Chapter 45
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CHAPTER 45. Engine Lubrication. Checking the Engine Oil. 45-1.

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CHAPTER 45

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Chapter 45

CHAPTER 45

Engine Lubrication


Checking the engine oil

Checking the Engine Oil

45-1

  • Locate the dipstick. With the engine off, remove the dipstick, catching any drops of oil on a rag, and wipe it clean. Observe the markings on the lower end of the stick, which indicate the "full" and "add" marks or specify the "safe" zone.


Checking the engine oil1

Checking the Engine Oil

45-1

  • Replace the dipstick and push it back down into the sump as far as it will go. Remove it again, and hold it level while checking the level indicated on the bottom of the stick. If the level is near or below the "add" mark, then you will need to determine if the engine just needs topped up to the full level with fresh oil or replaced with new oil and oil filter.


Checking the engine oil2

Checking the Engine Oil

45-1

  • Check the oil for any conditions such as unusual color or texture. Report these to your supervisor. Check the oil monitoring system, oil sticker, or service record to determine if the oil needs changed. (Some oil monitoring systems show the percentage of life left in the oil.)


Checking the engine oil3

Checking the Engine Oil

45-1

  • If additional oil is needed, estimate the amount by checking the service manual guide to the dipstick markings. Unscrew the filler cap at the top of the engine, and using a funnel to avoid spillage, turn the oil bottle so the spout is on the high side of the bottle and gently pour the oil into the engine. Recheck the oil level.


Checking the engine oil4

Checking the Engine Oil

45-1

  • Replace the oil filler cap, and check the dipstick again to make sure the oil level is now correct.


Draining the engine oil

Draining the Engine Oil

45-2

  • Before you begin, clean up any oil spills, obtain the oil drain container (and make sure it has enough room for the oil to be drained), have enough new oil of the correct type to refill the engine, have the correct oil filter, and ensure that the engine oil is up to operating temperature before starting the oil change.


Draining the engine oil1

Draining the Engine Oil

45-2

  • Identify the location of the oil drain plug. Some vehicles have two drain plugs, draining separate sump areas. If the drain plug is leaking, damaged, or does not look right, inform your supervisor. Use a box wrench or socket to remove and replace the drain bolt. Be careful that you do not remove the transmission drain plug by mistake.


Draining the engine oil2

Draining the Engine Oil

45-2

  • Position the drain pan so it will catch the oil. Remove and inspect the drain plug and gasket; replace as necessary.


Draining the engine oil3

Draining the Engine Oil

45-2

  • Allow the oil to drain while you are dealing with the drain plug, gasket, and oil filter (see Skill Drill 45-3).


Draining the engine oil4

Draining the Engine Oil

45-2

  • Screw in the drain plug all the way by hand and then tighten it to the torque specified by the manufacturer. Wipe any drips from the underside of the engine.


Draining the engine oil5

Draining the Engine Oil

45-2

  • Safely dispose of the drained oil according to all local regulations.


Replacing a spin on filter

Replacing a Spin-on Filter

45-3

  • Check for new filter availability. Locate the filter being changed. It will usually be located on the side of the engine block or at an angle underneath the engine. Select the proper oil filter wrench.


Replacing a spin on filter1

Replacing a Spin-on Filter

45-3

  • Position a drain pan to catch any oil that will leak from the filter.


Replacing a spin on filter2

Replacing a Spin-on Filter

45-3

  • Remove the filter. Clean the seating area on the engine so that its surface and the surface of the new filter can seal properly. Make sure the O-ring from the removed filter is not still stuck to the filter mounting surface.


Replacing a spin on filter3

Replacing a Spin-on Filter

45-3

  • Confirm you have the correct replacement filter. Smear a little oil on the surface of the new O-ring.


Replacing a spin on filter4

Replacing a Spin-on Filter

45-3

  • Screw in the filter until the filter just starts and ensure that it cannot be pulled off. Then turn the filter by hand until the filter lightly contacts the base. Be careful not to cross-thread the oil filter


Replacing a cartridge filter replaceable element

Replacing a Cartridge Filter (Replaceable Element)

45-4

  • Before removing a cartridge-style oil filter, make sure a suitable replacement filter is available. The filter may be located on the side of the engine block, at an angle underneath the engine, or on the top of the engine. If the filter is located in a plastic end cap housing, be sure to use the special tool that the service information calls for.


Replacing a cartridge filter replaceable element1

Replacing a Cartridge Filter (Replaceable Element)

45-4

  • Position a drain pan to catch any oil that will leak from the filter. Unscrew the filter cartridge retaining bolt or oil filter cap, and remove the cartridge filter and housing or end cap.


Replacing a cartridge filter replaceable element2

Replacing a Cartridge Filter (Replaceable Element)

45-4

  • Remove the filter and clean the housing or end cap as necessary, and replace any O-rings or gaskets on the assembly.


Replacing a cartridge filter replaceable element3

Replacing a Cartridge Filter (Replaceable Element)

45-4

  • Smear a little oil on the surface of any new O-rings. Install the new filter cartridge back into its housing.


Replacing a cartridge filter replaceable element4

Replacing a Cartridge Filter (Replaceable Element)

45-4

  • If the cartridge is on the top of the engine, the service information may direct you to pour a specified amount of oil into the filter cavity before the end cap is installed. Screw the cartridge bolt or end cap back in place and tighten to the specified torque. Be careful not to cross-thread the oil filter bolt or end cap.


Refilling the engine oil

Refilling the Engine Oil

45-5

  • Using the service information, research the correct grade and the quantity of oil you will need to fill the engine. Turn the container of oil so that the spout is on the high side of the bottle.

