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FACTORS LIMITING ACCESS IN AFRICA. ASHOK.B.RADHAKISSOON Barrister at Law General Counsel and Public/Regulatory Affairs Liaison. ACCESS. The single most important issue to most people, in particular in developing countries. ACCESS. Access to the Internet must be (I) AVAILABLE

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Factors limiting access in africa

FACTORS LIMITING ACCESS IN AFRICA

ASHOK.B.RADHAKISSOON

Barrister at Law

General Counsel and Public/Regulatory Affairs Liaison


Access
ACCESS

  • The single most important issue to most people, in particular in developing countries.


Access1
ACCESS

  • Access to the Internet must be

    (I) AVAILABLE

    (II) AFFORDABLE


Access2
ACCESS

  • Ensuring that people(s) integrate the Information Society and more importantly empowering them to be productive in the e-conomy


Access3
ACCESS

  • Access unevenly distributed across and within countries.


Concept of access
Concept of Access

  • Only an infrastructural issue??

  • Quality

  • Content

  • Affordability

  • Availability


Access4
ACCESS

  • “infrastructural access…of little use to end users if access to content(poses the problem of multilingualism)and services and the level of prices was not included in the concept and discussion of access”


Access5
ACCESS

  • “The importance of open standards in maintaining the openness of the Internet , fuelling innovation and supporting the rapid diffusion of new services and technologies.”


Access6
Access

Introduction of competition and the removal of blocks to competition were of fundamental importance

  • Removal of monopolies

  • Licensing of new players

  • Establishment of interconnection regimes to reinforce competitive market

  • Universal Service


Role of government
Role of Government

  • Creating an enabling environment

  • Provision of such infrastructure services as electricity

  • Access to other government services-health,education


Technology
Technology

  • New wireless technologies

  • Regulatory issues-spectrum allocation/ management, technology neutral licensing, wireless technology standards

  • Refarming /efficient use


Access limiting factors
Access Limiting factors

  • Legislation/Policy

  • Technology

  • Cost

  • Lack of Competition

  • Language

  • Regulatory barriers to access to new technologies


Access limiting factors1
Access Limiting factors

  • Investment-rural access

  • Expensive International bandwidth

  • Pro-Incumbent policies

  • Scarcity of trained human resources

  • Geographical factors-Size,landlockedareas,topography


Reflections
Reflections

  • Lack of access=growing digital divide

  • Access a fundamental right??

  • Freedom of expression and the use of the internet

  • IPRs as a barrier to access-more flexibility for innovation

  • Access to the Internet=strengthening democracy.



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