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ADVERBIALS. PRACTICE CLASS #6 (#7) 2012-04-17/18. ADVERBIALS. THE LAST TOPIC BEFORE THE MID-TERM EXAM. Page 128 – exercise 1 (a-d) . AdvP. finite clause. verbless clause. PP. PP. PP. finite clause. Page 128 – exercise 1 (e-h) . AdvP. finite clause. non-finite clause.

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Presentation Transcript

PRACTICE CLASS #6 (#7)

2012-04-17/18

THE LAST TOPIC BEFORE THE MID-TERM EXAM

finite clause

verbless clause

PP

PP

PP

finite clause

finite clause

non-finite clause

non-finite clause

PP

PP

PP

PP

PP

PP

verbless clause

PP

non-finite clause

PP

disjunct

PP

-ING (n-f) clause

PP

PP

INF (n-f) clause

conjunct

finite clause

NP

finite clause

PP

EXERCISE #1 AND ANALYZE THE FUNCTIONS THERE.

finite clause

verbless clause

PP

PP

PP

finite clause

disjunct

finite clause

non-finite clause

non-finite clause

PP

conjunct

PP

PP

PP

PP

PP

verbless clause

PP

non-finite clause

disjunct

Manner Place Time

Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:

a) The horse jumped. (into the pond/over the fence)

over the fence into the pond (sequence of events)

b) He has come. (from London/to Paris)

to Parisfrom London (verb of arrival – come)

c) The match will be held. (in Vienna/at a sports club)

at a sports club in Vienna (more specific, less specific)

d) The term will begin (next year/on 15th February)

on 15th February next year (more specific, less specific)

Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:

e) I will be away. (during the winter/for 2 weeks/in the country)

In the country for 2 weeksduring the winter (P+D+W)

f) I came home. (very late/last night/after the party/from John’s)

from John’svery late after the partylast night

g) We have lectures. (this week/all the afternoon/every day)

all the afternoon every day this week (D+F+W)

h) There were power cuts (during the winter/every day/for about four hours at a time)

for about four hours at a time every dayduring the winter (D+F+W)

Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:

i) The shops are open. (every weekday/from 8 to 8)

from 8 to 8 every weekday (D+F)

j) The telephone rang. (three times/while you were out)

three timeswhile you were out (D/F+W)

MY CAR WAS ALSO BADLY DAMAGED (BADLY) IN AN ACCIDENT THE OTHER DAY.

IT (DEFINITELY) WAS DEFINITELY NOT MY FAULT IN ANY WAY.

My car was damaged. (also / badly/ in an accident/ the other day)

It was not my fault. (definitely/ in any way)

THE DRIVER VERY STUPIDLY JAMMED ON HIS BRAKES (VERY STUPIDLY) RIGHT IN FRONT OF ME

(TODAY) IT IS STILL SNOWING QUITE HARD (TODAY).

STILL, IT IS SNOWING QUITE HARD TODAY.

The driver jammed on his brakes. (in front of me/ right/ stupidly/ very)

It is snowing. (still/ hard/ quite/ today)

LUCKILY ENOUGH, WILLIE WAS WITH ME AT THE TIME AND FULLY CONFIRMED EVERYTHING I SAID.

IF IT IS STILL SNOWING AT SIX I SHALL PROBABLYSTAY COMFORTABLY AT HOME BY THE TELEVISION THE WHOLE EVENING.

Willie was with me and confirmed everything I said. (at the time/ enough/ fully/ luckily)

If it is snowing I shall stay. (at home/ at six/ by the television/ comfortably/ probably/ still/ the whole evening)

FRANKLY, I HAVE NEVER (MUCH) LIKED SNOW MUCH.

SOMETIMES (, IN THE EARLY AUTUMN), I ALSO LIKE (ALSO) TO ROW GENTLY ABOUT THE LAKE IN THE PARK IN THE EARLY AUTUMN.

I have liked snow. (frankly/ much/ never)

I like to row. (about the lake/ in the park/ also/ gently/ in the early autumn/ sometimes)

LUCKILY, I ONLY RARELY WANT TO DO THE THINGS I OBVIOUSLY COULDN’T DO.

I want to do things I couldn’t do. (luckily, obviously/ only/ rarely)

DISJUNCTS

A BRIEF OVERVIEW

• Disjuncts are typically PPs and CLAUSES.

• STYLE DISJUNCTS convey either:

• Speaker’s assertion of truth (truthfully), or

• Speaker’s indication of generalization (broadly).

• ATTITUDINAL DISJUNCTS comment on:

• TRUTH VALUE OF THE SENTENCE (CERTAINTY)

• General: certainly

• General + perception: obviously

• General + comment on reality of content: really

• CONTENT OF COMMUNICATION (EVALUATION)

• General: understandably

• General + comment on clause subject: wisely (similar to subjuncts)

PAGE 131 – exercise 7

It is obvious that there has been a mistake.

That there has been a mistake is obvious.

ATTITUDINAL

It was foolish of me to forget to ask her name.

That I forgot to ask her name was foolish of me.

ATTITUDINAL

It was understandable that she was very upset.

That she was very upset was understandable.

ATTITUDINAL

We were lucky to manage to find our way back.

ATTITUDINAL

You were quite right to phone/to have phoned the police first.

CONJUNCTS

A BRIEF OVERVIEW

They have a CONNECTIVE FUNCTION between SENTENCES (sometimes, they are called SENTENCE LINKERS)

Most typically, they take the INITIAL POSITION, but they are not restricted to it.

Sometimes, they can take the MEDIAL and FINAL position:

There are many classifications of conjuncts, below there is a list of THE MOST FREQUENT classes of conjuncts (there are many other classes, which are not given here):

PROVIDED

IN OTHER WORDS

FOR EXAMPLE

ALTERNATIVELY

IN CASE

IN FACT

ON THE CONTRARY

ALL IN ALL

HOWEVER

FOR EXAMPLE

OWING TO

MOREOVER

DUE TO

AS WELL AS