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Paragraphs and essays. I. ways of developing paragraphs 1. Development by time

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paragraphs and essays
Paragraphs and essays
  • I. ways of developing paragraphs
      • 1. Development by time
      • In telling a story or recounting an event, the easiest and clearest way is to describe things in order of time: earlier things are mentioned before later things, the first thing first and the last thing last. This method is also called chronological sequencing.
e g page 89
e.g. page 89
  • My heart gave a leap when I heard the announcement that our train would soon arrive at its destination—Beijing. Like other passengers, I began to collect my things and put my mug, towel, atlas, apples, and other things into my bag. To the tune of a beautiful song the train pulled into the station and gently stopped by a platform. I walked out of the train and was carried forward by the stream of people into an underground passage and then into a big hall. As I stepped out of the station, I was dazzled by the bright autumn skies of Beijing. Though I had been on the train for more than thirty hours and spent a sleepless night, I didn’t feel tired at all, and I believed my days in Beijing would be as sunny as the skies.
study the following expressions often used in describing chronological relations page 118
Study the following expressions often used in describing chronological relations: page 118
  • now; nowadays
  • when; before; after; while; during
  • between _____ and _____
  • in _____ (year)
  • since _____
  • later; earlier; formerly; etc.
  • at the turn of the century (decade) etc.
  • in the first half of the century, etc.
  • in the 1900’s, etc.
slide4
at birth; in childhood; in infancy; in adolescence; as an adult; in adulthood; in old age; at death
  • simultaneously; simultaneous with; at the same time as;
  • the former; the latter
  • previous; previously; prior to
  • first; second; etc.
  • in the first place; in the second place, etc.; to begin with next; then; subsequently; in the next place
  • next; then; subsequently; in the next place
  • in conclusion; finally; lastly; in the end
2 development by process
2. Development by process
  • chronological sequence and a step-by-step description.
  • imperative sentences and sentences with the indefinite pronoun you as the subject are often used.
  • the present tense if applicable.
e g page 90
e.g. Page 90
  • Once you encounter a person who has stopped breathing, you should begin immediately to do mouth-to-mouth breathing. First, place the victim on his back and remove any foreign matter from his mouth with your fingers. Then tilt his head backwards, so that his chin is pointing up. Next, pull his mouth open and his jaw forward, pinch his nostrils shut to prevent the air which you blow into his mouth from escaping through his nose. Then place your mouth tightly over the victim’s. Blow into his mouth until you see his chest rise. Then turn your head to the side and listen for the outrush of air which indicates an air exchange. Repeat the process…
study the following phrases often used in writing process descriptions page 121
Study the following phrases often used in writing process descriptions: page 121
  • occur before at this point
  • become until at the same time
  • happen while by means of
  • grow as through the use of
  • take place once be carried out
  • then change into as soon as
exercises
Exercises:
  • Study the following sentences and put them together to form a paragraph. The paragraph should give a precise description of what is involved in the marking of examination papers in foreign language examinations in Britain. Page121 and page 122
slide9
(1) Problem papers are marked and returned to the chief examiner for remarking.
  • (2) It is not customary in Britain to be informed of an examination result sooner than about two months from the time the examination was taken.
  • (3) After the paper has been completed by the candidate, it is collected in by the invigilator.
  • (4) The papers are marked initially by a single examiner, working with clear, predetermined marking guidelines.
  • (5) In order to sample the marking the chief examiner selects a percentage of the papers from all examiners and marks them himself, or has them marked by a second marker.
  • (6) The papers are then sent by recorded delivery to the chief examiner, who redistributes them for marking.
  • (7) The invigilator bundles the papers together and places them, counted and labelled, in an envelope.
slide10
Key:
  • 1 (3) After the paper has been completed by the candidate, it is collected in by the invigilator.
  • 2 (7) The invigilator bundles the papers together and places them, counted and labelled, in an envelope.
  • 3 (6) The papers are then sent by recorded delivery to the chief examiner, who redistributes them for marking.
