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(http://oberon.roma1.infn.it/olimpo). OLIMPO. An arcmin-resolution survey of the sky at mm and sub-mm wavelengths. Silvia Masi Dipartimento di Fisica La Sapienza, Roma and the OLIMPO team. (http://oberon.roma1.infn.it/olimpo). OLIMPO. An arcmin-resolution survey of the sky

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Olimpo

(http://oberon.roma1.infn.it/olimpo)

OLIMPO

An arcmin-resolution

survey of the sky

at mm and sub-mm wavelengths

Silvia Masi

Dipartimento di Fisica

La Sapienza, Roma

and

the OLIMPO team


Olimpo1

(http://oberon.roma1.infn.it/olimpo)

OLIMPO

An arcmin-resolution

survey of the sky

at mm and sub-mm wavelengths

Silvia Masi

Dipartimento di Fisica

La Sapienza, Roma

and

the OLIMPO team


Spectroscopic surveys (SDSS, 2dF) have now mapped the 3D large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

4 Gly

distance from us

Clusters of Galaxies are evident features of this distribution.

But when did they form ?

How did gravity coagulate them from the unstructured early universe, and was this process affected by the presence of Dark Energy ?


Olimpo and clusters
OLIMPO and clusters large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • Answer these questions in a completely independent way is one of the science goals of the OLIMPO mission.

  • Observing clusters of galaxies in the microwaves, this telescope has the ability to detect them at larger distances (and earlier times) than optical and X-ray observations.

  • The number count of clusters at early times is one very sensitive to the presence and kind of Dark Energy and Dark Matter in the Universe, so OLIMPO can provide timely and important data for the current cosmology paradigm.


SZ effect large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

Inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons

against hot electrons in the intergalactic

medium of rich clusters of galaxies

CMB

g

[CMB through cluster – CMB] (mJy/sr)

Cluster

e-

e-

g

About 1% of the photons acquire about 1% boost in energy, thus slightly shifting the spectrum of CMB to higher frequencies.

US


S-Z large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • SZ effect has been detected in several clusters (see e.g. Birkinshaw M., Phys.Rept. 310, 97, (1999) astro-ph/9808050 for a review, and e.g. Carlstrom J.E. et al., astro-ph/0103480 for current perspectives)

  • The order of magnitude of the relative change of energy of the photons is Dn/n˜ kTe/mec2˜10-2 for 10 keV e-, and the probability of scattering in a typical cluster is nsL ˜ 10-2. So we expect a CMB temperature change DT/T˜ (nsL)(kTe/mec2)˜ 10-4.

  • The strength of the effect does not depend on the distance of the Cluster ! So it is possible to see very distant clusters (not visible in optical/X).


Carlstrom J., large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

et al.

Astro-ph/0208192

ARAA 2002

The SZ signal from the clusters does not depend on redshift.


Mm observations of the sz
mm observations of the SZ large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • However, these detections are at cm wavelengths. At mm wavelengths, the (positive) SZ effect has been detected only in a few clusters.

  • Expecially for distant and new clusters (in the absence of an optical/X template) both cm (negative) and mm (positive) detections are necessary to provide convincing evidence of a detection.

  • The Earth atmosphere is a strong emitter of mm radiation.

  • An instrument devoted to mm/submm observations of the SZ must be carried outside the Earth atmosphere using a space carrier.

  • Stratospheric balloons (40 km), sounding rockets (400 km) or satellites (400 km to 106 km..) have been heavily used for CMB research.


At balloon altitude 41km
At balloon altitude (41km): large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

At 90 and 150 GHz balloon observations can be

CMB-noise limited

O2 &

Ozone lines


CMB anisotropy large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

SZ clusters

Galaxies

Total @ 150 GHz

mm-wave sky at 150 GHz


Olimpo2
OLIMPO large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • Is the combination of

    • A large (2.6m diameter) mm/sub-mm telescope with scanning capabilities

    • A multifrequency array of bolometers

    • A precision attitude control system

    • A long duration balloon flight

  • The results will be high resolution (arcmin) sensitive maps of the mm/sub-mm sky, with optimal frequency coverage (150, 220, 340, 540 GHz) for SZ detection, Determination of Cluster parameters and control of foreground/background contamination.


