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LIFE SCIENCE MENU. Invertebrates. Vertebrates. Life Cycles. Habitats. Ecosystems. Plants. Invertebrates. Sponges Cnidarians (stinging-celled) Worms. Mollusks Echinoderms Arthropods. Sponges.

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LIFE SCIENCE MENU

Invertebrates

Vertebrates

Life Cycles

Habitats

Ecosystems

Plants


Invertebrates

Sponges

Cnidarians

(stinging-celled)

Worms

Mollusks

Echinoderms

Arthropods


Sponges

Sponges are the simplest invertebrates. A sponge’s body is like an empty bag with an opening at the top. A sponge’s body has no symmetry, is hollow, and has no bones. Its body is made up of two cell layers with a jelly like substance between the layers. Food and water flow into a sponge’s body through the holes in the body. Water and waste move out through the hole at the top. A sponge can regenerate a body part if the part is missing.


Its body is like an empty bag.

Its arms give off a poisonous sting.

Jelly Fish

Food and wastes leave through an opening at the top.


WORMS

Earthworms are segmented.


CHARACTERISTICS:

  • They are invertebrates.

  • They have groups of muscle cells.

  • The digestive tube has an opening at the front and at the rear.

  • They have a head end.

  • They have body parts that do certain jobs.


Mollusks

Hard Shell

Soft Body

-


Clams

Snails

and

Mollusks have hard shells and soft bodies. You can find snails and clams by water. Snails are often found in gardens.


The clams that used to live in these shells are probably dead! People can eat raw or cooked clams so these little creatures better run!!!


Echinoderms

  • Spiny skinned animals

You can identify most Echinoderms by their star design and their spiny skin.

Sea Urchin

Sand Dollar


Head

Thorax

Abdomen

Arthropod

Arthropods have three body parts called the head, thorax, and abdomen. Their bodies and legs are segmented.


Arachnids

  • The characteristics of arachnids:

  • 8 jointed legs

  • 2 body parts

  • No wings or antennae


Animals

with

vertebrates

Backbones


QUIZ

BIRDS

REPTILES

AMPHIBIANS

FISH

MAMMALS


FISH

VERTEBRATES WITH GILLS

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CHARACTERISTICS:

1.VERTEBRATES

2. SCALES

3. GILLS

4. FINS

5. COLD-BLOODED

6. LAY EGGS


VERTEBRATES

THE CAT FISH


It IS CALLED THE OCEAN SUN FISH.

EATS JELLYFISH

THE MOLA FISH


ARE THESE FISH?

SHARK?

WHALE?

DOLPHIN?


ARE THESE FISH?

YES!

NO!

NO!

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Amphibians

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Characteristics

of Amphibians:

  • Live in water when young; on land as adults.

  • Breathe through gills when young; through lungs as adults.

  • Have smooth, wet skin.

  • Are cold-blooded and hatch from eggs.

  • Have a backbone.


Salamander

This Salamander can be found from Eastern United States to the Rocky Mountains.


Habitat

This is the salamander’s habitat. It is made up of broken tree branches, twigs, and dirt.


Frogs of the world

Blue Poison Arrow Frog

Dying Dart Frog

Green and Black Arrow Frog

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Reptiles

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characteristics

Of Reptiles

They are vertebrates. This means they have a backbone.


Facts:

1. Reptiles have scaly skin.

2.Reptiles are cold-blooded.

3. Reptiles live just about everywhere there is water and a hot climate.


Turtles and alligators live in South America

Turtles and alligators live in Florida and South America.


Alligators eat just about everything!


The crocodile is another reptile. It looks like an alligator but its snout is longer.

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Birds!!

The only animals with feathers!!!

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Characteristics of Birds:

They have feathers.

They are warm blooded.

They breathe through lungs.

Their babies hatch from eggs.

They are vertebrates.

They have beaks and wings.


Habitat!

The habitat of the Hybrid Macaw is in South America.

The Macaw Is a tropical bird. It normally lives in rain forests. When it is in South America its diet is fruit seeds and palm nuts.


