Essentials of fire fighting 5 th edition
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Essentials of Fire Fighting , 5 th Edition. Chapter 17 — Loss Control Firefighter I. Chapter 17 Lesson Goal.

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Essentials of fire fighting 5 th edition

Essentials of Fire Fighting,

5th Edition

Chapter 17 — Loss Control

Firefighter I


Chapter 17 lesson goal

Chapter 17 Lesson Goal

  • After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to perform loss control operations following the policies and procedures set forth by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).

Firefighter I


Specific objectives

Specific Objectives

1.Explain the philosophy of loss control.

2.Discuss planning and procedures for salvage operations.

3.Describe salvage covers, salvage cover maintenance, and equipment used in salvage operations.

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Specific objectives1

Specific Objectives

4.Summarize basic principles of salvage cover deployment.

5. Summarize methods used to catch and route water from fire fighting operations and cover openings using salvage.

6.Discuss overhaul operations.

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Specific objectives2

Specific Objectives

7.Describe tools and equipment used in overhaul.

8.Discuss fire safety during overhaul.

9.Discuss locating hidden fires.

10.Summarize the overhaul process.

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Specific objectives3

Specific Objectives

11.Clean, inspect, and repair a salvage cover. (Skill Sheet 17-I-1)

12.Roll a salvage cover for a one-firefighter spread. (Skill Sheet 17-I-2)

13.Spread a rolled salvage cover – One-firefighter method. (Skill Sheet 17-I-3)

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Specific objectives4

Specific Objectives

14.Fold a salvage cover for a one-firefighter spread. (Skill Sheet 17-I-4)

15.Spread a folded salvage cover – One-firefighter method. (Skill Sheet 17-I-5)

16.Fold a salvage cover for a two-firefighter spread. (Skill Sheet 17-I-6)

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Specific objectives5

Specific Objectives

17.Spread a folded salvage cover – Two-firefighter balloon throw. (Skill Sheet 17-I-7)

18.Construct a water chute without pike poles. (Skill Sheet 17-I-8)

19.Construct a water chute with pike poles. (Skill Sheet 17-I-9)

Firefighter I


Specific objectives6

Specific Objectives

20.Construct a catchall. (Skill Sheet 17-I-10)

21.Locate and extinguish hidden fires. (Skill Sheet 17-I-11)

Firefighter I


Philosophy of loss control

Philosophy of Loss Control

  • Minimize damage and provide customer service through effective mitigation and recovery efforts

  • Builds goodwill

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage and overhaul

Salvage and Overhaul

  • Most effective means of loss control

  • Restoration of the property

Firefighter I


Salvage

Salvage

  • Operations that aid in reducing primary and secondary damage during fire fighting

    • Primary damage is caused by the fire

    • Secondary damage is caused by fire suppression activities

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage1

Salvage

  • Both primary and secondary damage can be minimized through salvage

  • Some damages cannot be avoided

  • Starts as soon as adequate personnel are available

  • May be done simultaneously with fire attack

Firefighter I


Overhaul

Overhaul

  • Consists of operations involved in searching for and extinguishing hidden or remaining fires

  • Protecting the scene and preserving evidence are components of overhaul

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Overhaul1

Overhaul

  • If possible, do not start overhaul operations until

    • Fire is under control

    • Fire cause has been determined

    • Evidence has been identified and protected

Firefighter I


Salvage2

Salvage

  • Methods and operating procedures by which firefighters attempt to save property and reduce further damage

    • Removing property

    • Covering property

    • Other means

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage3

Salvage

  • Proper salvage operations

    • Early planning

    • Knowing the procedures

    • Being familiar with tools and equipment

Firefighter I


Planning for salvage operations

Planning for Salvage Operations

  • Efficient operations require planning and training

  • SOPs should be developed

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Planning for salvage operations1

