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ADVERBIALS. PRACTICE CLASS #6 (#7) 2012-04-17/18. ADVERBIALS. THE LAST TOPIC BEFORE THE MID-TERM EXAM. Page 128 – exercise 1 (a-d) . AdvP. finite clause. verbless clause. PP. PP. PP. finite clause. Page 128 – exercise 1 (e-h) . AdvP. finite clause. non-finite clause.

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Adverbials

ADVERBIALS

PRACTICE CLASS #6 (#7)

2012-04-17/18


Adverbials1

ADVERBIALS

THE LAST TOPIC BEFORE THE MID-TERM EXAM


Page 128 exercise 1 a d
Page 128 – exercise 1 (a-d)

AdvP

finite clause

verbless clause

PP

PP

PP

finite clause


Page 128 exercise 1 e h
Page 128 – exercise 1 (e-h)

AdvP

finite clause

non-finite clause

non-finite clause

PP

AdvP

PP

PP

PP

PP

AdvP


Page 128 exercise 1 i k
Page 128 – exercise 1 (i-k)

PP

verbless clause

PP

non-finite clause


Page 128 exercise 2 a d
Page 128 – exercise 2 (a-d)

PP

adjunct

AdvP

disjunct

adjunct

PP

adjunct

-ING (n-f) clause

AdvP

adjunct


Page 128 exercise 2 e h
Page 128 – exercise 2 (e-h)

PP

PP

adjunct

adjunct

NP (possibly AdvP)

adjunct

INF (n-f) clause

conjunct

finite clause

adjunct

adjunct

AdvP


Page 128 exercise 2 i l
Page 128 – exercise 2 (i-l)

NP

AdvP

adjunct

adjunct

AdvP

adjunct

AdvP

adjunct

adjunct

AdvP


Page 128 exercise 2 m p
Page 128 – exercise 2 (m-p)

adjunct

finite clause

PP

adjunct

adjunct

AdvPOR NP

AdvP

adjunct

adjunct

AdvP




Page 128 exercise 1 a d1
Page 128 – exercise 1 (a-d)

AdvP

adjunct

finite clause

adjunct

adjunct

verbless clause

adjunct

PP

PP

PP

finite clause

adjunct

adjunct

adjunct


Page 128 exercise 1 e h1
Page 128 – exercise 1 (e-h)

disjunct

adjunct

adjunct

AdvP

finite clause

non-finite clause

non-finite clause

adjunct

adjunct

PP

conjunct

AdvP

adjunct

adjunct

PP

PP

PP

adjunct

PP

adjunct

AdvP

adjunct


Page 128 exercise 1 i k1
Page 128 – exercise 1 (i-k)

PP

adjunct

verbless clause

adjunct

adjunct

PP

non-finite clause

disjunct



M p t

M P T

The general order of adverbials.


M anner p lace t ime

Manner Place Time

The general order of adverbials.


Page 129 exercise 5 a d
Page 129 – exercise 5 (a-d)

Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:

a) The horse jumped. (into the pond/over the fence)

over the fence into the pond (sequence of events)

b) He has come. (from London/to Paris)

to Parisfrom London (verb of arrival – come)

c) The match will be held. (in Vienna/at a sports club)

at a sports club in Vienna (more specific, less specific)

d) The term will begin (next year/on 15th February)

on 15th February next year (more specific, less specific)


Page 129 exercise 5 e h
Page 129 – exercise 5 (e-h)

Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:

e) I will be away. (during the winter/for 2 weeks/in the country)

In the country for 2 weeksduring the winter (P+D+W)

f) I came home. (very late/last night/after the party/from John’s)

from John’svery late after the partylast night

g) We have lectures. (this week/all the afternoon/every day)

all the afternoon every day this week (D+F+W)

h) There were power cuts (during the winter/every day/for about four hours at a time)

for about four hours at a time every dayduring the winter (D+F+W)


Page 129 exercise 5 i j
Page 129 – exercise 5 (i-j)

Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:

i) The shops are open. (every weekday/from 8 to 8)

from 8 to 8 every weekday (D+F)

j) The telephone rang. (three times/while you were out)

three timeswhile you were out (D/F+W)


Page 131 exercise 6 a b
Page 131 – exercise 6 (a, b)

MY CAR WAS ALSO BADLY DAMAGED (BADLY) IN AN ACCIDENT THE OTHER DAY.

IT (DEFINITELY) WAS DEFINITELY NOT MY FAULT IN ANY WAY.