Description:

When you look at a bird what do you first notice? You see it has feathers, a beak and a wing span. You will know it is a bird because birds are the only animals with feathers!

Hybrid Macaw

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Mammals:

Panda

Zebra

Tiger

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Characteristics:

-Hair

-Live young

-Vertebrates

Spotted Leopard


The Spotted Leopard's Habitat

...is the forest.

This allows for camouflage.


This lion loves sunning in

the warm weather!


This mammal likes to

monkey around!

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Vertebrate Quiz!

Why is this crocodile a reptile?

Why is this frog an amphibian?


Answers:

This crocodile is a reptile because it has rough, scaly skin.

This frog is an amphibian because it has smooth, wet skin.

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GRASSHOPPER

FROG

LIFE CYCLES

BUTTERFLY

HUMAN


3 Stages of a Grasshopper

Nymph

Adult

Egg


Vocabulary

  • Grasshoppers hatch from eggs.

  • A nymph is a young form of a grasshopper that changes into an adult by repeatedly shedding its skin.

  • An adult is a fully grown grasshopper which can protect itself.

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3. Pupa

1. Egg

Life Cycle of a Butterfly

4. Adult

2. Larva


1. Egg

3. Pupa

4. Adult

2. Larva


After the adult butterfly has formed its body, it releases a liquid that loosens it from the chrysalis shell. Then its middle swells and pops the shell open.

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Life Cycle of a Frog

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Life Cycle of a Human

Infant

Adolescent

Adult


GRASSLAND

POLAR

WOODS

WETLAND

HABITATS

DESERT

RAINFOREST


HABITAT

  • A habitat is where an animal lives.

  • Some animals live on land; some animals live in water.

  • Some animals live in the ground and in trees, too.


Polar Region

In the polar region

there are 6 months of sunlight and 6 months Of darkness. There is no ozone layer. It is cold and windy so the sun is very dangerous.


Woods

The woods are a good place for a habitat because all different kinds of animals live in it like the owl and the squirrel. The owl lives in a tree and so does the squirrel. The squirrel makes a nest out of leaves. The owl sleeps all day and hunts all night. There are many more animals that have habitats in the woods.


Desert

Desert

A desert is a very dry place.

Only a small number of species of plants and animals can survive.

Desert


GRASSLAND

A grassland is mostly grass and plants.


TROPICAL

Hot, Humid, Heavy Rainfall

RAIN FOREST


HABITAT OF THE RAIN FOREST IS FOR ALL KINDS OF ANIMALS…

BUT NOT FOR DOGS AND CATS!


Wetlands

Include rivers, marshes and swamps.


A large body of salt water where millions of plants and animals live

Ocean


What habitat do these animals live in?

_ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _


Did you say :

Forest

Grassland

Woods


ECOSYSTEMSHow plants and animals depend on each other

  • VOCABULARY

  • FOOD WEBS

  • FOOD CHAINS

  • ADAPTATIONS

  • COMMUNICATION


Vocabulary

  • Ecosystem-the living and nonliving things in an environment and all their interactions

  • Habitat-an organism’s home

  • Population-one type of organism living in a habitat

  • Community -populations living together in an ecosystem

  • Producer-an organism, such as a green plant, that makes food


Vocabulary Continued

  • Consumer-any organism that eats the food a producer makes

  • Decomposer-an organism that feeds off dead plants or animals

  • Predator-an animal that hunts another animal for food

  • Prey-an animal that is hunted by another animal for food

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Food Web

A food web is a model that shows all the possible feeding relationships between organisms living in an ecosystem.


Decomposer

Secondary Consumer

Predator

Producer

Prey

Primary Consumer


Food Chain

A food chain shows the steps in which organisms get energy from the food that is needed to survive.


A Food Chain

Sun

Energy

Tiger dies

Grass

Giraffe

Tiger

Birdeatsdeadtiger

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Carnivores are consumers that eat only animals.

Herbivores are consumers that eat only plants.

Omnivores are consumers that eat both animals and plants.