Planning for Salvage Operations

  • Preincident plans

    • High-value contents

    • Residential occupancies

    • Commercial occupancies

  • Work with loss-control representatives

Firefighter I


Salvage procedures

Salvage Procedures

  • Operations can be started at same time as fire attack

  • Group building contents into compact piles

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage procedures1

Salvage Procedures

  • Group household furnishings in center of the room

  • Raise furniture off wet floors

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage procedures2

Salvage Procedures

  • Commercial occupancies present special challenges

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage procedures3

Salvage Procedures

  • Large quantities of water can be removed by a variety of methods

  • Water may ruin finishes; wipe off surfaces

Firefighter I


Salvage covers

Salvage Covers

  • Made of waterproof canvas materials

  • Manufactured in various sizes

  • Have reinforced corners and edge hems

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage covers1

Salvage Covers

  • Synthetic covers

    • Lightweight

    • Easy to handle

    • Economical

    • Indoor and outdoor use

  • Some covers may be disposable

Firefighter I


Salvage cover maintenance

Salvage Cover Maintenance

  • Proper cleaning, drying, and repairing increases service life

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage cover maintenance1

Salvage Cover Maintenance

  • Canvas salvage covers

    • Wetting or rinsing with hose stream and scrubbing with a broom

    • Detergent solution if needed

    • Don’t let dry when dirty

    • Should be completely dry before being folded and placed in service

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage cover maintenance2

Salvage Cover Maintenance

  • Synthetic salvage covers

    • Do not require as much maintenance as canvas

    • May be folded wet

    • Usually better to let dry first

  • After salvage covers are dry, examine for damage

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage cover maintenance3

Salvage Cover Maintenance

  • Look up at the underside to locate holes

    • Mark holes with chalk or marking pen

    • Repair holes

Firefighter I


Salvage equipment

Salvage Equipment

  • Should be located in a readily accessible area on apparatus

  • SOPs dictate where equipment is carried and who performs operations

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Salvage equipment1

Salvage Equipment

  • Keep smaller tools/equipment in a salvage toolbox

  • Plastic tub may be used for supplies

Firefighter I


Typical salvage equipment

Typical Salvage Equipment

  • Electrician’s pliers

  • Sidecutters

  • Various chisels

  • Tin snips

  • Tin roof cutter

  • Adjustable wrenches

  • Pipe wrenches

  • Hammer(s)

  • Sledgehammer

  • Hacksaw

  • Crosscut handsaw

  • Heavy-duty stapler and staples

  • Linoleum knife

  • Wrecking bar

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Typical salvage equipment1

Typical Salvage Equipment

  • Padlock and hasp

  • Hinges

  • Screwdriver(s)

  • Battery-operated power tools

  • Hydraulic jack

  • Assortment of nails

  • Assortment of screws

  • Plastic sheeting

  • Wooden laths

  • Wooden wedges

  • Soft wood plugs

  • Sawdust

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Typical salvage equipment2

Typical Salvage Equipment

  • Mops

  • Squeegees

  • Scoop shovels

  • Brooms

  • Mop buckets with wringers

  • Automatic sprinkler kit

  • Water vacuum

  • Submersible pump and discharge hose

  • Sponges

  • Chamois

  • Paper towels

  • Assortment of rags

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Typical salvage equipment3

Typical Salvage Equipment

  • 100-foot (30 m) length of electrical cable

  • Pigtail ground adapters

  • Approved ground fault interruption device

  • Salvage covers

  • J-Hooks

  • S-hooks

  • Floor runners

  • Duct tape

  • Plastic bags

  • Cardboard boxes

  • Styrofoam™ blocks

  • Rope

  • Bungee cords

Firefighter I


Equipment descriptions

Equipment Descriptions

  • Automatic sprinkler kit

    • Needed for buildings protected by automatic sprinkler systems

    • Used to stop flow of water from an open sprinkler

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Equipment descriptions1

Equipment Descriptions

  • Carryalls — Used to carry debris, catch falling debris, and provide a water basin for immersing small burning objects

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Equipment descriptions2

Equipment Descriptions

  • Floor runners — Protect floor coverings; lightweight, tough, heat and water resistant, easy to maintain

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Equipment descriptions3

Equipment Descriptions

  • Dewatering devices

    • Used to remove water from basements, elevator shafts, and sumps

    • Should not use fire department pumpers

    • Trash-type pumps are best for salvage

    • Use a jet-siphon device or submersible pump for removal of excess water

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Equipment descriptions4

Equipment Descriptions

  • Water vacuum — Used to dewater floors, carpets, other areas where water is not deep enough to be picked up by submersible pump or siphon ejector

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Equipment descriptions5

Equipment Descriptions

  • J-hooks — Driven into walls or wooden framing to provide a strong point from which to hang things

Firefighter I


Equipment descriptions6

Equipment Descriptions

  • S-hooks — Used for the same purpose as J-hooks but cannot be driven into walls or framing; must have a horizontal ledge