  • 4 (4) The papers are marked initially by a single examiner, working with clear, predetermined marking guidelines.
  • 5 (1) Problem papers are marked and returned to the chief examiner for remarking.
  • 6 (5) In order to sample the marking the chief examiner selects a percentage of the papers from all examiners and marks them himself, or has them marked by a second marker.
  • 7 (2) It is not customary in Britain to be informed of an examination result sooner than about two months from the time the examination was taken.
3 development by space
3. Development by space
  • the space relationships between different parts
  • arranging our description accordingly.
e g page 92
e.g. page 92
  • Mr. Cook, a renowned American historian, arranges the books on his bookshelves in a unique way. In the upper right hand corner, there are books about the development of the early colonies in New England and the War of Independence. Right under them can be found books on the slave trade, the plantation system and the growth of the southern states. The left side of the shelf contains hundreds of books concerning subjects of the Westward Movement, Indian culture, the cowboys’ contributions so American society and the Gold Rush in California. From the description above, one can see that Mr. Cook regards his bookshelves as a map of the U.S. and arranges his history books accordingly. It is odd, but it is convenient.
slide13
This paragraph, which describes the arrangement of books, is simple and clear. The positions of the books are described in order that is easy to follow; first from the upper right to the lower right, and then to the left.
study the following expression for describing spacial relationships
Study the following expression for describing spacial relationships:
  • where
  • in which; to which; from which; etc.
  • under; over; inside; beside; on top of ; etc.
  • along; through; as far as; etc.
  • north; northern; south; southern; etc.
  • at the back; in front; in the middle; etc.
  • adjacent parallel rectangle
  • corresponding parallel to semicircle
  • distance perpendicular to slope
  • midpoint plane space
  • interior opposite surface
  • diagonal overlapping vertical
  • edge pyramid horizontal
  • limit exterior intersection
4 development by example or generalization
4.Development by example or generalization
  • examples or illustrations
  • clear, interesting, memorable, or convincing.
e g page 93
e.g. Page 93
  • This term several useful and interesting courses have been offered. An Introduction to European Culture, for instance, gives us a lot of background knowledge of the history of European philosophy, literature, and arts. From time to time we see slide shows of famous paintings and hear tapes of famous pieces of music, and they make the lectures all the more interesting. American Society and Culture is another course that attracts a large audience. The teacher, who visited the United States not long ago, discusses new trends and changes in American life as well as American history and traditions. We like these and other courses very much, because they help us not only to improve our English but also to broaden our vision.
slide17
In this paragraph there are two examples that explain why certain courses are ‘useful and interesting’ as is said in the first sentence.
slide18
Details or example are usually arranged in climactic order; the least important comes first, followed by others in order of increasing importance. Such a climactic sequence is followed in paragraphs developed not only by details or examples but also by comparison and contrast, by cause and effect, etc.
study the following expressions for making generalizations and giving specific details page 124
Study the following expressions for making generalizations and giving specific details: page 124
  • for example in substantiation
  • for instance to substantiate
  • for one thing as an illustration
  • to illustrate in one instance
  • in this instance in other words
  • as an example as follows
  • take ____ for example let me illustrate
  • consider ____ for example let me cite as proof
  • in practice according to statistics
  • according to statistical evidence always
  • generally all
  • generally speaking every
  • on the whole never
exercises1
Exercises:
  • 3. On the basis of the following information, make a generalization about: a) Japanese workers: B) Beijing’s environment. Page128 and page 129
slide21
(1)
  • A Japanese workers like work better than anything else.
  • B In 1985, Japanese workers worked an average of 2168 hours a year. By comparison, people in Britain worked 1952 hours, in the U.S., 1924, in West Germany, 1659 and in France, 1643.
  • C Many Japanese workers feel that if they take a week off, they will lose touch with the business and fall behind other people.
  • D It is considered bad form in many offices in Japan to leave before the boss. So workers will continue to work until their boss finally puts on his jacket and heads out the door.