Carnivores

Herbivores

Omnivores

Lion

Fish

Crow

Eagle

Tiger

Ant

Rabbit

Gorilla

Snake


What kind of animal is this tiger?

Is it a carnivore, an herbivore, or an omnivore?


If you picked a carnivore you are right.

You got an

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Adaptation -

A special trait that helps an organism survive such as:

Migration

Hibernation

Camouflage


Hibernation

Hibernation is a deepsleep. All bodyprocesses slow down.

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is when animals move from place toplace .

Migration

Elephants migrating to find food and water.


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Baby gorilla rides on her mother’s back to go from place to place.


Camouflage

Carpet Shark

Find the carpet shark hiding to surprise its prey.


Now can you find the carpet shark?


CLOSELY

LOOK

HOW MANY

BIRDS DO

YOU SEE?


How many birds did you find?

1 2 3 45

Click on the correct square.


HERE THEY ARE!

4

1

5

2

3


Feathers are the covering on birds.

Fur is the covering on a mammal’s body.

Scales are used for protection from predators.

Help!!!


Watch out prey!!!

Shark showing his teeth. And trying to find food.


Wings to seek shelter and legs to escape predators

Fins to escape fishermen and other predators

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Communication

Among Animals


This is a deer raising its tail to tell other deer that danger is near.


This bird sings to communicate to other birds that this is his territory.


Humans

Humans communicate through words and gestures.


This male frog swells up its throat to attract a mate.

Normal Throat


Animals depend on other animals:

Recreation

Seeing eye dog

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WELCOME

TO THE

WONDERFUL

WORLD

OF PLANTS


CONTENTS

Click on a tree to view that topic.

PARTS OF A PLANT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

LEAVES ROOTS STEMS THE FLOWER

HOW FLOWERING PLANTS REPRODUCE

HOW POLLEN IS SCATTERED

HOW FRUITS AND SEEDS DEVELOP

HOW SEEDS ARE SCATTERED

HOW NEW PLANTS GROW

HOW YOUNG PLANTS GROW FROM SEEDS

HOW NEW PLANTS GROW WITHOUT SEEDS


LEAVES

Green plants can make their own food.

Most food is made in the leaves.

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What Are The Four Things

That Plants Need To Make Food?

  • chlorophyll

  • light

  • water

  • air


PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make food using

SUNLIGHT

WATER

CARBON DIOXIDE

and

CHLOROPHYLL

Photosynthesis takes place in

chloroplasts (special structures in leaf cells).

The chloraplasts contain chlorophyll (a green pigment that

absorbs energy from sunlight).


CHLOROPLASTS

This photograph of elodea,

a water plant,

has many green dots

visible within the cells.

These are the chloroplasts.


The absorbed energy is used to join together

carbon dioxide and water

to form

the sugar, glucose,

which is the energy source for the whole

plant.

Oxygen, a waste product, is released into air.


PARTS OF LEAVES

Leaves are the main sites of photosynthesis and have various

adaptations for this purpose.

Flat laminae( blades)

provide a large surface for absorbing sunlight.

Stomata (pores)

in the lower surface of laminae allow gases

(carbon dioxide and oxygen)to pass in and out of the leaves.

Veins

bring water into leaves and transport theglucose

produced by photosynthesis to the rest ofthe plant.


CROSS SECTION OF A LEAF


VOCABULARY

CHLOROPHYLL- green material in leaves and in other

green parts of plants .

SUNLIGHT- form of energy visible to the human eye that comes from the sun.

WATER- Pure water is an odorless, tasteless liquid. Common name applied to the liquid state of the hydrogen-oxygen compound H2O.

AIR- mixture of gases that composes the atmosphere surrounding Earth.

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ROOTS


ROOTS RULE!

What are the functions of roots?

They help plants grow.

They help plants bring water and food into their systems.

They store food for plants.

  • They make food for people to eat!

radish


Roots

  • Roots hold soil in the ground.

  • Roots help plants stand.


Roots have many jobs!

They hold plants in the soil, so when the wind blows, the plant doesn’t fly away.

