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Деление ядер урана PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Деление ядер урана. урок физики 11 класс. Автор: учитель физики высшей квалификационной категории Харитошина О.В. МОУ СОШ №24 г. Рязань. n. p. e. 1. 1. 0. Назови частицу. -1. 1. 0. 1. 2. 3. q ≈ + 1 ,6 . 10 -19 Кл. q ≈ - 1 ,6 . 10 -19 Кл. q =0.

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Деление ядер урана

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5934837

11

  • :

  • ..

  • 24 .


5934837

n

p

e

1

1

0

-1

1

0

1

2

3

q + 1,6 . 10-19

q - 1,6 . 10-19

q =0

m 9,1. 10-31

m 2000. me

m 2000. me

4

5

6

. .

.

. .

7

8

8

, , , .

, .

, .

10

11

12

,


5934837

n

p

e

1

1

0

1

-1

0

1

2

3

q - 1,6 . 10-19

q =0

q + 1,6 . 10-19

m 9,1. 10-31

m 2000. me

m 2000. me

4

5

6

. .

.

. .

7

8

9

, , , .

, .

, .

10

11

12


5934837

  • .

  • :

    , .

- , , , "".


5934837

  • 1938 .. . , .

  • 1939 .. . , , .


5934837

.

(18791968)

.

(19021980)

,

. . (1938)


5934837

n

. . . , . - , , .


5934837

  • , , , , , , . .


5934837

= 1/30


5934837

  • ,

  • 23 .

  • .

  • ( , )

  • 2-3


5934837

  • , , .

  • , .

  • .


5934837


5934837

n

n

n

n

>

F>F

F<F

-

r 10-15


5934837

n

n

n

n

>

F>F

F<F

-

r 10-15


5934837

n

n

n

n

1

1

1

1

1000/

0

0

0

0

235

92U

>

F>F

F<F

236

92U

144

56Ba

89

36Kr

-

r 10-15


5934837

n

. . . , . - , , .


5934837

1

1

1

n

n

n

n

1

1

1

n

n

0

0

0

0

0

0

235

235

235

92U

92U

92U

Q

Q

Q

2

2

236

236

94

236

140

92U

92U

92U

37Rb

55 Cs

1

144

56Ba

95

139

89

36Kr

38Sr

54 Xe

2

3


5934837

n

. . . , . - , , .


5934837

  • 92+0=92=54+39+0 92+0=92=55+37=92

    92=92=92 92=92=92

  • 235+1=236=139+95+2 235+1=236=140+94+2

    236=236=236 236=236=236


5934837

n

. . . , . - , , .


5934837

  • , - -


5934837

Q

  • 200

3,2 . 10-11

Q

Q

3% -

4% -

Q

Q

80% -

13% -


5934837

108 , .

1 , , 3 2,5 .


5934837

  • . 450 , 20 .

  • 10 .


5934837

  • , . .

  • () 1957 ,

  • 1979 ,

  • 1986 .

  • .


26 1986

26 1986


5934837

1934 . . - , . .

, , . . 3 6 9 , ..


5934837

  • , (), , .


5934837

  • - , .

  • , , .


5934837

, , , .


5934837

  • U-235 ( )

:

  • -238 (238U) 99,2745%, T 4,468 ;

  • -235 (235U) 0,714%, T 0,7038 ;

  • -234 (234U) 0,0055%, T 0,245 .

  • U-235 , , U-238 1 . 60%, ( ).


5934837

  • ,

k-

k< 1

k> 1


5934837

-


5934837

3 , ,

1 U-235 U-235 U-238

2

4


5934837

k> 1

U-235

U-238

Pu-239

, , . 250 .


5934837


5934837

( )

, , (), (" ") , .

, , ( ) .


5934837


5934837

( )

, () . .

- .


5934837


5934837

k > 1

U-235

U-238

Pu-239

( )

( )


5934837

  • 108,109-

  • ? -

  • , -239


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