New imperialism vs exploration imperialism 15 th 16 th cent
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New Imperialism vs. Exploration Imperialism 15 th -16 th cent: PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Main Idea: Ignoring claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states Europeans established colonial claims.

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New Imperialism vs. Exploration Imperialism 15 th -16 th cent:

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Main Idea: Ignoring claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states Europeans established colonial claims.

Why: Industrialization fuelled European nations to search for more resources to power their industries. They wanted new goods and looked to Africa and Asia for new raw materials.

Now: African nations continue to feel the effects of colonial rule.

New Imperialism vs. Exploration Imperialism 15th -16th cent:

  • Earlier period:

    • Less penetration of interior in Africa & Asia

    • Less direct influence on people’s lives

  • Conquests inland because – military & medical technology made it possible

  • Imperialism = takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of that nation.

  • Types:

    • Colonial – occupied and ruled by foreign nation. Nation sets up government and controls economy.

    • Political – dominant country uses diplomacy or military force to influence internal affairs of weaker country. Break down governments to establish more “modern governments”

    • Economic – control global trade and commerce. Spheres of influence created – don’t want to entirely control, but influence trade. Ex) China occupation by US

    • Social-cultural – desire to influence a territory to adopt cultural values and customs of imperialist country. Ex) Schools set up and students forced to speak English

Forms of Imperialism

U.S. In Latin Amer.

Gr. Brit. In India



Forms of Imperialism

Dutch in S. Africa

Spheres of Influence

Euro. nations in China

Euro. Nations in Africa

Forms of Imperialism

  • colony – territory that an imperial power ruled directly through colonial officials

  • protectorate – territory with its own government, but its policies were guided by a foreign power

    3.sphere of influence – region of a country where an imperial powerhad exclusive trading rights

African Spheres of Influence

U.S. Protectorates

Pressures to Expand

  • political rivalries markets

    a. rubber, copper and gold from Africa

    b.tin from Southeast Asia

    c. colonies bought products from their “parent companies” opportunities

    a. have lands in other parts of the world for influence

    b. individuals looking to get rich

    4.“civilizing” missions – trying to convert native populations

Colonial Africa

“Scramble for Africa”1875-1900


  • colonized by most major European countries

  • Berlin Conference (1884-85) = instead of fighting between European nations the all met to set down ground rules:

  • a. any European could claim land in Africa if they told the other nations and would show they controlled the area (“scramble for Africa”)

    3.France controlled much of northwest Africa (Algeria)

    a. built the Suez Canal (Egypt), Britain came to control it – provided a more direct route from Europe to Asia; cut out about 4000 miles and two weeks of travel

    b. Muhammad Ali – Ottoman leader of Egypt

    i. one of the first kingdoms to come under European control

  • 4. Britain controlled most of east and south Africa

  • a. gained control of southern African cape colony (Congress of Vienna)

The Afrikan/Boer Wars1880-1900

Paving the way for Apartheid

5. Dutch (Boers = farmers) forced inland by British

a. “Great Trek” = to interior on native land causing clashes with Zulu tribe

b. Enslaved Zulu tribe

c. create Dutch republics known as the Orange Free States

6. Diamonds and gold were discovered in South African states controlled by Dutch

a. Great Britain begins moving inland to mine gold and diamonds

b. Boer War (1899 and 1902) – was a war between the Dutch (Boer’s) and Britain in South Africa

i. Cecil Rhoades – creates company that dominates world diamond market and establishes two new colonies (Britain)

ii. British win Boer Wars, but allows settlers to govern themselves

- Afrikaners = name for settlers who came to dominate government

- Created Union of South Africa in 1910

“Great TRECK”

The Afrikan/Boer Wars1880-1900

Paving the way for Apartheid

6. Mostly Black South Africa was dominated by a few white men

7. Europeans set up schools

a.educated elite of Africa condemned the Europeans and began revolting

8. Near the end of the twentieth century – all of Africa won its independence from Europe

Union of South Africa 1910-1948

  • Exclude blacks from voting

  • Schools, hospitals, neighborhoods, workplaces segregated

  • Mandela and World Opinion abolish system in early 1990s

Apartheid “Apartness” becomes official policy

Historical ParallelSouth African History is similar to American History because they both…

King Leopold and the Belgium Congo

King Leopold and the Belgium Congo

  • Belgium needs to catch up

  • Created a slave based plantation economy

  • Human rights abuses

Imperialism in India


1. East India Trading Company took advantage of Mughal Empire decline and clamed India as a British colony

a. took control with help from..

nawabs = muslim princes who made agreements with British, Dutch and French

2. Europe set up outposts run by “company men”

a. Sepoys – Indian troops hired to protect outposts

3. By 1818 Britain controlled vast areas of subcontinent

a. established British raj (reign) = although allowed Indians in high ranking positions

4. Sepoy Rebellion (1857) – Sepoy (Hindu) joined forces with Mughal (Muslim) soldiers against British rule

a. Britain wins and maintains complete control

  • Sepoy Rebellion (1857) Reading


5. Economic Imperialism transforms India:

a. railroad systems

b. steamboats

c. growth of industrialized cities

d. Exports = cotton, opium, tea, sugar and silk

e. Sati – attempts to ban by British raj

f. disease spread – Cholera outbreak in Europe

g. Western-style schools

6. Indian Nationalism

a. Enlightenment ideas and revolutions inspire Indians to preserve their culture

b. 1885 – Indian National Congress created to pursue more civil service jobs for Indians

The pacific

1. Britain:

a. Australia (1770) – Captain James Cooke

i. New South Wales – convicted criminals

b. Fiji

2. France

a. Tahiti

3. United States

a. Hawaii (1898) – was originally visited by Cooke

Colonial Asia

Map – Imperialism in Africa, 1913

DIRECTIONS: Please put the following places on your map where they belong.

Mediterranean SeaRed Sea



EgyptFrench West Africa

Anglo-Egyptian SudanEthiopia

Gold CoastNigeria

CameroonsBelgian Congo

German East AfricaAngola

Northern RhodesiaSouthern Rhodesia

MozambiqueGerman Southwest Africa

Union of South AfricaMadagascar

Suez Canal

Color in the following


FrenchIndependent States



Map – Imperialism in Asia

DIRECTIONS: Please put the following places on your map where they belong.

Indian OceanPacific Ocean

British IndiaBurma

French IndonesiaDutch East Indies


Color in the following


Great BritainNetherlands

United State

Crash Course Imperialism

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