A quick review aka what you should know by now
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A quick review! AKA: What you SHOULD know by now. . The structure of chromosomes: A chromosome consist of DNA tightly coiled around proteins. What is a gene? A segment of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA molecule. DNA is copied during the S phase of the cell cycle.

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A quick review aka what you should know by now

A quick review! AKA: What you SHOULD know by now.

The structure of chromosomes: A chromosome consist of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.

What is a gene? A segment of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA molecule.

DNA is copied during the S phase of the cell cycle.


A quick review aka what you should know by now

Changes in DNA are called Mutations.

Original DNA strand: ABCDEFG

Types of mutations:

1)Deletion:ABCEFG – a nucleotide is missing

2) Substitution: ABKEFG – a nucleotide is substituted (K for C).

3) Insertion: ABGCDEFG – a nucleotide is inserted (G). All other nucleotides are present.

4) Translocation: ABCDJEFG – a nucleotide is brought in that is not in the original strand at all.

5) Replication: ABBCDEFG – a nucleotide is repeated.


A quick review aka what you should know by now

And, last but not least- don’t forget Mendel’s Theory of Heredity:

For each inherited character, an individual has 2 copies of the gene- one from each parent.

There are alternative versions of genes.

When two different alleles occur together, one of them may be completely expressed, while the other may have no observable effect on the organism’s appearance.

When gametes are formed, the alleles for each gene in an individual separate independently of one another.


Chapter 9 pg 189 dna the genetic material

Chapter 9. Pg 189DNA: The Genetic Material

Section 1 Key Terms:

Vaccine: a substance that is prepared from killed or weakened disease-causing agents, including certain bacteria.

Virulent: Describes an organism that is able to cause disease.

Transformation: A change in genotype caused when cells take up foreign genetic material.

Bacteriophage: AKA ‘phage’; it is a virus that infects bacteria.

QUIZ TOMORROW ON THESE TERMS.


A little history

A Little History

Frederick Griffith was researching a vaccine for pneumonia and discovered that genes could be changed when cells take up foreign material. This change in genetic material is called transformation.


A quick review aka what you should know by now

  • In order to find a vaccine, he used two strains of bacteria.

  • The two strains were called Steptococcus pneumonia or S. pneumoniae.

  • One strain was enclosed in a capsule made of polysaccharides that protected it from the immune system.

  • This characteristic, helped make this strain be able to cause pneumonia.

  • This ability to cause disease makes an organism virulent.

  • This strain was virulent.

  • The capsule around strain one strain causes the bacteria to grow with smooth edged colonies in a petri-dish.

  • This is call the “S bacteria” or Smooth strain.

  • Mice infected with the S bacteria died.

  • The second strain did not have a polysaccharide coat, so it was unable to cause disease.

  • In a petri-dish, this bacteria causes round edged colonies.

  • It is referred to as the‘Rough Strain’ or ‘R-strain’.

  • Mice infected with the R bacteria did not die.

S. pneumonia


A quick review aka what you should know by now

This is what he knew, but he didn’t know why it happened.


A quick review aka what you should know by now

  • Griffith wanted to know what was causing the death.

  • He knew the only difference between the two strains was the presence of a capsule on the S strain.

  • So, he injected dead S strain into the mice. This left only the capsule alive in the mice.

  • But, the mice did not die.

  • ____________________________________

  • Next, he made a vaccine of weakened S strain bacteria, by raising their temperature.

  • This produced “heat-killed” bacteria.

  • Heat killing bacteria allows bacteria to stay alive, but prevents them from being able to reproduce.

  • The mice still lived.

  • ___________________________________

  • This meant that the capsule was not the cause of death.

  • Next, he mixed the harmless R strain bacteria with the harmless heat killed bacteria.

  • This mixture killed the mice.

  • When he examined the dead mice, he found that the harmless R strain had acquired capsules and became harmful S bacteria while in the mice.

  • This change is called transformation, but he didn’t know how it had occurred.


A quick review aka what you should know by now

  • 100 years later, Oswald Avery and his team discovered that DNA was the source of this transformation, not proteins.

  • His experiments showed that DNA contained the instructions of making the capsule around the bacteria.


A quick review aka what you should know by now

Viral Genes & DNA

  • Although Avery had shown that DNA was responsible, many scientists still believed protein was responsible.

  • They knew protein had many important responsibilities in a cell but, they didn’t know much about DNA.

  • 1952: Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase .

  • At this time, it was known that viruses were

  • made of DNA or RNA and were surrounded by

  • a protective protein coat.

  • These are called bacteriaphages or phages.

  • They are viruses that infect bacterial cells.

  • Once inside the cell, they

  • reproduce and create more viruses. The

  • bacteria cell ruptures and the new viruses

  • are released.


A quick review aka what you should know by now

  • Hershey & Chase concluded that the DNA of viruses is injected into the bacterial cells, while most of the viral proteins remain outside.

  • The injected DNA molecules causes the bacterial cells to produce more viral DNA and proteins.


Homework due tuesday

Homework: DUE TUESDAY

  • Page 193 # 1 and # 6.

  • NOW

  • Section 1 Vocabulary quiz.


Section 1 bellwork quiz

Section 1 Bellwork Quiz

Take out one sheet of paper. Match the terms with the correct definition.

Vaccine

Virulent

Transformation

Bacteriaphage

1) This describes a microorganism or virus that causes disease and that is highly infectious.