  • Japanese workers are very conscientious with their work.
slide22
(2)
  • A Dust storms used to make havoc of Beijing for an average of 20 days a year. Now the number of such awful days stands at around 10 annually.
  • B The volume of falling dust and suspended particles in the air in the capital declined 19 and 12 percent respectively over the last five years.
  • C Over 70 per cent of the farmland around Beijing now enjoys protection given by the various forms of tree belts.
  • D The speed of the wind over the farmland is 30 to 40 per cent slower, humidity has risen 5 to 15 per cent, and grain output is generally 10 to 20 per cent higher.
  • E Grain output in the same area increased by over one-fifth after the fields were surrounded by trees.
  • F Great efforts have been made in the past ten years to plant trees and build a forest network around Beijing.
  • G Trees are planted in an area larger than the 33,000 hectares around the Miyun Reservoir.
  • Beijing’s environment is improved.
5 development by comparison and contrast
5. Development by comparison and contrast
  • the similarities between two or more persons or things of the same class
  • the differences between them.
there are two major ways of organizing paragraphs of comparison and contrast
There are two major ways of organizing paragraphs of comparison and contrast.
  • block comparison / block contrast
  • alternating comparison / alternating contrast
slide26
The same qualities that make people good houseguests make them good hospital patients. Good houseguests can expect a reasonable amount of service and effort on their behalf, and hospital patients can also: Guests have to adjust to what is for them a change, and certainly hospital patients must do the same. No one appreciates a complaining, unpleasant, unappreciative houseguests, and the hospital staff is no exception. Houseguests who expect vast changes to be made for their benefit are not popular for long. Certainly nurses and other personnel with their routines feel the same way about patients in their care. Just as houseguests must make adjustments to enjoy their visits, so patients must make adjustments to make their stays reasonably pleasant and satisfying under the circumstances.
slide27
Alternating contrast is used when you want to point out several differences between two things or people without discussing them in great detail. You merely point out a special feature of one item and then state how the other item differs from it in that aspect.
slide28
Block comparison / contrast is suitable when the writer wants to treat points of similarity / difference in depth. This type of comparison/ difference is often used when the points of similarity /difference discussed are not many but complex, and require much explanation.
slide29
Examples of alternating contrast and block comparison and block contrast can be found in our textbook, page 97, page98, and page 99.
study the following expressions often used in making comparison and contrast page 130 and 131
Study the following expressions often used in making comparison and contrast: page 130 and 131
  • To compare:
  • similar to at the same rate as
  • similarly as
  • like, alike just as
  • likewise in like manner
  • correspond to in the same way
  • correspondingly to have _____ in common
  • resemble common characteristics, etc.
  • resemblance to be parallel in _____
  • almost the same as both
to contrast
To contrast:
  • differ from unlike
  • however in contrast to
  • otherwise in opposition to
  • still on the contrary
  • nevertheless on the opposite side
  • even so on the other hand
  • a larger (smaller) percentage than
  • but less than
  • different from although
  • more than faster than, etc.
  • while
exercises2
Exercises:
  • 2. Read the following sentences and indicate if they are sentences of comparison or contrast. Page 131
  • (1) Though both are forms of humor, comedy is different from satire. (contrast)
  • (2) In 2000 the world will surely be different from what it is today. (contrast)
  • (3) Fashions in furniture change just as clothing fashions do. (comparison)
  • (4) Buying a car requires as much skill as selling one. (comparison)
  • (5) Badminton is as important a sport in Indonesia as football in the United States. (comparison)
  • (6) There is more hard work in writing than in physical labor. (contrast)
  • (7) Ballet is a more exhausting art than gymnastics. (contrast)
  • (8) “Friendship,” like “love,” is often discussed but seldom understood (comparison)
slide33
3. Write statements of contrast to fit the following patterns (you may need a word or a phrase to complete the sentence). Page 132
  • (1) TV and newspapers are different in many ways even though their aims may be the same.
  • (2) Sound travels faster through metal than through water/air.
  • (3) Before 1880 many people died of smallpox; however, the percentage of deaths from smallpox is small today.
