Functional behavior assessment
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Functional Behavior Assessment. 2011 SEL Academy Professional Development. Goals. By the end of the session the participants will be able to Define in observable terms problem behaviors Identify the purpose of function of problematic behaviors Create a comprehensive FBA

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Functional Behavior Assessment

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Functional behavior assessment

Functional Behavior Assessment

2011 SEL Academy

Professional Development


Goals

Goals

  • By the end of the session the participants will be able to

    • Define in observable terms problem behaviors

    • Identify the purpose of function of problematic behaviors

    • Create a comprehensive FBA

    • Create PBSP based on Scenario


Discussion

Discussion

  • How many of you have conducted a Functional Behavior Assessment?

  • What was your process?

    • How successful has this process been for you, your teachers and your students?

    • What are the barriers to conducting a comprehensive FBA?


Functional behavior assessment

FBA:

What?

  • Team process for behavior problem-solving

  • Consists of information-gathering procedures resulting in a working hypothesis related to the function(s) of behaviors.

  • Process also identifiesenvironmental antecedents and consequences that maintain the behaviors

  • Information gathered used to develop a behavior intervention plan (BIP)


Functional behavior assessment

FBA

When

  • Disciplinary Change in Placement

    • More than 10 school days consecutively

    • More than 15 school days cumulatively in a school year

  • Pattern of disciplinary infractions

  • Exclusion from school for student with Mental Retardation

  • 504 Service (behavior)

  • CSAP


Functional behavior assessment

FBA:

Why?

  • Develop specific, clear description of the behavior of concern

  • Identify antecedents and consequences that correspond to behavioral episodes

  • Develop summary statements that identify the perceived function(s) of the behavior(s) of concern

  • Forms the basis for the PBSP


Types of problem behavior

Types of Problem Behavior

  • Problem behavior typically falls into one or more of these general categories:

    • (a) behavior that produces attention and other desired events (e.g., access to toys, desired activities),

    • (b) behavior that allows the person to avoid or escape demands or other undesired events/activities, and

    • (c) behavior that occurs because of its sensory consequences (relieves pain, feels good, etc.).


Problem behaviors

Problem Behaviors

  • Problem behavior typically falls into one or more of these general categories:

    • (d) access to preferred item

    • (e) power or control


Problem behaviors1

Problem Behaviors

  • Must be Observable & Measurable

    • Easily observed

    • Countable

    • Have a beginning and end


Gallery walk

Gallery Walk

Report out


What do you think

What Do You Think?

Jared talks out at least two times per class. He smiles, and other students snicker, when his teachers remind him to raise his hand. Since the beginning of the year, the problem seems worse.

Do the reminders reinforce or punish him? How do you know?

What might be the function of this behavior?


What do you think1

What Do You Think?

  • Colleen has an argument with someone in the cafeteria at least 3 times a week. The consequence is to stay in at recess and read or work on the computer with the teacher.

  • Is the consequence serving as a reward or a punisher?

  • What might the function of Colleen’s behavior be?


Collection of data

Collection of Data

  • Indirect

    • Use of student records, interviews, questionnaires, or checklists to identify how others perceive the situation and possible motivations for the problem behavior.

  • Direct

    • May employ observations, record the situational factors surrounding the problem behavior.


Indirect student records

Indirect- Student Records

  • Review the student’s records.

    • In a systematic fashion, identify any previous relevant background data from existing documents that relate to the problem behavior.


Indirect interviews

Indirect- Interviews

  • When conducting an interview, consider asking the following questions: . . .

    • WHO is present when the problem occurs? . . .

    • WHAT is happening just before the problem occurs, and what happens immediately after the problem behavior? . . .

    • WHEN does the problem behavior occur? . . .

    • WHERE does the problem behavior take place?


Functional behavior assessment

  • And finally, are there times or places when the problem behavior does NOT occur?


