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INDUSTRIAL BOILER MACT RULE (Title 40 CFR 63 Subpart DDDDD). Annual DoD Conference Environmental Air Quality Workshop June 29, 2005. IMPORTANT DATES. Proposal Date – January 13, 2003 Promulgation Date – September 13, 2004 Effective Date – November 12, 2004 Additional Comment

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industrial boiler mact rule title 40 cfr 63 subpart ddddd

INDUSTRIAL BOILER MACT RULE(Title 40 CFR 63 Subpart DDDDD)

Annual DoD Conference

Environmental Air Quality Workshop

June 29, 2005

important dates
IMPORTANT DATES
  • Proposal Date – January 13, 2003
  • Promulgation Date – September 13, 2004
  • Effective Date – November 12, 2004
  • Additional Comment

Period Notice - June 27, 2004- August 11, 2005

  • Initial Notification Dates
    • March 12, 2005– Existing units
    • 15 days after startup – New units
  • Compliance Date
    • Existing units - September 13, 2007
    • New units – Startup
industrial boiler mact
INDUSTRIAL BOILER MACT
  • Source categories covered:
    • Industrial Boilers
    • Institutional/Commercial Boilers
    • Process Heaters
      • Indirect-fired – combustion gases do not come in contact with process materials.
  • Major source MACT only
subcategories
SUBCATEGORIES
  • Three main subcategories:
    • Solid fuel units
    • Liquid fuel units
    • Gaseous fuel units
  • Further subcategorized on size and use
    • Large (> 10 MM Btu/hr heat input)
    • Small (all firetubes and others < 10 MM Btu/hr)
    • Limited-use (< 10% capacity factor)
  • Total of 9 subcategories
what units are not covered
WHAT UNITS ARE NOT COVERED?
  • Any boiler and process heater listed as an affected source under another MACT
    • For example,
      • Fossil fuel-fired electric utility boilers
      • Boilers burning municipal waste
      • Boilers burning hazardous waste
      • Boilers burning medical waste
      • Black liquor recovery boilers
      • Temporary/rental gas or liquid fuel boilers (<180 days)
      • Hot water heaters
      • Waste heat boilers
  • Synthetic minors –becomes an area source
emissions limits existing units
EMISSIONS LIMITSExisting Units
  • Existing large solid fuel units

PM -- 0.07 lb/million Btu, OR TSM – 0.001 lb/million Btu

HCl -- 0.09 lb/million Btu (~ 90 ppm)

Hg – 9 lb/trillion Btu

  • Existing limited use solid fuel units

PM -- 0.21 lb/million Btu, OR TSM – 0.004 lb/million Btu

  • No emissions standards for:
    • existing small solid fuel units
    • existing liquid fuel units
    • existing gaseous fuel units
emission limits and work practice standards new units
EMISSION LIMITSand WORK PRACTICE STANDARDSNew Units
  • New solid fuel units

PM -- 0.025 lb/million Btu, OR TSM 0.0003 lb/million Btu

HCl -- 0.02 lb/million Btu (20 ppm)

Hg -- 3 lb/trillion Btu

CO -- 400 ppm @ 7% oxygen (NOT FOR SMALL UNITS)

  • New liquid fuel units

PM -- 0.03 lb/million Btu

HCl -- 0.0005 lb/million Btu (large units)

0.0009 lb/million Btu (small and limited use units)

CO – 400 ppm @ 3% oxygen (NOT FOR SMALL UNITS)

  • New gaseous fuel-fired units

CO – 400 ppm @ 3% oxygen (NOT FOR SMALL UNITS)

control technology basis
CONTROL TECHNOLOGY BASIS
  • Existing Solid Fuel Boilers
    • Large Units - Baghouse (PM/metals/Hg)/ Scrubber (HCl)
    • Limited-Use Units – ESP (PM/metals)
  • New Units
    • Based on NSPS and State Regulations
    • Baghouse/ Scrubber / CO Limit
compliance options
COMPLIANCE OPTIONS
  • Conduct stack emission tests
  • Conduct fuel analysis
  • Emissions averaging
    • (large solid fuel units only)
  • Health-based compliance alternatives for HCl and TSM
compliance testing
COMPLIANCE TESTING
  • Performance tests (stacks tests)
    • Annual performance tests
    • Based on average of 3 test runs