2) A virus that infects a bacteria.

A substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity.

The transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another.


Section 1 scientist bellwork

Section 1 Scientist Bellwork

Answer the following questions using the choices below. Write the correct letter.

Who discovered transformation?

Who performed the first experiment that correctly identified the molecule that carries genetic info as DNA and not proteins?

Choices:

Oswald Avery

Martha Chase

Frederick Griffith

Alfred Hershey


Section 2 the structure of dna

Section 2: The structure of DNA

Key Terms:

1. Double Helix

2. Nucleotide

3. Deoxyribose

4. Base-Pairing Rules

5. Complementary Base Pair

Quiz tomorrow on these terms.


Watson and crick

Watson and Crick

  • Found the model of DNA. This model showed how DNA was able to serve as the genetic model.

    • They discovered:

    • -That a DNA molecule is a double helix.

    • -That each strand is made up of linked nucleotides.

    • -Each nucleotide is made up of three parts:

  • 1) A phosphate group (same for each nucleotide in a molecule of DNA).

  • 2) A 5-carbon sugar molecule (deoxyribose- same for each nucleotide in a molecule).

  • 3) A nitrogen-containing base (may be adenosine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine).


  • Dna nitrogen bases there are 2 groups and 4 bases

    DNA Nitrogen Bases: There are 2 groups and 4 bases.

    Purines are nucleotides that are bulky and double-ringed.

    Pyrimidines are nucleotides that are small and single-ringed.

    The nitrogen base in a nucleotide can be Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine.

    Pyrimidines

    Purines


    Base pairing rules

    Base Pairing Rules

    • Purines (Adenosine or Guanine) are always paired with pyrimidines (Thymine or Cytosine).

      • An Adenosine base on one strand always pairs with the Thymine base on the opposite strand with 2 hydrogen bonds.

      • A Guanine base on one strand always

      • pairs with the Cytosine base on the

      • opposite strand with 3 hydrogen bonds.

      • This pairing is due to the structure and

      • size of the nitrogen bases.

      • The hydrogen bonds keep the two

      • strands of DNA together.

    • The strictness of base pairing rules results in

    • two strands of DNA that contain complementary

    • base pairs. This means that the sequence of

    • bases on one strand will determine the

    • sequence of bases on the other strand.


    Who discovered this stuff

    Who discovered this stuff?

    Chargaff: 1948, Erwin Chargaff discovered that for each organism he studies, the amount of adenine always equaled the amount of thymine and that the amount of guanine always equaled the amount of cytosine. Now, we know why.

    Wilkins and Franklin: Developed high X-ray diffraction photographs of strands of DNA. These photos suggested that DNA resembled a tightly coiled helix and was composed of three chains of nucleotides.

    Watson and Crick: They took this info and their knowledge of chemical bonding and determined the structure of DNA.


    Homework

    Homework

    Study Section 2 terms and end of section questions (pg 197 #1,4,5,6). Be ready for a Bellwork Quiz on vocabulary.


    Section 2 vocab quiz

    Section 2 Vocab Quiz

    Take out one sheet of paper. Number your paper 1-5. Match the terms (the correct letter) with the correct definition.

    1. Double helix 4. Base-Pairing Rules

    2. Nucleotide 5. Complementary Base Pairing

    3. Deoxyribose

    a. The rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with Uracil in RNA.

    b. In a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.

    c. A characteristic of nucleic acids in which the sequence of bases on one strand is paired to the sequence of bases on the other.

    d. The spiral staircase structure characteristic of the DNA molecule.

    e. A five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides.


    Sec 3 the replication of dna

    Sec 3: The Replication of DNA

    DNA Replication: the process of making a

    copy of DNA.

    Steps of DNA Replication:

    An enzyme called DNA helicasebreaks

    the hydrogen bonds that link the two DNA

    strands together. The double helix unwinds

    and the two original DNA strands separate. Once the two strands are separated, additional proteins attach to each strand in order to hold them apart and keep them from wrapping back together. The areas where the strands are held apart are called replication forks.

    2) At the replication fork, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand, according to the base pairing rules.

    3) Two DNA molecules form that are identical to the original DNA molecule.


    A quick review aka what you should know by now

    DNA helicasesseparate the two original DNA strands.

    DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand.

    Two DNA molecules form that are identical to the original DNA molecule.


    Checking for errors

    Checking For Errors

    • If an error occurs and the wrong nucleotide is added to the strand, this is corrected with DNA polymerases.

    • As DNA polymerases are adding nucleotides, they can only move on to the next one if the previous one is correctly paired to its complementary base. If there is a mismatch, then the DNA polymerases can move backwards and make the correction.

    • This “proofreading” reduces errors in DNA replication to about one error per 1 billion nucleotides.


    The rate of replication

    The Rate of Replication

    • In prokaryotes, DNA molecules are circular. So, there are two replication forks that form at a single point and replicate DNA by moving away from each other until they meet on the other side of the DNA circle.

    • If eukaryotes

    • (humans) were

    • done in this same

    • way, it could take 33

    • days to replicate a

    • strand of DNA.


    A quick review aka what you should know by now

    • Each human chromosome is replicated in about 100 sections that are 100,000 nucleotides long, each section have its own starting point.

    • Since this means that multiple replication forks are working at the same time, an entire human chromosome can be replicated in 8 hours.

    This process occurs atmultiple placesthroughout the strand of DNA, until replication is complete.


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