Local executive power in latin american capital cities since 1945
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LOCAL EXECUTIVE POWER IN LATIN AMERICAN CAPITAL CITIES SINCE 1945. Waves of democracy & Import Substitution Industrialization. First Wave of Democracy. First Wave 1776-1920 Impact of United States Revolution World War I “Make the World Safe for Democracy” First Reverse Wave

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Waves of democracy & Import Substitution Industrialization

First Wave of Democracy

  • First Wave 1776-1920

    • Impact of United States Revolution

    • World War I “Make the World Safe for Democracy”

  • First Reverse Wave

    • Economic difficulties in 1920’s

    • Triumph of Nazism in 1930’s

Second Wave of Democracy

  • Second “Short” Wave 1944-1960’s

    • Victory by democrats in WW II

    • Dispersion of benefits of industrial revolution to Latin America

  • Second Reverse Wave 1960’s to early 1980’s

    • Again, economic dimension critical

    • Middle class fears of the poor

    • Military had major role

    • Bureaucracies used to impose “order”

Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI)

  • ISI begins in the Great Depression

    • Economic downturn in industrial world provokes economic disaster in Latin America

    • Latin American elites attempt to regain control over economic destiny

    • Domestic subsidization of public sector industries

  • Post World War II Period

    • ECLA becomes most influential of the UN’s regional economic commissions

    • ECLA gains acceptance of ISI at Breton Woods Conference

Municipal Government in Second Wave Democracy

  • Municipal services become more important because of ISI

  • Lack of administrative talent at the local level leads national political leaders to exempt municipal government from efforts to democratize

  • Fears for the security of the political regime leads national leaders to keep tight control over the capital cities

Municipal Government in the Second Reverse Wave of Authoritarianism

  • Municipal governments treated as administrative subdivisions of national executive

  • Bureaucratic authoritarian governments are negative toward large new investments in urban infrastructure

  • Local autonomy of municipal governments increased in matters of policy implementation

Third Wave of Democratization(1980’s – Present)

  • World-wide recession discredits bureaucratic authoritarian political regimes

  • Human rights violations frightens many in those groups that initially favored developmentalist dictatorships

  • Growing global consensus for democracy

Empowerment of Municipal Governments: Third Wave Democracy

  • Discrediting of ISI removes important reason for subordination of municipal governments

  • Human Rights Violations in Bureaucratic Authoritarianism increase willingness to restrict power of central government

  • Pool of trained professionals increases

  • Local Empowerment

    • Executives

    • Councils

    • Bureaucracies

Capital Cities are Different

  • Capital cities are different

    • Seats of political power

    • Symbolic of the nation

    • Security concerns

  • Federal vs. unitary states

  • Special characteristics of capital city populations lead to ground swell to democratize and empower local political institutions

Empowerment of Capital City Governments

  • Empowerment of municipal political institutions

    • Elected capital city mayors

      • Capital city mayor becomes a broker of interest groups that reside in the capital city

      • Capital city mayor often second most important elected official in nation

    • Increased powers to city councils in order to check empowered mayors

Security Concerns

  • Mayor given control of traffic police

  • States and/or regions get their own police forces

  • Concern for security of national government reflected in decision to allow presidents to retain control over the most important capital city police forces

Urban Built Environments: Colonial Cores

  • Where things happened in colonial epoch

  • Deterioration during the

    nineteenth century

Urban Built Environments of Capital Cities: first 150 years

  • Reconstruction/Modernization (1890-1960)

    • Buenos Aires – (1910-1930)

    • Mexico City & Mayor Ernesto Uruchurtu

    • Caracas after the death of Gómez

    • Guatemala: Liberation Avenue

Buenos Aires: First World City ?

Buenos Aires: Shantytowns like other cities of Latin America

Urban Built Environments of Capital Cities: Bureaucratic Authoritarianism

  • Governments of “Second Reverse Wave” emphasize industrial infrastructure

    • Pollution

    • On the periphery or in new industrial cities

Urban Built Environment in Capital Cities: Third Wave Democracy

  • Items emphasized have not lent themselves to physical expression

    • Rule of law

    • Equality

    • Human rights

  • Public services possible exception

    • Health

    • Education

Built Environments of Capital Cities since 1950’s

Previously: capital cities were unlike all other locations

  • Projected high style

  • Represented aspirations that encoded cultural values and aspirations through repertories of culture-specific elements.

  • Capability to communicate high level meaning declined after 1960

  • Physical aspects of morphology became less pronounced in 1980’s

  • Special functions of capital cities endure.

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