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A Three-State Pecan-Almond Project: Help from Physiological Models, Remote Sensing, & Ground-Based Measurements. Vince Gutschick, Global Change Consulting Consortium, Inc. Ted Sammis, Plant & Environmental Science, NMSU Junming Wang, Plant & Environmental Science, NMSU

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A Three-State Pecan-Almond Project: Help from Physiological Models, Remote Sensing, & Ground-Based Measurements

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A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

A Three-State Pecan-Almond Project:

Help from Physiological Models,

Remote Sensing, & Ground-Based

Measurements

Vince Gutschick, Global Change Consulting Consortium, Inc.

Ted Sammis, Plant & Environmental Science, NMSU

Junming Wang, Plant & Environmental Science, NMSU

Manoj Shukla, Plant & Environmental Science, NMSU

Rolston St. Hilaire, Plant & Environmental Science, NMSU


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

  • Challenges

  • Water shortages  deficit irrigation - what schedule is best?

  • General resource management, including N

  • Crafting plans and management tools

  • Optimal deficit irrigation – guidance from models <-> experiments

  • Develop monitoring, particularly ET - large areas, near-real time

  • Validate monitoring methods

  • Develop simple management plan – distill the knowledge

  • Validate the management plan

  • Deliver practical tools

  • NMSU part:

  • Focus on pecans

  • Development of framework applicable to other nut crops


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

First three elements

  • Optimal deficit irrigation

  • Maximal retention of yield and yield capacity

  • Zillion risky expts.? No. Use models:

    • To develop hypotheses

    • Then to guide experimental design and interpretation

  • Monitoring – cover large areas, in near-real time

    • Satellite estimates of ET by energy balance

  • Validate monitoring

    • Eddy covariance, SWB, and physiological stress measures (optical…)


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

Three more elements

  • Develop a simple management plan

    • Distill the response of yield to fraction of normal

    • water use (ET) – that is, yield as Y(E/E0)

  • Validate optimal management results

  • Deliver practical tools

    • Monitoring of stress indicators, not just end yield

    • Using simple, mostly automated tools

      • Simpler is better - experience of DSSs, and

      • even simpler tools (nomograms,…)

      • Novel satellite estimates of ET in near-real time

      • Easily obtained ground data


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

Highlight: satellite estimates of ET by energy balance

- a large-scale, rapid tool for monitoring stress

and water use

  • Modification of Surface Energy Balance Land (SEBAL)  RSET

  • Key problem avoided: low accuracy of surface temperature

    • Including atmospheric effects, view angle (air mass) effects

  • Remaining difficulty – disparity of aerodynamic resistance for

    • soil & canopy(2 sources)

    • Some clues for future

    • Even “as is” -for ag areas with good cover, not a big problem

  • Automation a challenge

    • Finding and processing scenes

    • Locating hot and cold spots

      • Including correction for differences in elevation, θ (VPT)


Overall scheme for using satellite weather and ground data

Overall scheme for using • satellite, • weather, and • ground data


Comparison of measured and remote sensing calculated et for a pecan orchard at las cruces nm

Comparison of measured and remote sensing calculated ET for a Pecan orchard at Las Cruces, NM.


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

Highlight: modelling plant responses to stress,

for yield optimization

Where do we want to end up?

Whole-season water use and yield

 Leafout (canopy leaf area, as a function of E/E0)

 Nutfill (canopy photosynthesis, as a function of E/E0

 Concurrent information: PS partitioning, leaf N dynamics

  • What we do know?

  • What have physiological models given us over the years?

  • Decision support systems Erect leaf varieties ……

  • Great detail needed in models  great body of knowledge

    • E.g., Ball-Berry, Farquhar et al., micromet, light interception… interception, LA phenology, Vcmax(stress), gs(stress - Tardieu…)

    • Specific to pecans

      • Our previous models

      • Gas-exchange and stress data of David Johnson


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

  • What we don't know well enough & therefore need to measure

    • Seasonal patterns of stomatal control and WUE

  • What’s the unstressed Ball-Berry slope?

  • Does it really double from pre-monsoon to monsoon?

  • Evidence: gain in water-use rates

  • (Basis in ecology under natural conditions?)


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

How does the Ball-Berry slope respond to root or leaf water potential?

How much do we need to cut it to reduce E to 0.5 E0?

How does WUE change under stress?

2. Seasonal patterns of photosynthetic capacity (Vc,max25)

and relation to leaf N content (linear? intercept = ??)


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

  • Optimality

  • Distill the more detailed physiological and developmental

  • models of:

    • Leaf area development – to a simple function of fraction of

  • unstressed ET (E/E0)

  • Basically, reset leaf area to a smaller fraction of normal,

  • reducing future ET demand

    • Canopy photosynthesis – to a similarly simple function of E/E0)

  • See a gain in water-use efficiency that makes the cut in

  • season-total photosynthesis less than the cut in water use

  • Find the combination of cuts in E/E0 in both stages that

  • leaves the greatest nut yield, for a given total water use

  • (a numerical solution)


A three state pecan almond project help from physiological models remote sensing ground based m

  • Data needs for studies of stress responses and optimization

  • - under several stress levels (treatments and interplant/

  • microsite variation)

    • Leaf gas exchange

      • To eludicate the stomatal control program

        • Aerial environment (2 fundamental parameters)

        • Water stress (3rd fundamental parameter)

      • To estimate photosynthetic capacity (Vc,max25) and its

    • relation to leaf N and light integral on the leaf

    •  Concurrent measurements of leaf N and PAR levels

    •  Determining seasonal trends in both

    • Water stress quantification – soil water balance and

  • soil moisture release curve

    • Measurements of growth, carbohydrate reserves, and nut yield


Pecan model irrigation subroutine

Pecan model irrigation subroutine


Growth portion of model

Growth portion of model


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