Firefighter I


One firefighter spread with a rolled salvage cover

One-Firefighter Spread with a Rolled Salvage Cover

  • One person can quickly unroll a cover

  • May be carried on the shoulder or under the arm

Firefighter I


One firefighter spread with a folded salvage cover

One-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover

  • Two firefighters are needed to make fold

  • May be carried in any manner

Firefighter I


Two firefighter spread with a folded salvage cover

Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover

  • Large salvage covers cannot be easily handled by a single firefighter

  • Carry this fold on the shoulder with open edges next to neck

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Two firefighter spread with a folded salvage cover1

Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover

  • Position cover so carrier can grab lower pair of corners and second firefighter can grab uppermost pair

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Two firefighter spread with a folded salvage cover2

Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover

  • Balloon throw is most common method for deployment

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Using chutes removing water

Using Chutes: Removing Water

  • Practical way to remove water that comes through the ceiling from upper floor

  • May be constructed on floor below fire fighting operations

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Using chutes removing water1

Using Chutes: Removing Water

  • Prepared chutes are approximately 10 feet (3 m) long

  • Chutes can be constructed from plastic sheeting, a heavy-duty stapler, and duct tape

Firefighter I


Using chutes constructing a catchall

Using Chutes: Constructing a Catchall

  • Constructed from a salvage cover placed on the floor to hold small amounts of water

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Using chutes constructing a catchall1

Using Chutes: Constructing a Catchall

  • Temporarily control large amounts of water

  • Place into position as soon as possible

  • Usually requires two people

Firefighter I


Splicing covers

Splicing Covers

  • Used when:

    • Objects/groupings are large

    • Long chutes or catchalls need to be made

  • Splice covers with watertight joints

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Splicing a chute to a catchall

Splicing a Chute to a Catchall

  • Method of removing accumulated water should be prepared

  • Submersible pumps may be used

  • Water chute spliced to the catchall

Firefighter I


Covering openings

Covering Openings

  • One of final parts of salvage operations

  • Prevents damage by weather

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Covering openings1

Covering Openings

  • Cover doors/windows

  • Cover openings in roofs

Firefighter I


Overhaul2

Overhaul

  • Operations conducted once main body of fire has been extinguished

    • Searching for and extinguishing hidden or remaining fire

    • Placing building and contents in safe condition

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Overhaul3

Overhaul

  • Operations conducted once main body of fire has been extinguished

    • Determining fire cause

    • Recognizing and preserving evidence of arson

Firefighter I


Safety during overhaul

Safety During Overhaul

  • Steps required

    • Inspecting premises

    • Developing operational plan

    • Providing tools and equipment

    • Eliminating or mitigating hazards

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Safety during overhaul1

Safety During Overhaul

  • Toxic gases

    • Common and dangerous threat during overhaul

    • Wear appropriate PPE, including respiratory protection

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Safety during overhaul2

Safety During Overhaul

  • Other hazards are present, such as fire-weakened floors

  • Mark or barricade hazardous areas

  • Use gloves and eye protection

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Safety during overhaul3

Safety During Overhaul

  • Physical conditioning and correct lifting are necessary

  • Fatigue is preventable cause of injury

Firefighter I


Overhaul tools and equipment

Overhaul Tools and Equipment

  • Pike poles and plaster hooks

  • Axes

  • Prying tools

  • Power saws, drills, and screwdrivers

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Overhaul tools and equipment1

Overhaul Tools and Equipment

  • Carryall, buckets, and tubs

  • Shovels, bale hooks, and pitchforks

  • Thermal imaging camera

Firefighter I


Supervision of overhaul

Supervision of Overhaul

  • By a supervisor/officer not directly engaged in overhaul tasks

  • Fire investigator should be involved

Firefighter I


Fire safety during overhaul

Fire Safety During Overhaul

  • Size of charged hoselines in overhaul may not be the same

  • Disconnecting fire apparatus from hydrants

  • Departmental SOPs may dictate one supply line left in place

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Fire safety during overhaul1

Fire Safety During Overhaul

  • Attack lines used for overhaul are typically 1½ inch (38 mm) or 1¾ inch (45 mm)

  • Water fire extinguishers or booster hoses may be used for small fires

  • One attack line should be available

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Fire safety during overhaul2

