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Bonding. IB Chemistry 2 Robinson High School Andrea Carver. Chemical Bonding. Elements readily combine with one another to form compounds. A Chemical Bond is the attractive force which holds these elements together in a compound.

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bonding

Bonding

IB Chemistry 2

Robinson High School

Andrea Carver

chemical bonding
Chemical Bonding
  • Elements readily combine with one another to form compounds.
  • A Chemical Bond is the attractive force which holds these elements together in a compound.
  • Compounds will have different characteristics than their component elements.
  • Types of Bonding: Ionic, Covalent, Metallic
ionic bonding ib objectives
Ionic Bonding: IB Objectives
  • 4.1.1 Describe the ionic bond as the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
  • 4.1.2 Describe how ions can be formed as a result of electron transfer.
  • 4.1.3 Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in Groups 1,2, and 3 lose electrons.
  • 4.1.4 Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in Groups 5, 6, and 7 gain electrons.
  • 4.1.5 State that transition elements can form more than one ion.
  • 4.1.6 Predict whether a compound of two elements would be ionic from the position of the elements in the Periodic Table or from their electronegativity values.
  • 4.1.7 State the formula of common polyatomic ions formed by non-metals in Periods 2 and 3.
  • 4.1.8 Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds.
ion formation
Ion Formation
  • Ions form when electrons are lost or gained.
  • Typically, atoms are neutral.
  • An ion is an atom that carries an electric charge.
    • Cation-positively charged, lost electrons
    • Anion- negatively charged, gained electrons
ion formation1
Ion Formation
  • The periodic table may be used to predict the type/charge of ions formed by an element.
    • Electrons will be gained/lost so that the atom obtains 8 valence electrons.
    • Elements with less than 4 valence electrons will lose electrons to become cations.
    • Elements with more than 4 valence electrons will gain electrons to become anions.
ion formation2
Ion Formation
  • Transition Elements- These elements are able to gain or lose a variable number of electrons due to their electron configuration.
    • Examples:
      • Fe: Fe2+ and Fe 3+
      • Cu: Cu2+ and Cu3+
ion formation3
Ion Formation
  • Polyatomic Ions- Compounds which exist as ions.
    • Examples:
      • Nitrate
      • Hydroxide
      • Hydrogencarbonate
      • Carbonate
      • Sulfate
      • Phosphate
      • Ammonium
ionic bond formation
Ionic Bond Formation
  • An Ionic Bond is an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
  • An Ionic Compound is held together by this type of force.
    • An ionic compound will be electrically neutral because the charges of the ions involved will be balanced.
ionic character
Ionic Character
  • The Ionic Character of the compound may be predicted by:
    • Position of the elements on the periodic table:
      • Metals + Nonmetals
      • Bottom Left + Top Right
    • Electronegativity:
      • Difference in electronegativity greater than 1.8 on the Pauling Scale.
lattice structure
Lattice Structure
  • The ions within an ionic compound arrange themselves within a crystal structure based upon electrostatic forces.
    • Like charges repel.
    • Opposite charges attract.

The lattice contains a large number of ions. The chemical formula for an ionic compound is really a ratio rather than a true expression of the number of ions within the compound.

lattice structure1
Lattice Structure
  • Ionic Lattice- Predictable three dimensional crystalline structure.
  • Lattice Enthalpy- The strength of the force between ions within the lattice.
  • Coordination Number- The number of ions which surround a given ion within the lattice.
covalent bonding ib objectives
Covalent Bonding: IB Objectives
  • 4.2.1 Describe the covalent bond as the electrostatic attraction between a pair of electrons and a positively charged nucleus.
  • 4.2.2 Describe how the covalent bond is formed as a result of electron sharing.
  • 4.2.3 Deduce the Lewis structures of molecules and ions for up to four electron pairs on each atom.
  • 4.2.4 State and explain the relationship between the number of bonds, bond length, and bond strength.
  • 4.2.5 Predict whether a compound of two elements would be covalent from position of the elements on the periodic table or from their electronegativity values.
  • 4.2.6 Predict the relative polarity of bonds from electronegativity values
  • 4.2.7 Predict the shape and bond angles for species with four, three, and two negative charge centers on the central atom using the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR).
  • 4.2.8 Predict whether or not a molecule is polar from its molecular shape and bond polarities.
  • 4.2.9 Describe and compare the structure and bonding in the three allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, and C60 fullerene)
  • 4.2.10 Describe and compare the structure of and bonding of silicon and silicon dioxide
shapes of molecules and ions ib objectives
Shapes of Molecules and Ions:IB Objectives
  • 14.1.1 Predict the shape and bond angles for species with five and six negative charge centers using VSEPR theory.
hybridization ib objectives
Hybridization: IB Objectives
  • 14.2.1 Describe sigma and pi bonds.
  • 14.2.2 Explain hybridization in terms of the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new orbitals for bonding.
  • 14.2.3 Identify and explain the relationships between Lewis structures, molecular shapes, and types of hybridization (sp, sp2, and sp3)
delocalization of electrons ib objectives
Delocalization of Electrons:IB Objectives
  • 14.3.1 Describe the delocalization of pi electrons and explain how this can account for the structures of some species.
intermolecular forces ib objectives
Intermolecular Forces:IB Objectives
  • 4.3.1 Describe the types of intermolecular forces (attractions between molecules that have temporary dipoles, permanent dipoles, or hydrogen bonding) and explain how they arise from the structural features of the molecules.
  • 4.3.2 Describe and explain how intermolecular forces affect the boiling points of substances.
metallic bonding ib objectives
Metallic Bonding: IB Objectives
  • 4.4.1 Describe the metallic bond as the electrostatic attraction between a lattice of positive ions and delocalized electrons.
  • 4.4.2 Explain the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals.
physical properties ib objectives
Physical Properties: IB Objectives
  • 4.5.1 Compare and explain the properties of substances resulting from different types of bonding.
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