    (continues)


Refilling the engine oil1

Refilling the Engine Oil

45-5

  • … Pour the oil into the funnel carefully so that no oil is spilled onto the outside of the engine, and pour slowly enough to avoid the risk of blowback or overflow. Fill the engine only to the level indicated on the engine dipstick. Replace the filler cap.


Refilling the engine oil2

Refilling the Engine Oil

45-5

  • Start the engine and check the oil pressure indicator on the dash. If the oil pressure is inadequate, stop. Do not continue to run the engine.


Refilling the engine oil3

Refilling the Engine Oil

45-5

  • If the oil pressure is good, turn the engine off and check underneath the vehicle to make sure no oil is leaking from the oil filter or drain plug.


Refilling the engine oil4

Refilling the Engine Oil

45-5

  • With a level vehicle, check the oil level again with the dipstick. It may be necessary to top off the engine by adding a small quantity of oil to compensate for the amount absorbed by the new filter. Do not overfill.


Refilling the engine oil5

Refilling the Engine Oil

45-5

  • Refer to the owner's manual or the service information, and install a static sticker.


Refilling the engine oil6

Refilling the Engine Oil

45-5

  • Reset the maintenance reminder system to remind the owner when the next oil change is due.


Testing the oil pressure

Testing the Oil Pressure

45-6

  • Locate the oil pressure sensor by using the component locator in the service information.


Testing the oil pressure1

Testing the Oil Pressure

45-6

  • Place an oil drain pan under the engine to catch any oil when you remove the oil pressure sensor.


Testing the oil pressure2

Testing the Oil Pressure

45-6

  • Disconnect the wire harness connector, and remove the oil pressure sensor from the engine using the recommended tool in the service information.


Testing the oil pressure3

Testing the Oil Pressure

45-6

  • Match the adapter thread to the thread on the pressure sensor to ensure that the correct adapter will be screwed into the engine.


Testing the oil pressure4

Testing the Oil Pressure

45-6

  • Carefully thread the adapter into the engine, ensuring that you do not cross-thread the adapter.


Testing the oil pressure5

Testing the Oil Pressure

45-6

  • Connect the oil pressure gauge, then start and completely warm up the engine. Compare the readings to the specifications in the service information.


Testing the oil pressure6

Testing the Oil Pressure

45-6

  • Remove the manual pressure gauge and adaptor. Using a thread sealant, reinstall the oil sending unit and torque to specifications.


Testing the oil pressure7

Testing the Oil Pressure

45-6

  • Install the wire harness connector and start the engine. Inspect for oil leaks and proper pressure gauge operation.


Inspecting oil sensors

Inspecting Oil Sensors

45-7

  • Locate the oil sensor by using the service information. Typically the oil pressure sensor will have three wires. Disconnect the connector wire to the sensor.


Inspecting oil sensors1

Inspecting Oil Sensors

45-7

  • Find the voltage feed wire color by using the wiring diagram for the vehicle and use a variable resistor to connect between the voltage feed wire and the signal return wire.


Inspecting oil sensors2

Inspecting Oil Sensors

45-7

  • Change the resistance of the variable resistance while monitoring the oil pressure gauge in the dash. The gauge will move as specified as resistance changes if the gauge and wiring are good.


Inspecting oil sensors3

Inspecting Oil Sensors

45-7

  • Replace the oil sensor if the gauge responds correctly. If the gauge does not respond, then inspect the wiring and gauge.


Inspecting the engine assembly for fuel oil coolant and other leaks

Inspecting the Engine Assembly for Fuel, Oil, Coolant, and Other Leaks

45-8

  • Raise the vehicle on a lift. Verify the customer complaint of a leak by identifying which fluid is leaking. Pinpoint the location of the leak using fluorescent dye if necessary. If an oil leak is present, you may have to start the engine and look for leaks while it is running, but be very careful around moving and hot parts.


Inspecting the engine assembly for fuel oil coolant and other leaks1

Inspecting the Engine Assembly for Fuel, Oil, Coolant, and Other Leaks

45-8

  • If a coolant leak is present, you may need to place a pressure tester on the coolant system to pressurize the system. Use a mirror and flashlight if necessary to look behind the engine or between components.


Inspecting the engine assembly for fuel oil coolant and other leaks2

Inspecting the Engine Assembly for Fuel, Oil, Coolant, and Other Leaks

45-8

  • Repair the leak following the manufacturer's specifications.


Inspecting testing and replacing oil temperature and pressure switches

Inspecting, Testing, and Replacing Oil Temperature and Pressure Switches

45-9

  • Locate the oil pressure switch or sensor. Disconnect the connector to the switch or sensor. If it is a sensor, determine which wire is the feedback to the gauge or warning light. You may need to use a connector end view to ensure that the correct wire is found.


Inspecting testing and replacing oil temperature and pressure switches1

Inspecting, Testing, and Replacing Oil Temperature and Pressure Switches

45-9

  • Use a nonpowered test light to ground the feedback wire to see if the gauge or light responds. The gauge should move one direction or the warning light should glow.


Inspecting testing and replacing oil temperature and pressure switches2

Inspecting, Testing, and Replacing Oil Temperature and Pressure Switches

45-9

  • If the gauge or light does not respond, then use an ohmmeter to test the wiring coming back to the gauge or light for an open or high resistance. If the gauge or light does respond, then the sensor or switch is bad.


Inspecting testing and replacing oil temperature and pressure switches3

Inspecting, Testing, and Replacing Oil Temperature and Pressure Switches

45-9

  • Replace the oil pressure sensor or switch. Use the proper socket to remove the sensor or switch. If the new sensor does not come with thread sealant, use thread sealant on the threads, then install and torque the new sensor to the manufacturer's specifications. Double-check the oil level after replacement, as the oil level may have dropped.


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