Fire Safety During Overhaul

  • Place nozzle so it will not cause additional damage

  • Do not allow water damage from leaking hoselines

  • Use a 100-foot (30 m) hoseline as the first section on attack lines

Firefighter I


Overhaul safety considerations

Overhaul Safety Considerations

  • Maintain situational awareness

  • Work in teams of two or more

  • Maintain awareness of exit routes

  • Maintain a RIC

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Overhaul safety considerations1

Overhaul Safety Considerations

  • Monitor personnel for rehab

  • Beware of hidden gas or electrical utilities

  • Continue using accountability system

Firefighter I


Locating hidden fires

Locating Hidden Fires

  • Before starting a search, evaluate the condition of the area

  • Factors that affect condition of the building

    • Intensity of the fire

    • Amount of water used for control

Firefighter I


Indicators of loss of structural integrity

Indicators of Loss of Structural Integrity

  • Weakened floors

  • Concrete that has spalled

  • Weakened steel roof members

  • Walls offset

  • Weakened roof trusses

  • Mortar in wall joints opened

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Indicators of loss of structural integrity1

Indicators of Loss of Structural Integrity

  • Wall ties holding veneer/curtain walls melted

  • Heavy storage on mezzanines or upper floors

  • Water pooled on upper floors

  • Large quantities of wet insulation

Firefighter I


Detecting hidden fires

Detecting Hidden Fires

  • Sight

  • Touch

  • Sound

  • Electronic sensors

Firefighter I


Overhaul procedures

Overhaul Procedures

  • Begins in the area of most severe fire involvement

  • Looking for fire extension should begin as soon as possible after fire is declared under control

  • Systematically carried out

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Overhaul procedures1

Overhaul Procedures

  • If fire extended to other areas, path must be determined

  • When floor beams are burned at ends or where they enter a party wall, flush the voids in the wall with water

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Overhaul procedures2

Overhaul Procedures

  • Check far side of the wall to see if fire or water has come through.

  • Thoroughly check insulation materials

Firefighter I


Understanding basic building construction

Understanding Basic Building Construction

  • Assists firefighters in searching for hidden fires

  • Windows or doors

    • Fire may remain within frames or casings

    • Open these areas to ensure complete extinguishment

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Building construction and overhaul

Building Construction and Overhaul

  • When fire has burned around combustible roof or cornice, open cornice and inspect for hidden fires

  • Balloon construction — Check the attic and basement for fire extension

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Building construction and overhaul1

Building Construction and Overhaul

  • Opening concealed spaces

    • Move the furnishings of the room to locations where they will not be damaged

    • Consider electrical wiring, gas piping, or plumbing

  • Make neat, planned openings to ensure extinguishment and facilitate restoration

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Building construction and overhaul2

Building Construction and Overhaul

  • Ceilings may be opened from below using a pike pole or other tool

  • The plaster must first be broken on some ceilings

  • When pulling a ceiling, do not stand directly under area to be opened

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Building construction and overhaul3

Building Construction and Overhaul

  • Always position body between area being pulled and doorway to keep exit route from being blocked

  • Always wear full protective clothing, including eye and respiratory protection

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Building construction and overhaul4

Building Construction and Overhaul

  • Small burning objects

    • Submerge entire objects in containers of water

    • Bathtubs, sinks, lavatories, wash tubs

  • Remove larger furnishings to the outside

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Building construction and overhaul5

Building Construction and Overhaul

  • Scorched or partially burned articles may prove helpful to an investigator

  • Use of wetting agents such as Class A foam is valuable

    • Cotton, upholstery, and baled goods

    • Must break bales of rags, cotton, hay apart

Firefighter I


Summary

Summary

  • Customer service is the core of everything that fire departments do. Loss control is an important component of fire department service delivery and is but one aspect of customer-service opportunities.

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Summary1

Summary

  • Salvage and overhaul operations are two of the most effective means of loss control.

  • Planning, procedures, and equipment are essential for effective loss-control operations.

Firefighter I


Review questions

Review Questions

1.What is the difference between salvage and overhaul?

2.List five items used in salvage operations.

3.How can water be removed from fire fighting operations using salvage covers?

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Review questions1

Review Questions

4.When should overhaul start?

5.List three indicators of possible loss of structural integrity.

6.What are visual indicators of hidden fires.

(Continued)

Firefighter I


Review questions2

Review Questions

7.What sounds may indicate a hidden fire?

8.Where does overhaul typically begin?

Firefighter I


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