivity of motor-driven systems
  • Design
  • Procurement
  • Construction/Installation
  • Testing/Troubleshooting
  • Operation
  • Maintenance
  • Insurance
  • Regulations
  • Decommissioning
  • Down time
  • etc….

.

most of these elements are interdependent
Most of these elements are interdependent

Design

Procurement

Construction/Installation

Testing/Troubleshooting

Operation

Maintenance

Insurance

Regulations

Decommissioning

Down time

Example: other factors do or may affect maintenance

Affect

Maintenance

just like any stable control system optimal asset management requires feedback
Just like any stable control system, optimal asset management requires feedback

Design

Procurement

Construction/Installation

Testing/Troubleshooting

Operation

Maintenance

Insurance

Regulations

Decommissioning

Maintenance

does, should

or may affect

Down time

Unfortunately, feedback is often weak or non-existent

life cycle elements are an integrated system much like the physical systems themselves
Life cycle elements are an integrated system, much like the physical systems themselves
  • The elements can be treated as components
    • For example, procurement can be on lowest first cost basis, without regard to the effect on maintenance or operations
  • The elements can be treated as a system
    • For example, procurement considers all the elements of cost and is based on lowest total life cycle cost
ideally all the life cycle elements could be analyzed with a single common denominator
Ideally, all the life cycle elements could be analyzed with a single common denominator
  • Design
  • Procurement
  • Construction/Installation
  • Testing/Troubleshooting
  • Operation
  • Maintenance
  • Insurance
  • Regulations
  • Decommissioning
  • Down time
  • etc….

Cost

when considering options some elements can often be disregarded even at the system level
When considering options, some elements can often be disregarded - even at the system level
  • Insurance
  • Regulations
  • Decommissioning
alternatives supplements to life cycle cost analysis
Alternatives & supplements to life cycle cost analysis
  • Probabilistic analysis of reliability & risk (commercial software is available)
  • Engineering judgment
  • Weighted/graded evaluation
  • Sole-source contracting (initial selection would involve overall cost/reliability considerations)
  • Outsourcing - shed some of the decision-making responsibility
contingency planning making the change when a failure occurs
Contingency planning - making the change when a failure occurs
  • The alternatives evaluation picture changes dramatically when failures occur
  • Changes that couldn\'t be justified when the system was functional may very well be after failure
  • The alternative may actually be less costly than simple repair/replace of the existing component
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