CMB anisotropy large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

SZ clusters

Galaxies

150 GHz

220 GHz

340 GHz

540 GHz

30’

mm-wave sky vs OLIMPO arrays


The uniqueness of olimpo
The uniqueness of OLIMPO large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • OLIMPO measures in 4 frequency bands simultaneously. These bands optimally sample the spectrum of the SZ effect.

  • Opposite signals at 410 GHz and at 150 GHz provide a clear signature of the SZ detection.

  • 4 bands allow to clean the signal from any dust and CMB contamination, and even to measure Te .

-

+

+

0


OLIMPO observations of a SZ Cluster large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • Simulated observation of a SZ cluster at 2 mm with the Olimpo array.

  • The large scale signals are CMB anisotropy.

  • The cluster is the dark spot evident in the middle of the figure.

  • Parameters of this simulation: comptonization parameter for the cluster y=10-4 ; scans at 1o/s, amplitude of the scans 3o p-p, detector noise 150 mK s1/2, 1/f knee = 0.1 Hz, total observing time = 4 hours

3o

3o


Simulations show that
Simulations show that: large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • For a

    • Y=10-5 cluster,

    • in a dust optical depth of 10-5 @ 1 mm,

    • In presence of a 100 mK CMB anisotropy

  • In 2 hours of integration over 1 square degree of sky centered on the cluster

    • Y can be determined to +10-6,

    • DTCMB can be measured to +10mK

    • Te can be measured to +3keV


Clusters sample

Number large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

Cluster

z

Number

Cluster

z

1

A168

0.0452

11

A1317

0.0695

2

A400

0.0232

12

A1367

0.0215

3

A426

0.0183

13

A1656

0.0232

4

A539

0.0205

14

A1775

0.0696

5

A576

0.0381

15

A1795

0.0616

6

A754

0.0528

16

A2151

0.0371

7

A1060

0.0114

17

A2199

0.0303

8

A1185

0.0304

18

A2256

0.0601

9

A1215

0.0494

19

A2319

0.0564

10

A1254

0.0628

20

A2634

0.0312

Clusters sample

  • We have selected 40 nearby rich clusters to be measured in a single long duration flight.

  • For all these clusters high quality data are available from XMM/Chandra


Corrections
Corrections large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • For each cluster, applying deprojection algorithms to the SZ and X images (see eg Zaroubi et al. 1999), and assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, it is possible to derive the gas profile and the total (including dark) mass of the cluster.

  • The presence of 4 channels (and especially the 1.3 mm one) is used to estimate the peculiar velocity of the cluster.

  • Both these effects must be monitored in order to correct the determination of Ho (see e.g. Holtzapfel et al. 1997).

  • It should be stressed that residual systematics, i.e. cluster morphology and small-scale clumping, have opposite effects in the determination of Ho

  • Despite the relative large scatter of results for a single cluster, we expect to be able to measure Ho to 5% accuracy from our 40 clusters sample.


Olimpo vs xmm
Olimpo vs XMM large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 Mpc

  • The XMM-LSS and MEGACAM survey region is centered at dec=-5 deg and RA=2h20', and covers 8ox8o. It is observable in a trans-mediterranean flight, like the one we can do to qualify OLIMPO.

  • During the test flight we will observe the target region for 2 hours at good elevation, without interference from the moon and the sun.

  • Assuming 19 detectors working for each frequency channel, and a conservative noise of 150mKCMBs1/2, we can have as many as 5600 independent 8' pixels with a noise per pixel of7 mKCMBfor each of the 2 and 1.4 mm bands.

  • The correlations could provide:

  • Relative behavior of clusters (Dark Matter) potential, galaxies and clusters X-ray gas.

