Power tools
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POWER TOOLS. Electric drills Common electric drills have the capacity for drilling holes from 1/16” up to 3/4” in diameter The size of an electric drill is usually determined by the capacity of it’s chuck

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Power tools

  • Electric drills

    • Common electric drills have the capacity for drilling holes from 1/16” up to 3/4” in diameter

    • The size of an electric drill is usually determined by the capacity of it’s chuck

    • A 1/2” drill is equipped with a chuck that will take a twist drill 1/2” in diameter and no larger

    • Once the hole has been drilled, pull the drill straight out until the twist drill is completely withdrawn from the hole before shutting off the motor

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  • Drill press

    • Used for large and medium type work

    • The two common types are floor and bench-mounted

    • The size of a drill press is based on the maximum thickness of work it is capable of drilling (i.e. a 10” drill press can drill to the center of a 10” work piece)

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  • The drilling speeds may vary and may be as high as

    5000 rpm

  • Proper drill press operation

    • Ensure the drill speed is correct for the material being drilled; normally, the harder the material, the higher the drill speed

    • Set the drill table at the proper height (about chest high)

    • Select a sharp bit of the correct size and center it in the drill chuck ensuring that no cutting edge of the twist drill is located in the chuck jaws

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  • Lower the drill bit to where the point will just clear the work and set the stop nuts at that position

  • After marking a pilot point with a center punch, attach the drill bit and secure the work

  • Apply power and lower the drill to the work

  • Once the bit begins to enter the material, raise the bit to recheck the alignment and adjust if necessary

  • Continue drilling until the bit is completely through the material, raise the bit, turn off the drill press and remove the work

  • Clean the drill press after use (do not remove shavings with your bare hands)

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  • Twist drills

    • Commonly called “drill bits”

    • Available in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and materials

    • Come in four size categories:

      • Fractional-inch sizes

        • These sizes begin at 1/64” and increase to 4” or more

        • Smaller bits increase in size by 64th’s

        • Mid sized bits increase in size by 32nd’s

        • Larger sized bits increase in size by 16th’S

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  • Wire-gauge numbers

    • These sizes run from No. 80 (smallest) to No. 1 (largest)

    • All sizes are less than 1/4” and correspond to standard wire sizes

    • Used where precise hole dimensions are required (i.e. tapping threads)

  • Decimal-fraction equivalent sizes

    • Begin at 0.2340” (A) and increase to 0.4062” (Z)

    • The largest size is smaller than 7/16”

    • Allow for sizes in between common fractional sizes

    • Used where exact hole dimensions are required

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  • Metric sizes

    • Use metric numbering system rather than decimal system

    • Allows for smaller sizes without complicated numbering or lettering system

    • There are many conversion charts showing how metric numbers compare to decimal

  • Twist drills also come in various lengths

    • Length will depend upon purpose

    • “screw machine” is the most common length and is what you will most likely use

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    • Common twist drill materials include:

      • High speed steel (HSS)

        • Suitable for drilling most materials

        • Excellent for metal cutting because it will stand up to high temperature

      • Carbon steel

        • Specially ground for drilling wood

        • Should not be used for metal because they tend to be more brittle and less flexible

        • May have special coatings to increase hardness or add self-lubricating properties

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    • Bench grinder

      • Used for grinding operations such as sharpening chisels, screwdrivers, drill bits, and punches

      • Usually has both a medium and fine-grain abrasive wheel

      • May also have a wire brushing wheel, buffing wheel or polishing wheel

        • Each wheel has an eye shield over the work area and a work rest in front of the wheels

        • The rest serves to stabilize the work held against it and should be kept about 1/8” from the wheel

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    • Bench grinder precautions

      • Before applying power to the grinder ensure the grinding wheels are securely attached to the shaft

      • Ensure the wheel is free of cracks and breaks

      • Ensure the grinder is mounted securely

      • Adjust the work rest to the proper angle for the work being done making sure the work cannot be placed between the work rest and the grinding wheel

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    • Bench grinder operation

      • Hold the work securely and do not push it against the wheel

      • Be sure the wheels are completely stopped before touching them

      • As often as possible, cool off the edges of the work being ground to prevent drawing of heat

  • Power tool safety precautions

    • Use personal protective equipment (PPE) such as eye and ear protection, gloves, and/or safety shoes

    • Dress properly for the occasion – no loose fitting clothing, long sleeves, ties, jewelry, etc

    • Attach work to a bench or vise if possible

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    • Never handle the cutting edge of any tool

    • Ensure power switches are turned off before plugging in a tool

    • Ensure that a portable tool has stopped running before laying it down

    • Never remove safety shields or disable safety features

    • Always ensure you have adequate room to work

    • Turn power off and unplug a tool to clear jams or clean debris from the work area

    • Ensure the area around the work area is free of oil, grease or other loose material that could cause poor footing