The Cell. Cell Theory/History Structures Transport Differentiation Levels of Organization. Robert Hooke. English physicist 1665 Saw a slice of cork tree tissue Tiny chambers Termed them “cells” (looked like monks’ cells in monastery). Robert Hooke. Published his book Micrographia
Cell Theory/HistoryStructuresTransport Differentiation Levels of Organization
(looked like monks’ cells in monastery)
Organelles of the cytoplasm
(such as making lipids)
Korotnovella, an amoeba. Inside this cell we can see a nucleus near the center with a rather angular dark nucleolus, various food vacuoles, and a clear round contractile vacuole at about 10 o'clock.
Lysis Equilibrium Plasmolysis
Turgid Flaccid Plasmolysis
Endocytosis – import of materials into cell by infoldings of the cell membrane.
A. phagocytosis – “cell eating”; extensions of the cell membrane surround the food and make a vacuole. Lysosomes then secrete enzymes into vacuole to digest food.
B. pinocytosis – “cell drinking”; smaller infoldings allowing droplets of liquid to enter cell.
Endocytosis in general
And hierarchy of organisms’ tissues
The staging of a carcinoma has to do with the size of the tumor, and the degree to which it has penetrated. When the tumor is small and has not penetrated the mucosal layer, it is said to be stage I cancer. Stage II tumors are into the muscle wall, and stage III involves nearby lymph nodes. The rare stage IV cancer has spread (metastasized) to remote organs.