IGCP/SIDA Project 594, Annual Workshop, Windhoek, Namibia, 2012
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IGCP/SIDA Project 594, Annual Workshop, Windhoek, Namibia, 2012Pathways of exposure to cobalt in populations living in Katanga, D.R. CongoC. Banza Lubaba Nkulu1, K. Cheyns2, J. Ngoy Asosa1, L. Kabamba Ngombe1, A. Mutombo Mwanza1, V. Haufroid3, Th. De Putter4, O. Luboya Numbi1, B. Kabyla Ilunga1, C. Muleka Kimpanga1, B. Nemery5, E. Smolders2

Unité de Toxicologie et Environnement, Ecole de Santé Publique, Université de Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo

Division of Soil and Water Management,Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Laboratoire de Toxicologie Industrielle et Médecine du Travail, U.C. Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

Geology, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium

Occupational, Environmental and Insurance Medicine, Department of Public Health, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium


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“African copperbelt”

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10°0’0’’S

Likasi

Lubumbashi

12°0’0’’S

Kipushi

26°0’0’’E

28°0’0’’E


Background

Background

  • Evidence of high exposure to several metals (Co, Cu, As, U, …) in the population of south Katanga

  • Evidence of higher exposure in subjects living very close (< 3 km) to mines or smelting plants


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Aims

Main pathways of exposure ?

  • Air

  • Dust

  • Water

  • Diet (staple foods, vegetables, fish, meat, ...)

  • Work


Igcp sida project 594 annual workshop kitwe zambia 201 1

IGCP/SIDA Project 594, Annual Workshop, Kitwe, Zambia, 2011

  • Preliminary data

    • Concentrations of metals in urine of adults and children

    • Concentration of metals in environmental samples (drinking water, indoor + outdoor dust, fish, chickens)

      in three areas (Likasi & Lake Changalele)


Likasi and lake changalele

Likasi and Lake Changalele

AControl

  • 2 villages : Misisi-Sando(alongriverLufira),Kidimudilo

    BLikasi

  • 2 urban areas in vicinity of metallurgicalplants: Q. Shituru, Q. Panda

    CLake Changalele(receiveseffluentsfrommetallurgicalplants in Likasi):

  • 3 villages close to Lake Changalele (high fishconsumption): Kansalabwe, Shinangwa, Kibangu


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KIBANGU

SHITURU

KANSALABWE

R PANDA

PANDA

SHINANGWA

KIDIMUDILO

R. LUFIRA

MISISI-SANDO


Urine

URINE


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Kapolowe-Gare: Panda and Lufira rivers jonction


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Street

City

Country

World

 WikiMapia 

 WikiMapia

 View 

 View 

 Add place 

 Add place 

11036019 places

11036019 places

Food

Fish

Shinangwa 2009


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Air pollution

Likasi 2006


Igcp sida project 594 annual workshop kitwe zambia 201 11

IGCP/SIDA Project 594, Annual Workshop, Kitwe, Zambia, 2011

Preliminary conclusions

Main source of exposure to metals appears to be dust

Fish may also be a significant source

Contribution of vegetables needs to be assessed


Igcp sida project 594 annual workshop windhoek namibia 2012

IGCP/SIDA Project 594, Annual Workshop, Windhoek, Namibia, 2012

  • Additional data & further analysis re. Co

    • Concentration of metals in food items (maize flour, locally grown vegetables, ...)

    • Food questionnaire (quantity/quality)

    • Additional locations

      • 1 urban area in Lubumbashi (Q. Kabecha) close to a copper/cobalt processing plant

      • 1 rural area close to a cobalt mine (Shamitumba)

      • 2 control locations outside Copperbelt (Kamina, Mbuji-Mayi)


Sampling

Sampling

  • Volunteers – convenience sampling (family clusters: adults + children)

    • Simple questionnaire (age, residence, …)

    • Food questionnaire (1 per household)

    • Spot sample of urine (avoiding contamination)

  • Soil dust samples (outdoor + indoor)

  • Drinking water

  • Chickens (liver, kidney) + Fish

  • Kitchen gardens (soil, vegetables) + maize flour


Analytical methods

Analytical methods

  • Urine

  • Water

  • Animal tissues

  • Vegetables oven dried, acid destruction

  • Soil & dust

  • Analysis by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry)


Estimation of intake of co

Estimation of intake of Co

  • Dietary intake based on

    • food questionnaire (average data)

    • concentrations of Co in collected samples

  • Dust intake based on

    • estimate from literature

    • concentrations of Co in indoor + outdoor dust


Estimated adult dietary intake

Estimated adult dietary intake


Average co concentrations g g dry wt

Average Co concentrations (µg/g dry wt)


Average co concentrations g g dry wt1

Average Co concentrations (µg/g dry wt)


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Urinary Co concentrations (µg/g creatinine)


Estimated co intake g day adults

Estimated Co intake (µg/day) – Adults

62

65

55

62

99

170

79

635

509

593

553


Adults

Adults


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Estimated Co intake (µg/day) – Children

36

34

29

33

46

34

37

352

416

313

340


Children

Children


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Good (but not perfect) relation between estimated Co intake and urinary concentration of Co

    • Lower bioavailability of Co in dust?

    • Incorrect estimate of quantity of dust intake?

  • Main contributory sources of Co:

    • Control areas: ~90% maize flour + vegetables

    • Lakeside areas: ~25% fish

    • Polluted areas: vegetables and dust (dust especially in children)

  • Further analyses are planned for other metals


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