There are different kinds of roots!

Taproots are true roots. The form from the primaryroot—the first root that emerges from the seed.They’re usually large and vertical, with branches.Many, like burdock and common evening primrose,store food.

Fibrous roots look like they sound. These true roots aretangled masses of wiry fiber. Most are not edible ormedicinal. They hold the soil together, keep out otherplants, and often hamper you from digging up otherroots.


Plants are fun to grow!

These are some roots that we can grow and eat!

Radishes

Carrots

Turnips


Vocabulary

  • Root hairs-thin thread like growth from the root of a plant,that takes in water from the soil.

  • Soil-the top layer of earth,in which plants grow.


Quiz Time!

1.What is the name of one root food?

2.What are some functions of roots?

Now look back at the previous root slides and check your answers.

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Stems

These slides will guide you through the

wonderful world of STEMS.

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What Are The

Functions

Of Stems?

  • Water and food move up and down the plant through tubes in the stem.

  • They store food for humans to eat.

  • They support the leaves.

  • They help other plants grow from pieces of them.


STEMS WE EAT

Three common stems we eat are:

celery

rhubarb,

asparagus,

and celery.

asparagus

rhubarb


VOCABULARY

Tubes-

carry food and water throughout the plant.

Veins-

bundles of tubes that form the framework of a leaf and carry food and water

Support-

to hold up something.


Quiz

The stems we eat are apples, strawberries,and kiwi.

True

False

Support means to hold something up.

True False

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FLOWERS


What Are The Parts Of A Flower?

The main parts of a flower are:

the petal,

the pistil,

and the stamen.


What Are The Parts Of A Flower?

  • Petal - the part of a flower that isusually colored

  • Sepal leaf - the leaflike part of theflower that protects the growing bud

  • Pollen - dust-like yellowish powder produced on the stamens.

  • Pistil - part of a flower that producesseeds.


Diagram Of A Flower


MORE PARTS OF A FLOWER

Anther-the part of a flower

which produces pollen.

It is the proper section

of the stamen.

Filament - the anther bearing

stalk of a plant’s stamen

Stigma -the part of the female

organ of the flower which

catches the pollen


Even More Parts Of A Flower

Ovary- lower part of the pistil in which seeds

grow

Ovule- the part of a plant that can develop

into a seed


Plant

Diagram


LET'S REVIEW

Roots -> Take in water and food (mineral salts) from soil. Anchors plants. The roots of a plant are spread out.

Stem -> "Like a straw", transports water through plant. Raises the height of flowers and leaves. Brings closer to light. Structural. The stem is made up of little tubes.

Leaves -> Different shapes. Almost always green but sometimes covered with another color such as red. Green substance in leaves -> chlorophyll. Leaves make food for the plant. To do this they need the water and mineral salts obtained from the soil. They are carried inside little veins in the leaf. To make food leaves also need sunshine and CO2.

Flowers - > Flowers produce seeds which form new plants.

Space and warmth also needed for a plant to grow.


Can You Fill In The Blanks?

The Parts Of A Plant

Roots - Stem - Leaves - Flowers

The _______ of a plant produce seeds which form new plants.

The _____ make the food for the plant. They take the water and mineral salts and use them together with sunlight and carbon-dioxide to make food.

The ____ is like a straw. It moves water around the plant. It raises the leaves and flowers of the plant off the ground.

The ____take in water and mineral salts from the soil. They anchor the plant into the ground


How Did You Do?

The Parts Of A Plant

Roots - Stem - Leaves - Flowers

The flowersof a plant produce seeds which form new plants.

The leavesmake the food for the plant. They take the water and mineral salts and use them together with sunlight and carbon-dioxide to make food.

The stem is like a straw. It moves water around the plant. It raises the leaves and flowers of the plant off the ground.

The rootstake in water and mineral salts from the soil. They anchor the plant into the ground

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POLLINATION

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What is pollination?

Pollination is the movement of pollen from a stamen to a pistil.

petal

pistil

.

pollen

stamen

sepal


Pollination

  • How is pollen scattered?