  • (4) Some children grow taller /bigger than other children because of nutritional differences.
  • (5) In contrast to living on the farm, living in the city is an intense struggle to survive in a concrete wasteland.
  • (6) Per capita earnings in Japan different from those in South Korea.
slide34
4. Write statements of comparison to fit the following patterns (you may need a word or a phrase to complete the sentence).
  • (1) The development of transportation and the development of communications are parallel in many ways.
  • (2) Anshan in the Northease of China and Panzhihua in the Southwest are both steel centers.
  • (3) Despite centuries of change, human beings and their primitive ancestors have many traits in common.
  • (4) Neither badminton nor table tennis requires a large playing area.
  • (5) Although the last days of the Roman Empire may at first appear very different from those of the United States today, there are ominous resemblances/similarities.
slide36
Sound reasoning or logic is naturally the most important quality of any causal analysis. But it is not always easy to explain causes and effects clearly and logically. One reason for this is that an effect may have many causes and a cause may have many effects. So we must be thorough in our discussion and careful in our selection of details.
two basic ways of organizing paragraphs developed by cause and effect
Two basic ways of organizing paragraphs developed by cause and effect.
  • The first method is to state an effect and devote the rest of the paragraph to examining the causes.
lets look at the example in the book page 102
Lets look at the example in the book, page 102.
  • One might wonder why, after the Norman Conquest, French did not become the national language, replacing English entirely. The reason is that the Conquest was not a national migration, as the earlier Anglo-Saxon invasion had been. Great numbers of Normans came to England, but they came as rulers and landlords. French became the language of the court, the language of the nobility, the language of polite society, the language of literature. But it did not replace English as the language of the people. There must always have been hundreds of towns and villages in which French was never heard except when visitors of high station passed through.—Paul Roverts
slide39
In this paragraph, the opening sentence raises the question of why the Norman Conquest did not, as might have been expected, make England a French-speaking country. This sentence states an effect or result of the Conquest. The sentences that follow develop the controlling idea by explaining the causes.
slide40
The second method is to state a cause and then mention or predict the effects.
  • Suppose the topic sentence is : “More and more fertile land in China is taken up by new buildings.” In the rest of the paragraph the effects of this development should be mentioned, such as the reduction of the grain output, increasing environmental problems, too many peasants moving into the cities, etc.
lets look at the example in the book page 103
Lets look at the example in the book, page 103.
  • One might wonder why, after the Norman Conquest, French did not become the national language, replacing English entirely. The reason is that the Conquest was not a national migration, as the earlier Anglo-Saxon invasion had been. Great numbers of Normans came to England, but they came as rulers and landlords. French became the language of the court, the language of the nobility, the language of polite society, the language of literature. But it did not replace English as the language of the people. There must always have been hundreds of towns and villages in which French was never heard except when visitors of high station passed through.—Paul Roverts
slide42
In next paragraph, the topic sentence states a cause, and then the writer predicts what effects the surge of demand for oil will bring to American society.
study the following expressions for discussing cause and effect page 134 and page 135
Study the following expressions for discussing cause and effect: Page 134 and page 135
  • so consequently thus
  • therefore accordingly because of
  • for this reason owing to for this reason
  • as a result since hence
  • due to because
  • as a result of as the effect of
  • the result of so that thanks to
  • result in so ____ that the consequence of
  • out of have an effect on owe ____ to
  • the reason for the cause of It follows that
  • now that seeing that for fear that
  • such _____ that so as ____ to make __ possible
  • make it possible /impossible for ____ to ____
exercises3
Exercises:
  • 2. Decide whether the following sentences express Cause and Effect or things that happened in chronological order. Page 135
  • (1) Peter and Mark went to the park yesterday. They had barbecue there. (Chronological order)
  • (2) Footsteps echoed down the empty path towards Mary, and she was afraid. (Cause and Effect)
  • (3) John has a Vitamin C deficiency. He has a skin disease.(Cause and Effect)
  • (4) Bob was very sleepy. He sat nodding in his car. (Cause and Effect)
  • (5) There are a loud knock at the door downstairs. The knock woke me out of a sound sleep. (Cause and Effect)
  • (6) Susan did not feel well. She did not turn up. (Cause and Effect)
slide45

3. Study the following information. In the blank before each sentence, write C if it is a statement of Cause or E if it is a statement of Effect. Page 136

1 topic music in the united states
(1) Topic: Music in the United States
  • E A Popular music showed a definite change in the 1950s—a movement away from the big band sound that had appealed to those growing up in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s.
