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Bonding. IB Chemistry 2 Robinson High School Andrea Carver. Chemical Bonding. Elements readily combine with one another to form compounds. A Chemical Bond is the attractive force which holds these elements together in a compound.

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Bonding

Bonding

IB Chemistry 2

Robinson High School

Andrea Carver


Chemical bonding
Chemical Bonding

  • Elements readily combine with one another to form compounds.

  • A Chemical Bond is the attractive force which holds these elements together in a compound.

  • Compounds will have different characteristics than their component elements.

  • Types of Bonding: Ionic, Covalent, Metallic


Ionic bonding ib objectives
Ionic Bonding: IB Objectives

  • 4.1.1 Describe the ionic bond as the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

  • 4.1.2 Describe how ions can be formed as a result of electron transfer.

  • 4.1.3 Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in Groups 1,2, and 3 lose electrons.

  • 4.1.4 Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in Groups 5, 6, and 7 gain electrons.

  • 4.1.5 State that transition elements can form more than one ion.

  • 4.1.6 Predict whether a compound of two elements would be ionic from the position of the elements in the Periodic Table or from their electronegativity values.

  • 4.1.7 State the formula of common polyatomic ions formed by non-metals in Periods 2 and 3.

  • 4.1.8 Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds.


Ion formation
Ion Formation

  • Ions form when electrons are lost or gained.

  • Typically, atoms are neutral.

  • An ion is an atom that carries an electric charge.

    • Cation-positively charged, lost electrons

    • Anion- negatively charged, gained electrons


Ion formation1
Ion Formation

  • The periodic table may be used to predict the type/charge of ions formed by an element.

    • Electrons will be gained/lost so that the atom obtains 8 valence electrons.

    • Elements with less than 4 valence electrons will lose electrons to become cations.

    • Elements with more than 4 valence electrons will gain electrons to become anions.


Ion formation2
Ion Formation

  • Transition Elements- These elements are able to gain or lose a variable number of electrons due to their electron configuration.

    • Examples:

      • Fe: Fe2+ and Fe 3+

      • Cu: Cu2+ and Cu3+


Ion formation3
Ion Formation

  • Polyatomic Ions- Compounds which exist as ions.

    • Examples:

      • Nitrate

      • Hydroxide

      • Hydrogencarbonate

      • Carbonate

      • Sulfate

      • Phosphate

      • Ammonium


Ionic bond formation
Ionic Bond Formation

  • An Ionic Bond is an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.

  • An Ionic Compound is held together by this type of force.

    • An ionic compound will be electrically neutral because the charges of the ions involved will be balanced.


Ionic character
Ionic Character

  • The Ionic Character of the compound may be predicted by:

    • Position of the elements on the periodic table:

      • Metals + Nonmetals

      • Bottom Left + Top Right

    • Electronegativity:

      • Difference in electronegativity greater than 1.8 on the Pauling Scale.


Lattice structure
Lattice Structure

  • The ions within an ionic compound arrange themselves within a crystal structure based upon electrostatic forces.

    • Like charges repel.

    • Opposite charges attract.

The lattice contains a large number of ions. The chemical formula for an ionic compound is really a ratio rather than a true expression of the number of ions within the compound.


Lattice structure1
Lattice Structure

  • Ionic Lattice- Predictable three dimensional crystalline structure.

  • Lattice Enthalpy- The strength of the force between ions within the lattice.

  • Coordination Number- The number of ions which surround a given ion within the lattice.


Covalent bonding ib objectives
Covalent Bonding: IB Objectives

  • 4.2.1 Describe the covalent bond as the electrostatic attraction between a pair of electrons and a positively charged nucleus.

  • 4.2.2 Describe how the covalent bond is formed as a result of electron sharing.

  • 4.2.3 Deduce the Lewis structures of molecules and ions for up to four electron pairs on each atom.

  • 4.2.4 State and explain the relationship between the number of bonds, bond length, and bond strength.

  • 4.2.5 Predict whether a compound of two elements would be covalent from position of the elements on the periodic table or from their electronegativity values.

  • 4.2.6 Predict the relative polarity of bonds from electronegativity values

  • 4.2.7 Predict the shape and bond angles for species with four, three, and two negative charge centers on the central atom using the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR).

  • 4.2.8 Predict whether or not a molecule is polar from its molecular shape and bond polarities.

  • 4.2.9 Describe and compare the structure and bonding in the three allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, and C60 fullerene)

  • 4.2.10 Describe and compare the structure of and bonding of silicon and silicon dioxide


Shapes of molecules and ions ib objectives
Shapes of Molecules and Ions:IB Objectives

  • 14.1.1 Predict the shape and bond angles for species with five and six negative charge centers using VSEPR theory.


Hybridization ib objectives
Hybridization: IB Objectives

  • 14.2.1 Describe sigma and pi bonds.

  • 14.2.2 Explain hybridization in terms of the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new orbitals for bonding.

  • 14.2.3 Identify and explain the relationships between Lewis structures, molecular shapes, and types of hybridization (sp, sp2, and sp3)


Delocalization of electrons ib objectives
Delocalization of Electrons:IB Objectives

  • 14.3.1 Describe the delocalization of pi electrons and explain how this can account for the structures of some species.


Intermolecular forces ib objectives
Intermolecular Forces:IB Objectives

  • 4.3.1 Describe the types of intermolecular forces (attractions between molecules that have temporary dipoles, permanent dipoles, or hydrogen bonding) and explain how they arise from the structural features of the molecules.

  • 4.3.2 Describe and explain how intermolecular forces affect the boiling points of substances.


Metallic bonding ib objectives
Metallic Bonding: IB Objectives

  • 4.4.1 Describe the metallic bond as the electrostatic attraction between a lattice of positive ions and delocalized electrons.

  • 4.4.2 Explain the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals.


Physical properties ib objectives
Physical Properties: IB Objectives

  • 4.5.1 Compare and explain the properties of substances resulting from different types of bonding.


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