  • One of the ways is by bees.

  • Bees land on a flower.

  • Pollen sticks to them.

  • When a bee lands on another flower some of the pollen transfers to

  • the flower and a little bit of the pollen from the flower sticks to the

  • bee.


A BUSY BEE

.


pollen pictures


Another way pollen scatters is bywind.

. . . .

. .

. . . . . .

Moths, humming birds and butterfliescan also pollinate

aflower.


COOL PICTURE OF A HUMMINGBIRD

A NOT SO WELL-KNOWN POLLEN SPREADER


Vocabulary

Pollen- A fine yellowish powder in a flower.

Pollination- The movement of pollen

to pistils of flowers.

Pistil- The part of a flower that produces seeds.

Stamen- The part of a flower that contains pollen.

Scatter- To separate and send or go in different

directions.


More Vocabulary

Petals- One of the parts of a flower that is usually

colored.

Wind- A strong current of air.

Nectar- A sweet liquid in many flowers, made into honey

by bees.

Color- An interesting quality or character.

Scent- A smell or odor.


Extra Information

Pollen gives some people hay fever.

It helps plants make their seeds.

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HOW SEEDS DEVELOP

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How Do Seeds Develop?

What part of the plant develops into a seed?

  • The seed develops in the pistil.

  • Seeds will grow only when pollen from the same kind of the plant reaches the pistil.

  • When a pollen grain reaches the pistil of a flower, the pollen begins to form a tube.

  • The pollen tube also contains some of the material that is needed for a seed to grow.

  • The material from the pollen joins with the material in the ovule, and a new seed begins to grow.


LEARN HOW A SEED DEVELOPS STEP BY STEP

1.) The pollen grain reaches the pistil.

2.) The pollen begins to form a tube.

3.) The pollen tube goes down the long

thin part of the pistil.

4.) The pollentube reaches into the

large bottom part of the pistil called

the ovary.


5.) Small ovules are growing inside the

ovary. Each ovule contains some of the

material that is needed to form a seed.

6.) The pollen tube also contains some

of the material that is needed for a seed

to grow.

7.) When the material in the pollen grain

joins with the material in the ovule,

a new seed begins to grow. This is called

fertilization.


What Must Happen For A Plant's Seeds To Develop?

You need wind.

You need water.

You need insects.

You need birds, and

bats and other small

animals to help

pollinate the plant.


What Are The Parts Of A Seed?

  • seed coat

The seed coat protects the developing plant

and its stored food.

seed leaf

Food is stored in the seed leaves.

developing plant


QUIZ

1. Seeds develop in the sepal.

True

False

2. The parts of a seed are the seed coat, the seed leaf, and the ________.

developing plant

or

ovary


Fruit


How Do Fruits Form?

After fertilization takes place the ovary swells and grows into a fruit.


What is an Ovary?

An ovary is a hollow structure near the base of a flower.

It’s the lower part of the pistil in which the seeds grow.


What Part Develops Into

A fruit ?

The ovary develops into a fruit.


Definitions

The part of a flowering plant that will grow

into a new plant under the right conditions.

Seed -

Seed leaf -

Structure in the seed of a plant.

Seed coat

- outer covering of a seed.

Fruit

-a plant part that can be eaten and contains

the seeds.


Unfamiliar Fruits

Did you know that peppers,

corn, eggplant, peas,pumpkins,

and tomatoesare all fruits?

They are all fruitsbecause

theyhave seeds in them.

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HOW SEEDS SCATTER

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ANIMALS

  • Seeds are sometimes scattered by animals.

  • When animals touch or rub on plants seeds get on their fur.

  • Some seeds are spread by animals’ feet.

  • Also seeds are hidden in animals’ droppings.


WATER

  • Seeds are also scattered by water.

  • When seeds blow in the wind sometimes the seeds get caught in the water.


WIND

  • Sometimes seeds are scattered

  • bywind.

  • Every time the wind blows

  • seedsflyaround.

  • Seeds must be light weight

  • to be carried by thewind.