Indirect influencing factors

Indirect- Influencing Factors

  • Watch for factors that can influence a student’s behavior, such as:

    • Physiological - internal workings of living things, including such functions as metabolism, respiration

    • Environmental - student’s surroundings

    • Curricular and instructional - academic subjects

    • Setting events or incidents that happen some- time before the problem situation.


Direct method

Direct Method

  • Use direct assessment to observe and record the problem events as they happen. Direct assessments may include frequency counts, interval recording systems, and antecedent-behavior-consequenceor A-B-C charts.


Fba tools

FBA Tools

  • Structured Anecdotal Report


Fba tools continued

FBA Tools Continued

Scatterplot


Fba tools continued1

FBA Tools Continued

  • Event Recording


Fba tools continued2

FBA Tools Continued

  • Interval Recording


Fba tools continued3

FBA Tools Continued

Time Sampling


Fba tools continued4

FBA Tools Continued

  • Duration Recording


Fba tools continued5

FBA Tools Continued

  • Latency Recording


Beyond data collection

Beyond Data Collection

DEFINE EVENTS AND SITUATIONS THAT PREDICT OCCURRENCES OF THE BEHAVIOR(S)

  • Time of Day: When are the behaviors most and least likely to happen?

    2. Settings: Where are the behaviors most and least likely to happen?

    3. Social Control: With whom are the behaviors most and least likely to happen?


Beyond data collection1

Beyond Data Collection

4. Activity: What activities are most and least likely to produce the behaviors?

5. Are there particular situations, events, etc. that are not listed above that “set off” the behaviors that cause concern (particular demands, interruptions, transitions, delays, being ignored, etc.)?

6. What one thing could you do that would most likely make the problem behavior occur?


Beyond data collection2

Beyond Data Collection

  • 7. What one thing could you do to make sure the problem behavior did not occur?


Beyond data collection3

Beyond Data Collection

IDENTIFY THE “FUNCTION” OF THE UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIOR(S)

  • Think of each of the behaviors listed, and define the function(s) you believe the behavior serves for the person

    What does he/she get?

    Or

    What exactly does he/she avoid?


Beyond fba pbsp

Beyond FBA (PBSP)

  • Target Behavior

  • Operationalize Target Behavior

  • Determine Measurement Procedure

  • Gather Baseline Data

  • Set goal for target Behavior

  • Determine reinforcers


Beyond fba pbsp1

Beyond FBA (PBSP)

  • Develop Intervention Plan

  • Inform student of plan

  • Implement the plan

  • Progress Monitoring of Plan

  • Thinning of reinforcers

  • Fading of Cues


Steps for changing behavior

Steps for Changing Behavior

  • Decide on which behavior to change.

  • Define the behavior.

  • Collect data for a baseline on the behavior.

  • Intervene on the behavior.

  • Graph and evaluate the ongoing progress*

  • *Revise the program if necessary


Changing behavior successfully

Changing Behavior Successfully

  • Prioritize behaviors

  • Work only with one or two behaviors at a time

  • Define target behaviors in observable and measurable terms.

Remember that behavioral problems are usually related to skill deficits!


Changing behavior successfully1

Changing Behavior Successfully

  • TEACHthe behaviors you want the student to exhibit

  • Require only gradual improvement in behavior

  • Use procedures that are easily implemented and inexpensive

Remember that behavioral problems are usually related to skill deficits!


Teaching desired behavior

Teaching Desired Behavior

  • Use then fade supports to increase the likelihood of appropriate behavior

  • Pairsocial reinforcers with tangible or activity reinforcers

  • Use immediate consequences whenever possible

  • Thoroughly organize and precisely introduce the program to the student


Group activity

Group Activity

Form Groups of 4 to 5

  • Choose student to conduct an FBA

  • Choose tools to conduct FBA

  • Create PBSP

  • Report Out


Resources

Resources

  • Special Connections

    http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/index.php

    PaTTAN

    http://www.pattan.net


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