  • Detailed tests of structure formation models.

  • Cosmological parameters and structure formation


Clusters and l
Clusters and large scale structure of the Universe at distances up to 1000 MpcL

  • Since Y depends on n (and not on n2), clusters can be seen with SZ effect at distances larger than with X-ray surveys.

  • There is the potential to discover new clusters and to map the evolution of clusters of galaxies in the Universe.

  • This is strongly related toL.


Simulations show that the background from unresolved SZ clusters is very sensitive to L (see e.g. Da Silva et al. astro-ph/0011187)

L=0. 7

L=0.0


Diffuse sz effect
Diffuse SZ effect clusters is very sensitive to

  • A hint for this is present in recent CBI data. Bond et al, astro-ph/0205384,5,6,78

  • The problem is that the measurement was single wavelength (30 GHz), and used an interferometer. (A bolometric follow-up by ACBAR was not sensitive enough to confirm this measurement).

  • OLIMPO is complementary in two ways: it is single dish and works at four , much higher , frequencies.


Olimpo list of science goals
Olimpo: list of Science Goals clusters is very sensitive to

  • Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect

    • Measurement of Ho from rich clusters

    • Cluster counts and detection of early clusters -> parameters (L)

  • CMB anisotropy at high multipoles

    • The damping tail in the power spectrum

    • Complement interferometers at high frequency

  • Distant Galaxies – Far IR background

    • Anisotropy of the FIRB

    • Cosmic star formation history

  • Cold dust in the ISM

    • Pre-stellar objects

    • Temperature of the Cirrus / Diffuse component


Olimpo cmb anisotropy
Olimpo: CMB anisotropy clusters is very sensitive to

Power Spectrum (a.u.)

  • Taking advantage of its high angular resolution, and concentrating on a limited area of the sky, OLIMPO will be able to measure the angular power spectrum (PS) of the CMB up to multipolesl»3000, significantly higher than BOOMERanG, MAP and Planck.

  • In this way it will complement at high frequencies the interferometers surveys, producing essential independent information, in a wide frequency interval, and free from systematics like sources subtraction.

  • The measurement of the damping tailof the PS is an excellent way to map the dark matter distribution (4) and to measureWdarkmatter(5).

Compare!

Power Spectrum (a.u.)


Power spectrum of unresolved AGNs clusters is very sensitive to

Giommi & Colafrancesco 2003


Mm sub mm backgrounds
mm/sub-mm backgrounds clusters is very sensitive to

  • Diffuse cosmological emission in the mm/sub-mm is largely unexplored.

  • A cosmic far IR background (FIRB) has been discovered by COBE-FIRAS (Puget, Hauser, Fixsen)

  • It is believed to be produced by ultra-luminous early galaxies

  • (Blain astroph/0202228)

  • Strong, negative k-correction at mm and sub-mm wavelengths enhances the detection rate of these early galaxies at high redshift.


Mm sub mm galaxies
mm/sub-mm galaxies clusters is very sensitive to

  • In the sub-mm we are in the steeply rising part of the emission spectrum: if the galaxy is moved at high redshift we will see emission from a rest-frame wavelength closer to the peak of emission.

z = 0

z > 0

B

B

n

n

no

n o(1+z)

Blain, astro-ph/0202228


Olimpo cold cirrus dust
Olimpo: Cold Cirrus Dust clusters is very sensitive to

  • Sub-mm observations of cirrus clouds in our Galaxy are very effective in measuring the temperature and mass of the dust clouds.

  • See Masi et al. Ap.J. 553, L93-L96, 2001; and Masi et al. “Interstellar dust in the BOOMERanG maps”, in “BC2K1”, De Petris and Gervasi editors, AIP 616, 2001.