  • C B Teenagers became more affluent and thus had the money to buy records by performers like Elvis Presley and Ray Charles.
  • C C The black population finally had the money in the 1950s to support the singers and musicians they had preferred for years.
  • C D A large proportion of the adult white population that had been poor during the depression began to rebel against the sophisticated lyrics and sounds of the big band musicians.
  • C E The new afflence of groups of people who had previously had little money to spend on entertainment paved the way for the emergence of gospel, blues, and rock music.
2 topic tornados
(2) Topic: Tornados
  • C A Tornados are formed when warm, moist air spreads northward, meeting with cold air flowing from the north and west above it.
  • E B The meeting of cold and warm air starts the characteristic circular motion.
  • E C The circular motion quickly builds up and becomes forceful enough to tear buildings apart and uproot trees.
  • E D Not only are tornados able to move huge objects but they also occasionally do odd things, such as stripping a chicken of its feathers quickly.
3 drunk drivers
(3) Drunk drivers
  • C A Excessive amounts of alcohol cause one to lose one’s sense of responsibility.
  • E B Excessive amounts of alcohol slow reaction time and seriously impair depth perception.
  • E C The inebriated driver is unable to make quick logical decisions and is often responsible for accidents causing serious injuries or death.
  • E D Drunk drivers are dangerous.
  • E E Drunk driver pose a serious threat to themselves as well as to others.
7 development by classification
7. Development by classification
  • Sort things into categories according to their characteristics.
  • We classify many things: trees, rivers, cities, companies, college students.
  • We group things according to their similarities and differences. If we classify rivers, we separate them into wide ones, narrow ones, long ones, short ones, deep ones, and shallow ones. Apples may be classified according to size, place of origin, color, price, or quality.
parallelism
Parallelism
  • If we classify types of sports, we may speak of track and field events, swimming, ball games, gymnastics, etc.
  • If we classified sports into jumping, ball games, running, floor exercise and backstroke, we would violate parallelism, for ball games should be considered a general category, while jumping and running are subcategories of the track and field events; gymnastics is a general category, and floor exercise a particular form of it.
  • In short, in a good classification the parts must be paralleled, and they should add up to the whole subject.
slide51
In the following paragraph, the author divides book owners into three main types and then describes each of them. Page 104
  • There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard sets and best sellers--unread, untouched. (This deluded individual owns woodpulp and ink, not books.) The second has a great many books--a few of them read through, most of them dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. (This person would probably like to make books his own, but is restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance.) The third has a few books or many --every one of them dog-eard and dilapidated, shaken and loosened by continual use, marked and scribbled in from front to back. (This man owns books.) --Mortimer J. Addler
study the following expressions for classification
Study the following expressions for classification:
  • main kinds of unimportant
  • major kinds of insignificant
  • basic kinds similar
  • fundamental dissimilar
  • significant contradictory
  • important opposing
  • primary, secondary opposite
  • minor contrasting
slide53
clearly distinguishable
  • easily distinguished
  • incontestable differences
  • incontestable similarities
  • classify
  • divide
slide54
kinds types attributes
  • methods sources characteristics
  • parts regions factors
  • divisions origins eras
  • categories bases time
  • classes qualities aspects
slide55
classifications
  • mutually exclusive
  • according to ______
  • with respect to ______
  • _________ falls into _____ categories
  • ______ can be divided into _____ classes
exercises4
Exercises:
  • 3. in the blank before each of the following sentences, write G if it is a statement of GENERALIZATION or C if it is a statement of CLASSIFICATION. Page 139
slide57
G (1) Democracy is a state of mind.
