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Hotspots and Free WiFi in a Ubiquitous City. Do they Serve Citizens’ Information Needs? The U-City Oulu as a Case Study. L. Schumann, S. Rölike & W. G. Stock Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany [email protected] | [email protected] | [email protected]

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L. Schumann, S. Rölike & W. G. Stock Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany

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L schumann s r like w g stock heinrich heine university d sseldorf germany

Hotspots and Free WiFi in a Ubiquitous City. Do they Serve Citizens’ Information Needs?The U-City Oulu as a Case Study

L. Schumann, S. Rölike & W. G. Stock

Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany

[email protected] | [email protected] | [email protected]


Overview

Overview

  • Ubiquitous Cities

  • The U-City Oulu

  • Methods

  • Results

  • Prospects

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Ubiquitous computing

Ubiquitous Computing

  • Ubiquitous (=omnipresent) computing: integrating information processing thoroughly into everyday objects and activities

  • Participants may not necessarily even be aware of the technology

    “Machines that fit the human environment instead of forcing humans to enter theirs" (York & Pendharkar, 2004, p. 771)

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Ubiquitous cities

Ubiquitous Cities

  • Ubiquitous computing in a city wide context:

    • Integrating advanced ICT-based infrastructures, city-specific information services and content into the urban space

  • Aim:

    • Offer any services anywhere and anytime

    • enhanced living conditions

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Ubiquitous cities services

Ubiquitous Cities - Services

Different aspects of the daily routine:

  • U-Life:

    • Home banking, telecommuting, teleconferencing, telemedicine, remote sensing, telematics

  • U-Business:

    • Multimedia conferencing, information management, virtual markets, smart-offices

  • U-Government:

    • Emergency control, intelligent transportation system (ITS), control of urban infrastructure, environmentmonitoring, sensornetworks

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


The u city oulu

The U-City Oulu

  • City in Northern Finland, fourthlargestcityofFinland, consideredasthe "smartestcityof Europe" (ICF, 2012)

  • Project "UbiOulu":

    • PanOULU: Open and free city-wide WiFi-network

    • UBI-Hotspots: Interactive publicdisplaysprovidinginformation services

    • Middleware: Necessaryforthefunctionality

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Panoulu

panOULU

  • Public-private partnership involving five public organizations and four ISPs

  • ∼ 1,350 Access Points (APs)

  • ∼ 500 APs deployed near the city center

  • Public places in and around Oulu

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Panoulu1

panOULU

= OK

= Offline

= Status unknown

= Upcoming

= Several access points

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Ubi hotspots

UBI-Hotspots

  • Since May 2009

  • 21 indoorandoutdoordisplays

  • 57” Full HD LCD panel, internet connection, quad core control PC, 2 overhead video cameras, NFC/RFID reader, loudspeakers etc.

  • 2 different modes:

    • Passive broadcast mode

    • Interactive mode

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Ubi hotspots1

UBI-Hotspots

  • Categories: News, Services, City, 3rd Party, Fun & Games, Multimedia, New Cool Stuff

  • Massive amount of quantitative and qualitative data

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study methods

Case Study - Methods

  • Qualitative interviewswithstakeholders

  • Quantitative userstudy

  • Participants (n ≈ 1.000):

    • University students(University of Oulu)

    • Uppersecondaryschoolstudents(OulunLyseoUpper Secondary School)

  • 100 hard copy questionnaires

  • Online questionnaire (May 23rd to June 10th 2012)

Digital Natives

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study methods questionnaires

Case Study – MethodsQuestionnaires

  • Fourcategories:

    • Demographicalaspects (fourquestions)

    • UBI Displays (eight questions)

    • PanOULU WLAN (six questions)

    • General questions (five questions)

  • Five types of questions:

    • Multiple choice

    • Multiple choice and additional text field possibility of commenting an answer

    • Free text field

    • Scale with grades (1-5)

    • Questions that depend on a preceding question

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study methods1

Case Study - Methods

  • Research questions:

    • Do hotspots really meet information needs of their users? What kinds of services are mainly used via interactive screens?

    • Does free WiFi satisfy information needs of the users? What kinds of services are mainly used via free WiFi?

      • Is free WiFi a competitor of commercial internet service providers? Does it lead to market distortion?

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results

Case Study - Results

1)

n=1.045; multiple answers

n=1.028; multiple answers

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results1

Case Study - Results

2)

n=652; multiple answers

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results2

Case Study - Results

3)

n=1.047

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results3

Case Study - Results

4)

n=1.047

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results4

Case Study - Results

5)

n=1.046

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results5

Case Study - Results

6)

n=610

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results6

Case Study - Results

7)

n=1.010; multiple answers

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results7

Case Study - Results

9)

n=1.025; multiple answers

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results8

Case Study - Results

10)

n=1.028

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results9

Case Study - Results

11)

n=1.026

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results10

Case Study - Results

12)

n=1.013

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results11

Case Study - Results

13)

n=1.025

n=1.025

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results12

Case Study - Results

14)

n=948

n=1.001

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results13

Case Study - Results

  • Nosignificantgenderspecificdifferences

  • Weatherdoesn‘tinfluencetheusageofthehotspotsindoorandoutdoorhotspots

  • Turnoveroflocal ISPs not endangeredbythe panOULU WLAN

  • Bothservicessatisfythedefinitionofubiquitoustools

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results14

Case Study - Results

Hotspots:

  • Rarely used

  • Meettheinformationneedsoftheirusersonlytosmallextent

  • Limited tocity-specificinformation

  • Small perceivedusefulness

  • Needs forimprovement:

    • Usability

    • Content

    • Technical aspects

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results15

Case Study - Results

Open WiFi:

  • Frequently-used service

  • Satisfiesmany different informationneeds, e.g.:

    • Communication (e-mail)

    • News

    • Socialnetworking (Facebook)

    • Basic needs etc.

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Case study results16

Case Study - Results

Open WiFi:

  • Consideredasuseful

  • Not as limited to a specificplaceasthe UBI Hotspots

  • Needs forimprovement:

    • Coveredarea

    • Safety

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


Prospects

Prospects

  • Why do people prefer the panOULU WLAN?

  • How do usage, adoption, trust and perceived usefulness correlate?

    Information Service Evaluation Model (ISE-Model)

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


L schumann s r like w g stock heinrich heine university d sseldorf germany

Thank you for your attention!

Schumann, Rölike & Stock


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