HOW SEEDS SCATTER

Did you know seeds are scattered by people?

Seeds are scattered by peoplebecause, when

people buy seeds at the stores they plant them and

then eat the plants. Sometimes they spit the seeds

onto the ground.


REVIEW

Seeds are scattered by:

wind

water

animals

animal droppings

people

and seed pod explosion.

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Life cycle of a bean plant


HOW A BEAN SEEDLING GROWS

1. The seed takes in water from the ground.

2. The seed swells and the seed coat splits.

3. A root grows down into the soil.

4. The root pushes the seed up and out of the ground.

5. The seed coat drops off.

6. Two small leaves grow up between the seed leaves.

7. The stem grows longer and lifts the leaves upward.

8. As it grows it uses up the stored food in the seed.

9. The seed leaves dry up and the seedling must make its own food.


How A Young Plant

Grows From A Bean Seed

Part one

Step1

Steps 2, 3, 4

Step 5


The Life Cycle Of A Bean Plant

Part 2

Steps 6 and 7

Steps 8 and 9


How do young plants grow from seeds?

They need:

air,

water,

a certain temperature,

and a source of light.


Dicots

Dicots are seeds that have two parts such as a bean seed.

The outside covering of a bean seed is soft. It is called the seed coat.

It falls off after being soaked in water.

The bean seed has a slit down the middle of it.

Inside is a tiny plant called the embryo.

The cotyledons are the two large parts of the seed that provide food for the seedling

while it is growing.

Since the bean seed has two parts, it is called dicotyledon or dicot for short.


Monocot

A corn seed has only one cotyledon which makes it a monocot.

It has a seed coat that is hard and does not slip off easily.

It remains in one piece and does not split in to two pieces as the bean seed does.

One cotyledon called an endosperm surrounds the embryo and provides food

for the growing plant.

A corn seed is a monocotyledon or monocot for short.


VOCABULARY

Germinate - begin to grow, or develop, or sprout

Seedling - a young plant that grows from a seed

Seed coat - outer covering of a seed

Seed leaf - a structure that grows inside the seed;

food is stored in the seed leaf

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SOME PLANTS GROW WITHOUT SEEDS

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How do plants grow without seeds?

Bulbs

Runners

Cuttings


How do plants grow without seeds?

thin stems that grow along the ground

and produce new plants.

Runners

Bulbs

Round underground buds.

small parts cut from a plant used to

grow a new plant.

Cuttings


DIFFERENT TYPES OF BULBS

DAHLIA BULBS

TULIP BULB

GLADIOLUS BULB


BULBS

A bulb is a round underground bud. Not all plants have bulbs.

Plants like tulips, dahlias, and gladiolus have bulbs.

The term bulb refers to plants that have underground, fleshy storage structures.

The main function of the bulb is provide food for the plant.

Bulb-like plants are usually perennials.

They have a period of growth and flowering.

Then they die back to the ground in late spring and the bulb begins growing again in the fall and will flower the following spring.

A plant that is annualonly grows for one year or one season.


PERRENIALS AND ANNUALS

Bulb-like plants are usually perennials.

They have a period of growth and flowering.

Then they die back to the ground in late spring and the bulb begins growing again in the fall and will flower the following spring.

A plant that isannualonly grows for one year or one season.


FERNS

Unlike seed bearing plants

ferns reproduce with spores.

A spore depends on moisture to grow into a gametophyte,

one half a fern’s lifecycle.


FUNGI


FACTS ABOUT FUNGI

  • Fungi are not plants.

  • Fungi feed by absorbing nutrients from the organic material in which they live.

  • Fungi do not have stomachs.

  • Fungi have evolved to use a lot of different items for food.

  • Some are decomposers living on dead organic material like leaves.


LET'S GO TO THE MOVIES

Just click on the address below.

When you get to the site, find the movie section.

Scroll down to SCIENCE.

Then scroll down to either photosynthesis or pollination.

Enjoy! (Sorry there isn’t any popcorn.)

http://www.brainpop.com

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