  • G (2) Some sports require as high a degree of eye-mind-hand coordination as brain surgery.
  • C (3) Gamblers fall into several classes, depending upon what their stakes are.
  • G (4) Students should not be allowed to smoke in the classroom.
  • C (5) Many aspects of the American character can be attributed to the American frontier.
  • C (6) United States history as reflected by the concentration of people in cities can be divided two clearly distinguishable periods.
  • G (7) A number of foreign countries were directly involved in U.S. territorial expansion.
  • G (8) A wild stallion is powerful and fierce.
  • C (9) Everyone has three kinds of "friends" he wants to forget.
8 development by definition
8. Development by definition
  • three basic ways to define a word or term:
    • to give a synonym, e.g. "To mend means to repair." "A fellow is a man or a boy."
    • to use a sentence (often with an attributive clause),e.g. "Ink is colored water which we use for writing."
    • to write a paragraph or even an essay.
when we give a definition we should observe certain principles
When we give a definition, we should observe certain principles.
  • First, we should avoid circular definitions.
  • "Democracy is the democratic process" and "An astronomer is one who studies astronomy" are circular definitions. When words are defined in terms of themselves, no one\'s understanding is improved.
slide60
Second, we should avoid long lists of synonyms if the term to be defined is an abstract one.
  • "By imagination, I mean the power to form mental images of objects, the power to form new ideas, the gift of employing images in writing, and the tendency to attribute reality to unreal things, situations and states."
slide61
Third, we should avoid loaded definitions.
  • Loaded definitions do not explain terms but make an immediate appeal for emotional approval.
  • "By state enterprise I mean high cost and poor efficiency."
  • "By state enterprise I mean one of the great blessings of democratic planning."
the following paragraphs are good examples of clear and objective definition page 106
The following paragraphs are good examples of clear and objective definition. Page 106
  • A "liberated woman" is simply a woman who controls her own life, rather than allowing it to be controlled by other people, traditions, or expectations. A "liberated woman" can be found pursuing any line of work, including housework, or no work at all. She may or may not be married; she may or may not have borne children. She may belong to any race; she may have attained any age. She may be poor or wealthy, educated or illiterate. She need have only one trait in common with her "liberated sisters"; she makes her own choices, whether they be the colors on her walls or the advanced degrees she seeks. She acts of her own volition, responsible to herself, and not out of fear of what her mother, lover, or neighbor might say. --Klarner W. Harp
study the following definitions decide which are good ones and which are inadequate page 142
Study the following definitions. Decide which are good ones and which are inadequate. Page 142
  • to define to explain
  • in definition in explanation
  • in other words by ____ is meant
  • to clarify to paraphrase
  • in clarification
  • form aspect
  • species characteristic
  • class method
  • device property
  • type condition
  • kind attribute
  • category
9 development by a combination of methods
9. Development by a combination of methods
  • a combination of methods in order to present their ideas in an impressive and convincing manner.
e g page 108
e.g Page 108
  • Kin-tay often told Kizzy stories about himself. He said that he had been near his village in Africa, chopping wood to make a drum, when he had been set upon by four men, overwhelmed, and kidnapped into slavery. When Kizzy grew up and became a mother, she told her son these stores, and he in turn would tell his children. His granddaughter became my grandmother, and she pumped that saga into me as if it were plasma, until I knew by rote the story of the African, and the subsequent generational wending of our family through cotton and tobacco plantations into the Civil War and then freedom. --Alex Haley
slide66
Two methods are clearly seen in this paragraph: development by time and development by cause and effect.
exercises5
Exercises:

Computer programming offers many interesting job opportunities.(examples)

slide68
Performing a winter checkup on your car can be done easily if you follow the proper procedure.(step by step)
slide69
Canadian and American football, although similar in many ways, have some important differences. (comparison and contrast)
slide70
The meaning of ”pedagogy” may differ, depending upon the lever of education one is talking about. (definition)
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