Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 59

Fundamentals of Sustainable Engineering Module 4 Earth Systems Cliff I. Davidson PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 87 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Fundamentals of Sustainable Engineering Module 4 Earth Systems Cliff I. Davidson. 4.1. Learning Outcomes. Those successfully completing this module will be able to: Define and use “systems thinking” in the context of anthropogenic and natural systems

Download Presentation

Fundamentals of Sustainable Engineering Module 4 Earth Systems Cliff I. Davidson

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Fundamentals of Sustainable EngineeringModule 4 Earth SystemsCliff I. Davidson

4.1


Learning outcomes

Learning Outcomes

  • Those successfully completing this module will be able to:

  • Define and use “systems thinking” in the context of anthropogenic and natural systems

  • Identify ways in which engineered systems interact with natural systems

  • Explain how attributes of natural ecosystems can assist in the design of engineered systems using concepts in industrial ecology

  • Explain the key concepts in widely known principles of sustainability


Outline

Outline

  • 1. Characteristics of a “system”

  • 2. Interactions between engineered and natural systems: unintended consequences

  • 3. Natural systems: Ecology

  • 4. Industrial Ecology

  • 5. Principles of Sustainability


Characteristics of a system

Characteristics of a System

  • In the most general sense, a system is any group of components with flows of energy, mass, or information between them

  • Examples of systems:

    • A single living organism, e.g., an amoeba

    • An ecosystem, e.g., a tropical rainforest, which includes both living and non-living components

    • ASCE, an organization where information flows from person to person


Characteristics of a system1

Characteristics of a System

  • The flows of energy, mass, and/or information between components is for the purpose of achieving a goal

    • Amoeba: to reproduce

    • Tropical rainforest: to enable the continuation of the diverse life forms that comprise the forest

    • ASCE: to advance the profession of Civil Engineering


Characteristics of a system2

Characteristics of a System

  • Cannot anticipate behavior of system by observing individual components

  • Need “systems thinking” to understand full system

  • Need to account for system evolution


Characteristics of a system3

Characteristics of a System

  • Examples of System Architectures (arrangement of components)

  • Hierarchical

  • Ring

  • Mesh


Characteristics of a system4

Spring

Mass

Characteristics of a System

  • Simple systems:

    • Have linear behavior

    • Are predictable

    • Have a stable equilibrium point

  • Complex systems:

    • Are nonlinear

    • Are unpredictable due to feedback loops, time lags, and responses spatially distant from forcing functions

    • Operate far from equilibrium


Characteristics of a system5

Characteristics of a System

  • Coal-fired power plants

Electrical energy

Mass:

O2

Carbon

Impurities

Waste mass:

CO2, SO2, NOx, flyash, bottom ash

Energy:

Coal

Waste energy

Heat

Steev Hise – Creative Commons license


Characteristics of a system6

Characteristics of a System

  • Computers

Finished computer

Waste mass:

HF acid

air emissions

wastewater

e-waste

Mass:

Silicon chips

Plastic housing

Copper wiring

Waste energy

Heat

Energy:

Electricity for clean rooms, manufacturing

Ralf Roletschek

Creative Commons license


Characteristics of a system7

Characteristics of a System

  • Automobiles

Finished auto

Mass:

Steel

Plastics

Glass

Waste mass:

scrap

air emissions

wastewater

Energy:

Electricity

Fossil fuels

Waste energy

Heat

Bluescan sv

Creative Commons license


The automobile built infrastructure

The Automobile Built Infrastructure

Gas Stations

Garages

Auto Service

Parking Lots

Parking Garages

Auto Dealerships

Auto Parts

Bridges

Highways


Characteristics of a system8

Characteristics of a System

  • Why Study Systems?

