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Hotspots and Free WiFi in a Ubiquitous City. Do they Serve Citizens’ Information Needs? The U-City Oulu as a Case Study. L. Schumann, S. Rölike & W. G. Stock Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany [email protected] | [email protected] | [email protected]

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Hotspots and Free WiFi in a Ubiquitous City. Do they Serve Citizens’ Information Needs?The U-City Oulu as a Case Study

L. Schumann, S. Rölike & W. G. Stock

Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany

[email protected] | [email protected] | [email protected]

overview
Overview
  • Ubiquitous Cities
  • The U-City Oulu
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Prospects

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

ubiquitous computing
Ubiquitous Computing
  • Ubiquitous (=omnipresent) computing: integrating information processing thoroughly into everyday objects and activities
  • Participants may not necessarily even be aware of the technology

“Machines that fit the human environment instead of forcing humans to enter theirs" (York & Pendharkar, 2004, p. 771)

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

ubiquitous cities
Ubiquitous Cities
  • Ubiquitous computing in a city wide context:
    • Integrating advanced ICT-based infrastructures, city-specific information services and content into the urban space
  • Aim:
    • Offer any services anywhere and anytime
    • enhanced living conditions

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

ubiquitous cities services
Ubiquitous Cities - Services

Different aspects of the daily routine:

  • U-Life:
    • Home banking, telecommuting, teleconferencing, telemedicine, remote sensing, telematics
  • U-Business:
    • Multimedia conferencing, information management, virtual markets, smart-offices
  • U-Government:
    • Emergency control, intelligent transportation system (ITS), control of urban infrastructure, environmentmonitoring, sensornetworks

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

the u city oulu
The U-City Oulu
  • City in Northern Finland, fourthlargestcityofFinland, consideredasthe "smartestcityof Europe" (ICF, 2012)
  • Project "UbiOulu":
    • PanOULU: Open and free city-wide WiFi-network
    • UBI-Hotspots: Interactive publicdisplaysprovidinginformation services
    • Middleware: Necessaryforthefunctionality

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

panoulu
panOULU
  • Public-private partnership involving five public organizations and four ISPs
  • ∼ 1,350 Access Points (APs)
  • ∼ 500 APs deployed near the city center
  • Public places in and around Oulu

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

panoulu1
panOULU

= OK

= Offline

= Status unknown

= Upcoming

= Several access points

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

ubi hotspots
UBI-Hotspots
  • Since May 2009
  • 21 indoorandoutdoordisplays
  • 57” Full HD LCD panel, internet connection, quad core control PC, 2 overhead video cameras, NFC/RFID reader, loudspeakers etc.
  • 2 different modes:
    • Passive broadcast mode
    • Interactive mode

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

ubi hotspots1
UBI-Hotspots
  • Categories: News, Services, City, 3rd Party, Fun & Games, Multimedia, New Cool Stuff
  • Massive amount of quantitative and qualitative data

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study methods
Case Study - Methods
  • Qualitative interviewswithstakeholders
  • Quantitative userstudy
  • Participants (n ≈ 1.000):
    • University students(University of Oulu)
    • Uppersecondaryschoolstudents(OulunLyseoUpper Secondary School)
  • 100 hard copy questionnaires
  • Online questionnaire (May 23rd to June 10th 2012)

Digital Natives

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study methods questionnaires
Case Study – MethodsQuestionnaires
  • Fourcategories:
    • Demographicalaspects (fourquestions)
    • UBI Displays (eight questions)
    • PanOULU WLAN (six questions)
    • General questions (five questions)
  • Five types of questions:
    • Multiple choice
    • Multiple choice and additional text field possibility of commenting an answer
    • Free text field
    • Scale with grades (1-5)
    • Questions that depend on a preceding question

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study methods1
Case Study - Methods
  • Research questions:
    • Do hotspots really meet information needs of their users? What kinds of services are mainly used via interactive screens?
    • Does free WiFi satisfy information needs of the users? What kinds of services are mainly used via free WiFi?
      • Is free WiFi a competitor of commercial internet service providers? Does it lead to market distortion?

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results
Case Study - Results

1)

n=1.045; multiple answers

n=1.028; multiple answers

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results1
Case Study - Results

2)

n=652; multiple answers

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results2
Case Study - Results

3)

n=1.047

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results3
Case Study - Results

4)

n=1.047

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results4
Case Study - Results

5)

n=1.046

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results5
Case Study - Results

6)

n=610

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results6
Case Study - Results

7)

n=1.010; multiple answers

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results7
Case Study - Results

9)

n=1.025; multiple answers

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results8
Case Study - Results

10)

n=1.028

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results9
Case Study - Results

11)

n=1.026

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results10
Case Study - Results

12)

n=1.013

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results11
Case Study - Results

13)

n=1.025

n=1.025

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results12
Case Study - Results

14)

n=948

n=1.001

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results13
Case Study - Results
  • Nosignificantgenderspecificdifferences
  • Weatherdoesn‘tinfluencetheusageofthehotspotsindoorandoutdoorhotspots
  • Turnoveroflocal ISPs not endangeredbythe panOULU WLAN
  • Bothservicessatisfythedefinitionofubiquitoustools

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results14
Case Study - Results

Hotspots:

  • Rarely used
  • Meettheinformationneedsoftheirusersonlytosmallextent
  • Limited tocity-specificinformation
  • Small perceivedusefulness
  • Needs forimprovement:
    • Usability
    • Content
    • Technical aspects

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results15
Case Study - Results

Open WiFi:

  • Frequently-used service
  • Satisfiesmany different informationneeds, e.g.:
    • Communication (e-mail)
    • News
    • Socialnetworking (Facebook)
    • Basic needs etc.

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

case study results16
Case Study - Results

Open WiFi:

  • Consideredasuseful
  • Not as limited to a specificplaceasthe UBI Hotspots
  • Needs forimprovement:
    • Coveredarea
    • Safety

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

prospects
Prospects
  • Why do people prefer the panOULU WLAN?
  • How do usage, adoption, trust and perceived usefulness correlate?

Information Service Evaluation Model (ISE-Model)

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

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Thank you for your attention!

Schumann, Rölike & Stock

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