Chemistry 1 2
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Chemistry 1.2. Chemistry Far and Wide. 1.2. The first tools were objects such as a stone with a sharp edge. In time, people learned to reshape these objects to produce better tools. Chemistry plays a key role in the production of new materials. 1.2. Materials. Materials

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Chemistry 1.2

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Chemistry 1 2

Chemistry 1.2


Chemistry far and wide

Chemistry Far and Wide

1.2

  • The first tools were objects such as a stone with a sharp edge. In time, people learned to reshape these objects to produce better tools. Chemistry plays a key role in the production of new materials.


Materials

1.2

Materials

  • Materials

    • What impact do chemists have on materials, energy, medicine, agriculture, the environment, and the study of the universe?


Materials1

1.2

Materials

  • Chemists design materials to fit specific needs.


Materials2

1.2

Materials

  • In 1948, George de Mestral took a close look at the burrs that stuck to his clothing. He saw that each burr was covered with many tiny hooks.

  • In 1955, de Mestral patented the design for the hook-and-loop tapes. These are used as fasteners in shoes and gloves.


Materials3

1.2

Materials

  • This story illustrates two ways of looking at the world—the macroscopic view and the microscopic view.

    • Burrs belong to the macroscopic world, the world of objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye.

    • The hooks belong to the microscopic world, or the world of objects that can be seen only under magnification.


Energy

1.2

Energy

  • Energy

    • Chemists play an essential role in finding ways to conserve energy, produce energy, and store energy.


Energy1

1.2

Energy

  • Conservation

    • One of the easiest ways to conserve energy is through insulation. Insulation acts as a barrier to heat flow from the inside to the outside of a house or from the outside to the inside of a freezer.


Energy2

1.2

Energy

  • SEAgel is a modern insulation that is light enough to float on soap bubbles.


Energy3

1.2

Energy

  • Production

    • The burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas is a major source of energy. These materials are called fossil fuels. Oil from the soybeans is used to make biodiesel.


Energy4

1.2

Energy

  • Storage

    • Batteries are devices that use chemicals to store energy that will be released as electric current.

    • For some applications, it important to have batteries that can be recharged rather than thrown away. Digital cameras, wireless phones, and laptop computers use rechargeable batteries.


Medicine and biotechnology

1.2

Medicine and Biotechnology

  • Medicine and Biotechnology

    • Chemistry supplies the medicines, materials, and technology that doctors use to treat their patients.


Medicine and biotechnology1

1.2

Medicine and Biotechnology

  • Medicines

    • There are over 2000 prescription drugs. Many drugs are effective because they interact in a specific way with chemicals in cells. Knowledge of the structure and function of these target chemicals helps a chemist design safe and effective drugs.


Medicine and biotechnology2

1.2

Medicine and Biotechnology

  • Materials

    • Chemistry can supply materials to repair or replace body parts. Artificial hips and knees made from metals and plastics can replace worn-out joints and allow people to walk again without pain.


Medicine and biotechnology3

1.2

Medicine and Biotechnology

  • Biotechnology

    • From 1990 to 2003, scientists worldwide worked on the Human Genome Project. They identified the genes that comprise human DNA—about 30,000. The discovery of the structure of DNA led to the development of biotechnology.


Medicine and biotechnology4

1.2

Medicine and Biotechnology

  • Biotechnology applies science to the production of biological products or processes.


Agriculture

1.2

Agriculture

  • Agriculture

    • Chemists help to develop more productive crops and safer, more effective ways to protect crops.


Agriculture1

1.2

Agriculture

  • Productivity

    • One way to track productivity is to measure the amount of edible food that is grown on a given unit of land.

    • Chemists test soil to see if it contains the right chemicals to grow a particular crop and recommend ways to improve the soil.


Agriculture2

1.2

Agriculture

  • Chemists also help determine when a crop needs water.

  • If the genes from a jellyfish that glows are transferred to a potato plant, the plant glows when it needs to be watered.


Agriculture3

1.2

Agriculture

  • Crop Protection

    • Chemists sometimes use chemicals produced by insects to fight insect pests. The plastic tube wrapped around the stem of the tomato plant contains a chemical that a female pinworm moth emits to attract male moths. It interferes with the mating process so that fewer pinworms are produced.


The environment

1.2

The Environment

  • The Environment

    • A pollutant is a material found in air, water, or soil that is harmful to humans or other organisms.

      • Chemists help to identify pollutants and prevent pollution.


The environment1

1.2

The Environment

  • Identify Pollutants

    • Until the mid-1900s, lead was used in many products, including paints and gasoline.

    • A study done in 1971 showed that the level of lead that is harmful to humans is much lower than had been thought, especially for children. Even low levels of lead in the blood can permanently damage the nervous system of a growing child.


The environment2

1.2

The Environment

  • Prevent Pollution

    • The strategies used to prevent lead poisoning include testing children’s blood for lead, regulation of home sales to families with young children, and public awareness campaigns with posters.


The environment3

1.2

The Environment

  • The percentage of children with elevated blood levels has decreased since the 1970s.


The universe

1.2

The Universe

  • The Universe

    • To study the universe, chemists gather data from afar and analyze matter that is brought back to Earth.


The universe1

1.2

The Universe

  • Chemists have analyzed more than 850 pounds of moon rocks that were brought back to Earth. Some of these rocks are similar to rocks formed by volcanoes on Earth, suggesting that vast oceans of molten lava once covered the moon's surface.


The universe2

1.2

The Universe

  • The robotic vehicle Opportunity was designed to determine the chemical composition of rocks and soil on Mars. Data collected at the vehicle’s landing site indicated that the site was once drenched with water.


1 2 section quiz

1.2 Section Quiz.

  • 1.2.


1 2 section quiz1

1.2 Section Quiz.

  • 1. Choose the correct words for the spaces. To meet the demand for energy, chemists find ways to __________ energy and __________ energy.

    • conserve, produce

    • conserve, use

    • produce, use

    • convert, store


1 2 section quiz2

1.2 Section Quiz.

  • 2. Which of the following is an example of biotechnology?

    • using soybeans to produce biodiesel

    • replacing diseased arteries with plastic tubes

    • testing the lead content of blood

    • transferring a jellyfish gene into a potato plant


1 2 section quiz3

1.2 Section Quiz.

  • 3. To understand how a burr could stick to clothing, George de Mestral had to take which view of a burr?

    • chemical

    • material

    • macroscopic

    • microscopic


End of show

END OF SHOW


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