  • Some of the world’s most severe problems have roots in a poor understanding of the link between engineered systems and natural systems, for example:

    • Food and water shortages

    • Energy shortages

    • Deforestation and other environmental degradation

  • Even in cases where we have some understanding, we do not know how to manage complex systems accounting for economic, social, and environmental issues

  • This has resulted in unintended consequences


Outline1

Outline

  • 1. Characteristics of a “system”

  • 2. Interactions between engineered and natural systems: unintended consequences

  • 3. Natural systems: Ecology

  • 4. Industrial Ecology

  • 5. Principles of Sustainability


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Interactions Between Engineered and

Natural Systems: Unintended Consequences

  • CFCs as refrigerants developed in 1930’s

    • Former refrigerants were SO2 and NH3

    • CFCs: nonflammable, nontoxic, chemically stable

    • Besides refrigerants, CFCs widely used as aerosol spray propellants, industrial solvents, fire suppressants

  • Discovery in 1980’s (WMO, 1999)

    • Stratospheric O3 depletion in the

    • Antarctic allowed more uv radiation

    • to reach earth’s surface

    • Caused by chlorine atoms from CFCs

    • Stability: 1 Cl atom can destroy 105 O3

    • molecules


Unintended consequences toxic dust at aral sea

Unintended Consequences: Toxic Dust at Aral Sea

  • Aral Sea located in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan

  • Rivers feeding Aral Sea diverted for cotton irrigation

  • Environmental effects: (Tanton & Heaven, 1999)

    • Much of lake gone

    • Ecosystem decimated

    • Toxic dust storms

    • pesticides and salt from

    • dry sea bed

    • Local climate change

100 km

NASA


Unintended consequences many more examples

Unintended Consequences:Many More Examples

  • Three Mile Island

    • Halted growth of

    • nuclear power in US

  • Bhopal

    • Injuries, deaths

  • Everglades

    • Ecosystem damage

  • Oil Spills: Valdez, Gulf

    • Damage to marine and

    • coastal ecosystems

US Department of Energy


Why are these problems occurring

Why are These Problems Occurring?

  • We solve problems in isolation, without accounting for effects at the systems level – and we discount human error, poor understanding, and inability to manage complex problems

  • We can improve the situation if we:

    • Strive to better understand natural world

    • Account for impact of every engineering decision on human and natural systems

    • Acknowledge human errors and mismanagement

USGS


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Demands of an Increasing Population


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Demands of an Increasing Population

New vehicle

production

~ 60 M/yr

Old vehicle

retirement

~ 40 M/yr

Total global vehicle

population ~ 800 M

  • Global vehicle population is increasing

  • Average in G7 ~ 750 veh/1000 pop.

  • Average in China ~ 24 veh/1000 pop.

Wikimedia photo – public domain


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Demands of an Increasing Population

Materials used in a typical 1990 car

Steel 1026 kg

Aluminum 65 kg

Copper 19 kg

Lead + Zinc 14 kg

Plastics 107 kg

Other materials 136 kg

Ginley, 1994


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Demands of an Increasing Population

Total materials used in vehicles worldwide

Steel 820 M metric tons (20 largest steel plants)Aluminum52 M metric tons

Copper15 M metric tons

Lead + Zinc 11 M metric tons

Plastics86 M metric tons

Substantial fractions of these materials are recycled.

Wikimedia photo – public domain


New automobile design the hypercar

New Automobile Design: The Hypercar

  • Ultralight materials

  • Low coefficient of drag

  • Carbon fiber composite body

  • Reduced engine size for high fuel efficiency

  • Improved safety in collision

Amory Lovins, Rocky Mountain Institute


Questions for discussion

Questions for Discussion

  • Acceptance of potential for human error is an important part of the transition of society toward sustainability. How might such acceptance change the way decisions are made?

  • The current rapid increase in number of cars worldwide cannot continue indefinitely. What alternative methods of mobility exist? How can engineers become leaders in promoting these alternatives?


Outline2

Outline

  • 1. Characteristics of a “system”

  • 2. Interactions between engineered and natural systems: unintended consequences

  • 3. Natural systems: Ecology

  • 4. Industrial Ecology

  • 5. Principles of Sustainability


Natural systems ecology

Natural Systems: Ecology

Our understanding of natural systems is poor. Yet natural systems are sustainable and resilient.

In contrast, many current human activities are neither sustainable nor resilient.

Why Study Natural Systems?

We need to better understand natural systems and use them as a guide in our engineering decisions.

Every decision we make has impacts on natural systems. We now have a critical responsibility to minimize damage to natural systems that sustain life.