OR

  • Fuel analyses
    • Initial and every 5 years
    • Each new fuel type
    • Based 90% confidence level of minimum 3 fuel samples
compliance monitoring
COMPLIANCE MONITORING
  • Continuous compliance based on monitoring and maintaining operating limits
  • Operating limits
    • For PM, TSM and mercury limits
      • Opacity (for dry systems)
        • Existing units – 20% opacity (6 minute average)
        • New units – 10% opacity (1 hour block average)
      • Control device parameters (for wet systems)
        • Established during initial compliance test
      • Fuel (type or mixture)
        • When compliance based on fuel analysis
    • For HCl
      • Scrubber parameters (pH, pressure drop, liquid flow, sorbent injection rate)
        • Established during initial compliance test
      • Fuel (type or mixture)
        • When compliance based on fuel analysis
compliance monitoring cont
COMPLIANCE MONITORING (cont.)
  • Monitoring
    • Opacity (by COM) – dry control systems
    • Fuel (monthly records)
    • Scrubber parameters
    • CO (new units only)
      • CEM for large units > 100 million Btu/hr
      • Annual CO tests for other new units
      • Exempt data from <50% load and based on 30-day average.
what subcategories have limited requirements
What Subcategories Have Limited Requirements?
  • Subject to ONLY Initial Notification
    • Existing large and limited use gaseous fuel units
    • Existing large and limited use liquid fuel units
    • New small liquid fuel units that do not burn residual oil
  • NOT subject to Initial Notification or any other requirements in General Provisions
    • Existing small solid fuel units
    • Existing small liquid fuel units
    • Existing small gaseous fuel units
    • New small gaseous fuel units
additional compliance provisions
Additional Compliance Provisions
  • Emission Averaging
    • Only existing large solid fuel units
    • Initial compliance based on maximum capacity
    • Continuous compliance on a 12-month rolling average basis
      • Each monthly calculation based on monthly fuel use and previous compliance test results for each boiler
    • Must submit emission averaging plan
    • Must maintain, at a minimum, the emission controls employed on the effective date
additional compliance provisions15
Additional Compliance Provisions
  • Health-based HCl compliance alternative
    • Alternative to complying with HCl MACT limit
      • Must include appropriate units covered by subpart DDDDD
        • Those that emit HCl and/or Cl2
      • Must conduct HCl and chlorine emission tests or fuel analyses
        • When conducting fuel analysis must assume any chlorine is emitted as CL2
      • Must calculate total maximum hourly mass HCl-equivalent emission rate
    • Compliance determine by using:
      • Lookup table
        • Average stack height of appropriate subpart DDDDD units
        • Minimum distance of any appropriate subpart DDDDD unit to property boundary
      • Site-specific compliance demonstration
        • Hazard Index (HI) can not exceed 1.0
additional compliance provisions16
Additional Compliance Provisions
  • Health-based TSM compliance alternative
    • As alternative to complying with TSM limit based on 8 metals, may demonstrate compliance with TSM limit based on 7 metals by excluding manganese
      • Must include appropriate units covered by subpart DDDDD
      • Must conduct manganese emission tests or fuel analyses
      • Must calculate the total maximum hourly mass manganese emission rate
    • Eligible for demonstrating compliance based on 7 metals excluding manganese by using:
      • Lookup table
        • Average stack height of appropriate subpart DDDDD units
        • Minimum distance to property boundary
      • Site-specific compliance demonstration
        • Hazard Quotient (HQ) can not exceed 1.0
additional details of health based compliance alternatives
Additional Details of Health-Based Compliance Alternatives
  • Demonstrations filed with permitting authority and EPA along with certification of authenticity and accuracy
    • No review or approval required; EPA, permitting authority may audit a percentage
  • Facility must apply for Title V permit modification to include parameters that defined the source (fuel type, control devices, stack parameters)
  • Facilities must submit demos within 2 years, one year prior to compliance date
petitions for reconsideration
Petitions For Reconsideration
  • Three petitions for reconsideration were received
    • General Electric Company
    • Joint petition
      • NRDC
      • EIP (Environmental Integrity Project)
    • EIP
  • Two petitions for judicial review
    • Jointly filed by NRDC, Sierra Club, and EIP
      • Issues same as in reconsideration petition
    • American Public Power-Ohio (and 6 municipalities)
      • EPA exceeded its authority in imposing standards on small municipal utility boilers
ge petition
GE Petition
  • Issue
    • Requests clarification that the rule allows for testing at the common stack rather than each duct to the stack
    • No opportunity to provide comments since the proposed rule did not contain regulatory text for the emissions averaging provision
    • Common stack testing is handled on a case-by-case basis by OECA/Regions
      • OECA’s general policy is that each duct to a common stack must be tested
nrdc eip petition
NRDC – EIP Petition
  • Seeking reconsideration on:
    • Lack of standards for all HAP emitted on all subcategories
    • Health-based compliance alternatives
      • CAA does not authorize plant-by-plant risk-based exemptions
      • Basis for development of health-based compliance alternatives
      • Procedures for demonstrating compliance (Appendix A)
recent federal register notice
Recent Federal Register Notice
  • FR June 27, 2005, Vol. 70, Num. 122, pg 36907-36915
  • Request for comments on:
    • Tiered Risk assessment Methodology (appendix A)
      • Look-up tables and Methodology (HCL, Mn, appendix A)
      • Site Specific Risk Assessment Process (section 7, appendix A)
      • HI or HQ of 1.0 for HCL, Cl, Mn (applicability cut off for RA’s)
    • Background concentrations (were not considered)
    • Overall Adoption of Health based compliance alternative for Mn
    • Exclusion of Mn from the TSM limit in table 1
  • Correction
    • Health based compliance alternatives for HCL & TSM are applicable to any affected source (not only large solid fuel subcategory)
questions received
Questions Received
  • What does “Equivalent” mean in Table 6 ? (Fuel Analysis Requirements)
  • Are “hybrid boilers” considered firetube or watertube boilers?
  • Can a common stack be tested instead of the individual ducts?
  • Are auxiliary boilers at power plants covered by subpart DDDDD?
information sites
INFORMATION SITES
  • Implementation tools (timelines, initial notification, state/local contacts, Q/A) and information on the MACT rulemaking for DDDDD is available on EPA’s web site at:
    • www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/boiler/boilerpg.html
  • An electronic version of public docket (including public comments) is available at:
    • www.epa.gov/edocket/
    • Search for docket ID No. OAR-2002-0058
contacts

Contacts

Rule DevelopmentCompliance

Jim Eddinger Greg Fried (OECA)

919-541-5426 202-564-7016

[email protected]@epa.gov

Region 4

Leonardo Ceron

404-562-9129

[email protected]

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