Olimpo can be used to survey the galactic plane for pre stellar objects
OLIMPO can be used to survey the galactic plane for pre-stellar objects

OLIMPO

M16 - In the constellation Serpens

The SED of L1544 with 10  1 second sensitivities


Olimpo the team
OLIMPO: the Team pre-stellar objects

  • Dipartimento di Fisica, La Sapienza, Roma

    • S. Masi, et al.

  • IFAC-CNR, Firenze

    • A. Boscaleri et al.

  • INGV, Roma

    • G. Romeo et al.

  • Astronomy, University of Cardiff

    • P. Mauskopf et al.

  • CEA Saclay

    • D. Yvon et al.

  • CRTBT Grenoble

    • P. Camus et al.

  • Univ. Of San Diego / Tel Aviv

    • Y. Rephaeli et al.


Technology Challenges pre-stellar objectsfor OLIMPO:1) Angular resolution – size of telescope2) Scan strategy3) Detector Arrays & readout4) Long Duration Cryogenics5) Long Duration Balloon Flights6) Telemetry, TC, data acquisition for LDB


Angular Resolution pre-stellar objects& Telescope Size We need few arcmin resolution @ 2 mm wavelength: this requires a >2m mirror.


Olimpo: The Primary mirror pre-stellar objects

  • The primary mirror (2.6m) has been built and verified.

  • 50mm accuracy at large scales; nearly optical polishing.

  • It is the largest mirror ever flown on a stratospheric balloon.

  • It is slowly wobbled to scan the sky.

Test of the OLIMPO

mirror at the

ASI L.Broglio base in Trapani


Olimpo: The Payload pre-stellar objects

The inner frame can point from

0o to 60o of elevation.

Structural analysis complies to NASA standards.



Olimpo: reimaging optics pre-stellar objects

  • The cryogenic reimaging optics is being developed in Rome.

  • It is mounted in the experiment section of the cryostat, at 2K, while the bolometers are cooled at 0.3K.

  • Extensive baffling and a cold Lyot stop reduce significantly straylight and sidelobes.


Focal Plane pre-stellar objects

Splitters

5th Mirror

Lyot Stop

3rd Mirror


2) Scan Strategy pre-stellar objectsWe need to scan the sky at 0.1 deg/s or more in order to avoid 1/f noise and drifts in the detectors.Solutions:a) scanning primaryb) optimized map-making software


The OLIMPO telescope has been optimized for diffraction limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.


The primary modulator is ready limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

and currently being integrated

on the payload


Data cleaning : TOD de-spiking limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

And we have a complete data pipeline, tested on BOOMERanG, very complete and efficient…


Data co-adding: one data chunk limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.


Data co-adding: naive combination of chunks limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.


Data co-adding: optimal map-making limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.


OLIMPO observations of a SZ Cluster limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

  • Simulated observation of a SZ cluster at 2 mm with the Olimpo array.

  • The large scale signals are CMB anisotropy.

  • The cluster is the dark spot evident in the middle of the figure.

  • Parameters of this observation: scans at 1o/s, amplitude of the scans 3op-p, detector noise 150 mK s1/2, 1/f knee = 0.1 Hz, total observing time = 4 hours, comptonization parameter for the cluster y=10-4.

3o

3o


3) Detector Arrays & Readout limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary. We need a) large format bolometer arraysb) multiplex readoutSolutions:a) photolitgraphed TES b) SQUID series arrays and multiplexer (f)


Photon noise limit for the CMB limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.


Polarization sensitive bolometers jpl caltech
Polarization-sensitive bolometers limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary. JPL-Caltech

3 mm thick

wire grids,

Separated by

60 mm, in the

same groove

of a circular

corrugated

waveguide

Planck-HFI

testbed

B.Jones et al. Astro-ph/0209132


Bolometer arrays

Bolocam Wafer (CSO) limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

Bolometer Arrays

  • Once bolometers reach BLIP conditions (CMB BLIP), the mapping speed can only be increased by creating large bolometer arrays.

  • BOLOCAM and MAMBO are examples of large arrays with hybrid components (Si wafer + Ge sensors)

  • Techniques to build fully litographed arrays for the CMB are being developed.