Natural systems ecology1

Natural Systems: Ecology

  • Terrestrial Biomes of the World (ThinkQuest, 2010)

    • High Elevation

    • Tundra

    • Temperate Forest

    • Marine/Island

    • Desert

    • Tropical Dry Forest

    • Cold Climate Forest

    • Grassland

    • Savannah

    • Tropical Rainforest

David Jolley – Creative Commons license


The earth as a collection of complex systems

Atmosphere

Lithosphere

Biosphere*

Cryosphere

Hydrosphere

*One component is the anthroposphere, including

human life and everything created or used in some

way by humans

The Earth as a Collection of Complex Systems

Wikimedia photos

– public domain


Characteristics of ecosystems

Characteristics of Ecosystems

Natural Systems: Ecology

  • Ecosystem functioning depends on interactions among its components

  • Plants and animals at each level play a vital role

  • Interactions among components enable ecosystems to have emergent properties, e.g., mutualism, cooperation, commensalism.

  • An ecosystem is resilient to change: Gaia

  • An ecosystem is diverse

Based on Odum, 1989


Natural systems ecology2

Natural Systems: Ecology

Can better understand how human activities disrupt ecosystems – and what we can do to minimize disruptions

Can better understand how to set up industrial systems to be more sustainable

Key parameters in an ecosystem: Flows of Energy & Mass

Consider flows of energy and mass through the ecosystem

Consider entropy at each level of an ecosystem


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Natural Systems: Ecology

Sunlight energy reaching top of canopy

Shading by other leaves

Total energy reaching the leaf

Assimilation

Total energy absorbed by leaf (Gross Primary Production)

Loss by respiration

Net energy stored in leaf (Net Primary Production)


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Natural Systems: Ecology

Total energy absorbed by leaf

(Gross Primary Production)

Loss by respiration

Net energy stored in leaf (Net Primary Production)

Consumption of plant

Energy in Herbivore

Consumption of herbivore

Energy in Carnivore

Decomposition of carnivore

Non-photosynthetic microorganisms


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Natural Systems: Ecology

Total energy absorbed by leaf

(Gross Primary Production)

Nutrients

Loss by respiration

Net energy stored in leaf (Net Primary Production)

Consumption of plant

Energy in Herbivore

Consumption of herbivore

Energy in Carnivore

Decomposition of carnivore

Non-photosynthetic microorganisms


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Natural Systems: Ecology

Sunlight energy reaching top of canopy ET = 1 x 106 kcal m-2 yr-1

Total energy absorbed by leaf

Eo = 2500 (Gross Primary Production)

Net energy stored in leaf

E1 = 2000 (Net Primary Production)

Energy in Herbivore E2 = 200

Energy in Carnivore E3 = 40


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Natural Systems: Ecology

  • Efficiency for uptake of total energy absorbed by leaf

  • Efficiency for uptake of net energy stored in leaf

  • Efficiency of energy uptake by herbivore = 0.10

  • Efficiency of energy uptake by carnivore = 0.20


Fundamentals of sustainable engineering module 4 earth systems cliff i davidson

Natural Systems: Ecology

  • Overall efficiency of energy transfer from sun to carnivore = η3T = 0.0025 x 0.8 x 0.1 x 0.2

  • = 0.00004 kcal carnivore/kcal sun

  • Embodied energy in carnivore

  • = 1/η3T = 25,000 kcal sun/kcal carnivore


Ecosystems changes in entropy

Ecosystems:Changes in Entropy

  • Energy decreases and entropy (state of disorder) increases as energy flows to each trophic level

  • But we can force local entropy to decrease by adding energy:

    • Purify a substance, clean up a room, make ice from water

  • Flow of energy in an ecosystem begins with photosynthesis where local entropy decreases, and solar energy is used to convert CO2 (low energy molecules) into hydrocarbons (high energy molecules)


Ecosystems changes in entropy1

Ecosystems:Changes in Entropy

Photosynthesis:Decrease

Leaf with total energy

Nutrients

Respiration: Increase

Leaf with net energy

Consumption of plant: Increase

Herbivore

Consumption of herbivore: Increase

Carnivore

Decomposition of carnivore:

Increase

Non-photosynthetic

microorganisms


Ecosystems summary

Ecosystems:Summary

  • Ecosystems are sustainable

    • Resilient

    • No waste, no accumulation of material

    • Complete recycling of nutrients

    • One-way flow of energy from sun

    • Infusion of energy by photosynthesis – starts the energy flow beginning with green plants