My car was damaged. (also / badly/ in an accident/ the other day)

It was not my fault. (definitely/ in any way)


Page 131 exercise 6 c d
Page 131 – exercise 6 (c, d)

THE DRIVER VERY STUPIDLY JAMMED ON HIS BRAKES (VERY STUPIDLY) RIGHT IN FRONT OF ME

(TODAY) IT IS STILL SNOWING QUITE HARD (TODAY).

STILL, IT IS SNOWING QUITE HARD TODAY.

The driver jammed on his brakes. (in front of me/ right/ stupidly/ very)

It is snowing. (still/ hard/ quite/ today)


Page 131 exercise 6 e f
Page 131 – exercise 6 (e, f)

LUCKILY ENOUGH, WILLIE WAS WITH ME AT THE TIME AND FULLY CONFIRMED EVERYTHING I SAID.

IF IT IS STILL SNOWING AT SIX I SHALL PROBABLYSTAY COMFORTABLY AT HOME BY THE TELEVISION THE WHOLE EVENING.

Willie was with me and confirmed everything I said. (at the time/ enough/ fully/ luckily)

If it is snowing I shall stay. (at home/ at six/ by the television/ comfortably/ probably/ still/ the whole evening)


Page 131 exercise 6 g h
Page 131 – exercise 6 (g, h)

FRANKLY, I HAVE NEVER (MUCH) LIKED SNOW MUCH.

SOMETIMES (, IN THE EARLY AUTUMN), I ALSO LIKE (ALSO) TO ROW GENTLY ABOUT THE LAKE IN THE PARK IN THE EARLY AUTUMN.

I have liked snow. (frankly/ much/ never)

I like to row. (about the lake/ in the park/ also/ gently/ in the early autumn/ sometimes)


Page 131 exercise 6 i
Page 131 – exercise 6 (i)

LUCKILY, I ONLY RARELY WANT TO DO THE THINGS I OBVIOUSLY COULDN’T DO.

I want to do things I couldn’t do. (luckily, obviously/ only/ rarely)


Disjuncts

DISJUNCTS

A BRIEF OVERVIEW



Disjuncts more info
DISJUNCTS: more info

  • Disjuncts are typically PPs and CLAUSES.

  • STYLE DISJUNCTS convey either:

    • Speaker’s assertion of truth (truthfully), or

    • Speaker’s indication of generalization (broadly).

  • ATTITUDINAL DISJUNCTS comment on:

    • TRUTH VALUE OF THE SENTENCE (CERTAINTY)

      • General: certainly

      • General + perception: obviously

      • General + comment on reality of content: really

    • CONTENT OF COMMUNICATION (EVALUATION)

      • General: understandably

      • General + comment on clause subject: wisely (similar to subjuncts)


Page 131 exercise 7

ATTITUDINAL

PAGE 131 – exercise 7

It is obvious that there has been a mistake.

That there has been a mistake is obvious.


Page 131 exercise 7 b c
Page 131 – exercise 7 (b, c)

ATTITUDINAL

It was foolish of me to forget to ask her name.

That I forgot to ask her name was foolish of me.

ATTITUDINAL

It was understandable that she was very upset.

That she was very upset was understandable.


Page 131 exercise 7 d e
Page 131 – exercise 7 (d, e)

ATTITUDINAL

We were lucky to manage to find our way back.

ATTITUDINAL

You were quite right to phone/to have phoned the police first.


Conjuncts

CONJUNCTS

A BRIEF OVERVIEW


Conjuncts 1 2
CONJUNCTS (1/2)

They have a CONNECTIVE FUNCTION between SENTENCES (sometimes, they are called SENTENCE LINKERS)

Most typically, they take the INITIAL POSITION, but they are not restricted to it.

Sometimes, they can take the MEDIAL and FINAL position:


Conjuncts 2 2
CONJUNCTS (2/2)

There are many classifications of conjuncts, below there is a list of THE MOST FREQUENT classes of conjuncts (there are many other classes, which are not given here):



ANYWAY

PROVIDED

IN OTHER WORDS

FOR EXAMPLE

ALTERNATIVELY

IN ADDITION

IN CASE

IN FACT

ON THE CONTRARY

ALL IN ALL


INDEED

HOWEVER

FOR EXAMPLE

OWING TO

MOREOVER

DUE TO

AS WELL AS


The end

Thank you for your time!

THE END