  • TES offer the natural sensors. (A. Lee, D. Benford, A. Golding …)

MAMBO (MPIfR for IRAM)


Cryogenic bolometers
Cryogenic Bolometers limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

  • A large a is important for high responsivity.

  • Ge thermistors:

  • Superconducting transition edge thermistors:

S.F. Lee et al. Appl.Opt. 37 3391 (1998)


Tes arrays
TES arrays limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

  • Are the future of this field. See recent reviews from Paul Richards, Adrian Lee, Jamie Bock, Harvey Moseley … et al.

  • In Proc. of the Far-IR, sub-mm and mm detector technology workshop, Monterey 2002.


Why TES are good: limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

1. Durability - TES devices are made and tested for X-ray to last years without degradation

2. Sensitivity - Have achieved few x10-18 W/Hz at 100 mK good enough for CMB and ground based spectroscopy

3. Speed is theoretically few s, for optimum bias still less than 1 ms - good enough

4. Ease of fabrication - Only need photolithography, no e-beam, no glue

5. Multiplexing with SQUIDs either TDM or FDM, impedances are well matched to SQUID readout

6. 1/f noise is measured to be low

What is difficult:

1. Not so easy to integrate into receiver - SQUIDs are difficult part

2. Coupling to microwaves with antenna and matched heater

thermally connected to TES - able to optimize absorption and readout separately


PROTOTYPE FULLY LITOGRAPHED limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

SINGLE PIXEL - 150 GHz (Mauskopf, Orlando)

Similar to JPL design, Hunt, et al., 2002 but with waveguide coupled antenna

Silicon nitride

Waveguide

Absorber/

termination

Nb Microstrip

TES

Thermal links

Radial probe


PROTOTYPE FULLY LITOGRAPHED limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

SINGLE PIXEL - 150 GHz (Mauskopf)

Details:

TES

Thermal links

Absorber - Ti/Au: 0.5 /square - t = 20 nm

Need total R = 5-10 

w = 5 m  d = 50 m

Microstrip line: h = 0.3 m,  = 4.5  Z ~ 5 


receiver (1pixel of 1000) limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

filter

load

Cryo:

0.3K

Space qual.

SQUID

Readout

MUX

TES

stripline

membrane

island

Si substrate with

Si3N4 film

antenna

TES for mm waves

(Cardiff, Phil Mauskopf)

… and many others …

150

mm


3) Detector Arrays & Readout limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary. We need a) large format bolometer arraysb) multiplex readoutSolutions:a) photolitgraphed TES b) SQUID series arrays and multiplexer (f)


frequency-domain multiplexing limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

row i bias

row i+1 bias

j

j+1

Ref: Berkeley/NIST design


Cryogenic resonant filters
Cryogenic Resonant Filters limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.

  • We have developed cryogenic resonant filters for the MUX. Based on 5 mH Nb wire Inductors and MICA Capacitors

  • Measured Q around 1000


4) Long Duration Cryogenics limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary. We need a Long Duration Balloon to produce a sizeable catalog of clusters.Detectors must operate remotely at 0.3K for weeks Solutions:Long Duration LN/L4He Cryostat and 3He Fridge


  • The limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary. dewar is being developed in Rome. It is based on the same successfull design of the BOOMERanG dewar

  • Masi et al. 1998, 1999

  • 25 days at 290 mK.


Images of the OLIMPO cryostat limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.


Test of the OLIMPO cryostat limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary.


2 limited performance at 0.5mm, even in the tilted configuration of the primary. nd flight

Jul.2008

1st flight

Jul.2007

OLIMPO is now included in the 2006-2008 planning of the Italian Space Agency

The baseline flight will be LDB from SVALBARD


OLIMPO will soon shed light on the “Dark Ages” between cosmic recombination (z=1000) and cosmic dawn (z=10).