    • At each trophic level, energy decreases (due to losses) and entropy increases

  • Can use ecosystem as a model for industry: Industrial Ecology


Outline3

Outline

  • 1.Characteristics of a “system”

  • 2. Interactions between engineered and natural systems: unintended consequences

  • 3. Natural systems: Ecology

  • 4. Industrial Ecology

  • 5. Principles of Sustainability


Industrial ecology

Industrial Ecology

  • Industrial ecology is the means by which humanity can deliberately approach and maintain sustainability, given continued economic, cultural and technological evolution

  • The concept requires that an industrial system be viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but in concert with them

  • It is a systems view in which one seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material, to finished material, to component, to product, to obsolete product, and to ultimate disposal

  • Graedel and Allenby, 2010


Characteristics of individual biological organisms

Characteristics of Individual Biological Organisms

Individual Biological Organisms

  • Engage in independent activity

  • Process energy and mass

    • Inputs: food, water, air

    • Outputs: waste mass (recycled), waste heat

  • Reproduce

  • Respond to external stimuli

  • Move through stages of growth

  • Have a finite lifespan


Individual industrial organisms

Individual Industrial Organisms

  • Similarity to Individual Biological Organisms:

  • Engage in independent activity

  • Process energy and mass

    • Inputs: raw materials, water, air

    • Outputs: desired products, waste heat, waste mass

  • Reproduce by way of spinoff companies

  • Respond to external stimuli, e.g., recession

  • Move through stages of growth

  • Have a finite lifespan


Characteristics of an industrial ecosystem

Characteristics of anIndustrial Ecosystem

Energy input

Ore

Copper Smelter (Production of Ingots)

Consumption of ingots

Copper Wire Manufacturer

Consumption of wire

Cable Manufacturer

Secondary

copper

Consumption of cable

Computer Manufacturer

Decomposition of

Computer

Disassembly/Recycling Plant


Minimizing waste through industrial ecology kalundborg denmark

Minimizing Waste through Industrial Ecology: Kalundborg, Denmark

STATOIL REFINERY

sulfur

liquid fertilizer

gas as backup

steam

cooling water,

wastewater

gypsum from

scrubber

heat

GYPROC WALLBOARD PLANT

FISH FARM

fly ash

ASNAES POWER PLANT

steam

For making

cement and roads

steam

treated sludge,

yeast slurry

sewage

sludge

to farms

wastewater

treatment

A-S BIOTEKNISK JORDRENS

SOIL REMEDIATION

NOVO NORDISK NOVOZYMES

PHARMACEUTICALS

TOWN OF KALUNDBORG


Example of a nested industrial ecosystem the automobile

Example of a Nested Industrial Ecosystem: The Automobile

Transportation

infrastructure

Automotive

infrastructure

Automobile

Automobile

subsystems

After Graedel and Allenby (2010)


Using industrial ecology

Using Industrial Ecology

  • How can we make use of our knowledge of ecology, industrial ecology, and existing institutions to make engineering decisions that account for the triple bottom line?

    • Consider fundamental principles of sustainability

    • Includes principles for sustainable development, sustainable design, and sustainable engineering


Outline4

Outline

  • 1. Characteristics of a “system”

  • 2. Interactions between engineered and natural systems: unintended consequences

  • 3. Natural systems: Ecology

  • 4. Industrial Ecology

  • 5. Principles of Sustainability


Principles of sustainability

Principles of Sustainability

  • The Natural Step

    • “Compass” for Sustainable Development

  • The Hannover Principles

    • Sustainable Design at the 2000 Hannover World’s Fair

  • The 12 Principles of Green Engineering

    • Focus on technology over a range of scales

  • The Sandestin Principles

    • Consensus of 65 engineers


The natural step

The Natural Step

  • Non-profit organization provides education, training, and advisory services

  • Founded 1988 in Sweden by Karl-Henrik Robert (1997)

    • Reduce/eliminate our accumulation of materials from the earth’s crust (esp. metals)

    • 2. Reduce/eliminate our accumulation of substances produced by society (CFCs, PCBs, other chemicals)

    • 3. Reduce/eliminate our physical degradation of nature

    • 4. Reduce/eliminate conditions that undermine people’s ability to meet basic needs


