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Main Idea: Ignoring claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states Europeans established colonial claims.

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Main Idea: Ignoring claims of African ethnic groups, kingdoms, and city-states Europeans established colonial claims.

Why: Industrialization fuelled European nations to search for more resources to power their industries. They wanted new goods and looked to Africa and Asia for new raw materials.

Now: African nations continue to feel the effects of colonial rule.

new imperialism vs exploration imperialism 15 th 16 th cent
New Imperialism vs. Exploration Imperialism 15th -16th cent:
  • Earlier period:
    • Less penetration of interior in Africa & Asia
    • Less direct influence on people’s lives

Imperialism = takeover of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of that nation.

  • Types:
    • Colonial – occupied and ruled by foreign nation. Nation sets up government and controls economy.
    • Political – dominant country uses diplomacy or military force to influence internal affairs of weaker country. Break down governments to establish more “modern governments”
    • Economic – control global trade and commerce. Spheres of influence created – don’t want to entirely control, but influence trade. Ex) China occupation by US
    • Social-cultural – desire to influence a territory to adopt cultural values and customs of imperialist country. Ex) Schools set up and students forced to speak English
forms of imperialism
Forms of Imperialism

U.S. In Latin Amer.

Gr. Brit. In India



Forms of Imperialism

Dutch in S. Africa

Spheres of Influence

Euro. nations in China

Euro. Nations in Africa

forms of imperialism1
Forms of Imperialism
  • colony – territory that an imperial power ruled directly through colonial officials
  • protectorate – territory with its own government, but its policies were guided by a foreign power

3. sphere of influence – region of a country where an imperial powerhad exclusive trading rights

pressures to expand
Pressures to Expand
  • political rivalries

2. new markets

a. rubber, copper and gold from Africa

b. tin from Southeast Asia

c. colonies bought products from their “parent companies”

3. new opportunities

a. have lands in other parts of the world for influence

b. individuals looking to get rich

4. “civilizing” missions – trying to convert native populations

  • colonized by most major European countries
  • Berlin Conference (1884-85) = instead of fighting between European nations the all met to set down ground rules:
  • a. any European could claim land in Africa if they told the other nations and would show they controlled the area (“scramble for Africa”)

3. France controlled much of northwest Africa (Algeria)

a. built the Suez Canal (Egypt), Britain came to control it – provided a more direct route from Europe to Asia; cut out about 4000 miles and two weeks of travel

b. Muhammad Ali – Ottoman leader of Egypt

i. one of the first kingdoms to come under European control

  • 4. Britain controlled most of east and south Africa
  • a. gained control of southern African cape colony (Congress of Vienna)

The Afrikan/Boer Wars1880-1900

Paving the way for Apartheid


5. Dutch (Boers = farmers) forced inland by British

a. “Great Trek” = to interior on native land causing clashes with Zulu tribe

b. Enslaved Zulu tribe

c. create Dutch republics known as the Orange Free States

6. Diamonds and gold were discovered in South African states controlled by Dutch

a. Great Britain begins moving inland to mine gold and diamonds

b. Boer War (1899 and 1902) – was a war between the Dutch (Boer’s) and Britain in South Africa

i. Cecil Rhoades – creates company that dominates world diamond market and establishes two new colonies (Britain)

ii. British win Boer Wars, but allows settlers to govern themselves

- Afrikaners = name for settlers who came to dominate government

- Created Union of South Africa in 1910


The Afrikan/Boer Wars1880-1900

Paving the way for Apartheid


6. Mostly Black South Africa was dominated by a few white men

7. Europeans set up schools

a. educated elite of Africa condemned the Europeans and began revolting

8. Near the end of the twentieth century – all of Africa won its independence from Europe

union of south africa 1910 1948
Union of South Africa 1910-1948
  • Exclude blacks from voting
  • Schools, hospitals, neighborhoods, workplaces segregated
  • Mandela and World Opinion abolish system in early 1990s

Apartheid “Apartness” becomes official policy

historical parallel south african history is similar to american history because they both
Historical ParallelSouth African History is similar to American History because they both…
king leopold and the belgium congo1
King Leopold and the Belgium Congo
  • Belgium needs to catch up
  • Created a slave based plantation economy
  • Human rights abuses

1. East India Trading Company took advantage of Mughal Empire decline and clamed India as a British colony

a. took control with help from..

nawabs = muslim princes who made agreements with British, Dutch and French

2. Europe set up outposts run by “company men”

a. Sepoys – Indian troops hired to protect outposts

3. By 1818 Britain controlled vast areas of subcontinent

a. established British raj (reign) = although allowed Indians in high ranking positions

4. Sepoy Rebellion (1857) – Sepoy (Hindu) joined forces with Mughal (Muslim) soldiers against British rule

a. Britain wins and maintains complete control


5. Economic Imperialism transforms India:

a. railroad systems

b. steamboats

c. growth of industrialized cities

d. Exports = cotton, opium, tea, sugar and silk

e. Sati – attempts to ban by British raj

f. disease spread – Cholera outbreak in Europe

g. Western-style schools

6. Indian Nationalism

a. Enlightenment ideas and revolutions inspire Indians to preserve their culture

b. 1885 – Indian National Congress created to pursue more civil service jobs for Indians

the pacific
The pacific

1. Britain:

a. Australia (1770) – Captain James Cooke

i. New South Wales – convicted criminals

b. Fiji

2. France

a. Tahiti

3. United States

a. Hawaii (1898) – was originally visited by Cooke

map imperialism in africa 1913
Map – Imperialism in Africa, 1913

DIRECTIONS: Please put the following places on your map where they belong.

Mediterranean Sea Red Sea


Algeria Libya

Egypt French West Africa

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Ethiopia

Gold Coast Nigeria

Cameroons Belgian Congo

German East Africa Angola

Northern Rhodesia Southern Rhodesia

Mozambique German Southwest Africa

Union of South Africa Madagascar

Suez Canal

Color in the following

Belgian Portuguese

French Independent States

Britain Spanish

German Italian

map imperialism in asia
Map – Imperialism in Asia

DIRECTIONS: Please put the following places on your map where they belong.

Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean

British India Burma

French Indonesia Dutch East Indies

Japan Korea

Color in the following

France Germany

Great Britain Netherlands

United State