The hannover principles

The Hannover Principles

  • Developed by William McDonough in 1992

  • Intended for designers of buildings and displays

    • Insist on rights of humanity & nature to co-exist

    • Recognize interdependence: humanity, nature

    • Respect relationships between spirit and matter

    • Accept responsibility for human well-being

    • Create safe objects of long-term value

    • Eliminate the concept of waste

    • Rely on natural energy flows

    • Understand the limitations of design

    • Seek improvement by sharing knowledge


12 principles of green engineering

12 Principles of Green Engineering

  • Developed by Paul Anastas, Julie Zimmerman (2003)

    • Material & energy inputs should be inherently nonhazardous

    • It is better to prevent waste than to clean it up afterwards

    • Separation & purification should be part of design framework

    • Components designed for max. mass, energy, time efficiency

    • Components should be “output pulled,” not “input pushed”

    • Embedded entropy and complexity are an investment

    • Targeted durability, not immortality, should be design goal

    • Avoid designing for unnecessary capacity or capability

    • Strive for material unification in multi-component products

    • Integrate and interconnect with available material, energy

    • Design for a commercial afterlife

    • Design for renewable and readily available inputs


The sandestin principles

The Sandestin Principles

  • Developed by a group of 65 engineers Engineer products and processes holistically

    • Conserve nature, protect human health & welfare

    • Use life-cycle thinking

    • Ensure materials, energy are as safe as possible

    • Minimize depletion of natural resources

    • Strive to prevent waste

    • Account for local geography, aspirations, culture

    • Innovate beyond current or dominant technologies

    • Actively engage communities, stakeholders

Ritter, 2003


Asce policy statement 418 sustainable development

ASCE Policy Statement 418:Sustainable Development

  • Promote broad understanding of political, economic, social and technical issues and processes as related to sustainable development

  • Advance the skills, knowledge and information to facilitate a sustainable future; including habitats, natural systems, system flows, and the effects of all phases of the life cycle of projects on the ecosystem

  • Advocate economic approaches that recognize natural resources and our environment as capital assets


Asce policy statement 418 sustainable development1

ASCE Policy Statement 418:Sustainable Development

  • Promote multidisciplinary, whole system, integrated and multi-objective goals in all phases of project planning, design, construction, operations, and decommissioning

  • Promote reduction of vulnerability to natural, accidental, and willful hazards to be part of sustainable development

  • Promote performance based standards and guidelines as bases for voluntary actions and for regulations, in sustainable development for new and existing infrastructure


Questions for discussion1

Questions for Discussion

  • In what ways do the various principles of sustainability enhance the carrying capacity of the earth?

  • Consider the earth’s life support systems before human life began. Did the world’s ecosystems reach equilibrium with their surroundings? Why or why not?

  • We have seen that all our food comes from photosynthesis, and all our energy (except nuclear) comes from the sun. What are the implications of this for engineering decisions?


Summary of the module

Summary of the Module

  • Characteristics of a system, systems thinking

  • Interactions between engineered and natural systems: unintended consequences

  • Attributes of natural ecosystems for use as a guide in engineering

  • Industrial ecology

  • Principles of sustainability


References

References

  • Anastas, P.T. and J.B. Zimmerman, Environ. Science & Tech., Vol. 37, pages 95A-101A, 2003.

  • Ginley, D.M., Resources Policy, Vol. 20, pages 169-181, 1994.

  • Graedel, T.E. and B.R. Allenby, Industrial Ecology, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2010.

  • Lovins, A., Rocky Mountain Institute, http://move.rmi.org/markets-in-motion/case-studies/automotive/hypercar.html, accessed May 2010

  • McDonough, W., 2010, http://www.mcdonough.com/principles.pdf

  • Odum, E.P., Ecology and Our Endangered Life Support Systems, Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts, 1989.


References cont

References, Cont.

  • Ritter, S.K., Chemical and Eng. News, pages 30-31, July 21, 2003.

  • Robert, K.H., H. Daly, P. Hawken, and J. Holmberg, Internat. J. Sustainable Development and World Ecology, Vol. 4, pages 79-92, 1997.

  • Tanton, T.W. and S. Heaven, J. Water Res. Plan.& Mgt., Nov/Dec 1999.

  • ThinkQuest, 2010: http://library.thinkquest.org/11353/ecosystems.htm

  • World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, 1999.


  • Login