the drr process expanding partnerships vertically and horizontally
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“Much has been learnt from the creative disaster prevention efforts of poor communities in developing countries. Prevention policy is too important to be left to governments and international agencies alone. To succeed, it must also engage civil society, the private sector and the media”

Kofi Annan 1999

drr who be engaged
DRR: Who be engaged?

* With training

hazard maps in building codes and planning regulations
Hazard Maps in Building Codes and Planning Regulations

National Building Code:

Hazard mitigation to be included in soon-to-be released International Building Code.

Town and Country Planning Act (1957):

Development Orders now include hazard mitigation in the planning of developments. Only cover 5 of 13 parishes and major towns and cities.

hazard maps in building codes and planning regulations1
Hazard maps in Building Codes and Planning Regulations

Local Improvements Act (1914)

Regulates subdivision of Land. It encourages hazard mitigation, but probably constrained by inadequate information

The Parish Councils Building Act (1908)

Mainly concerned with structural integrity of buildings for construction purposes, but not on site location. Hazard mitigation considerations – negligible.

sustainability issues
Sustainability Issues
  • .



Hill Slope Degradation

sustainability issues1
Sustainability Issues

Flooding- House at Treasure Beach

Flooding- NWC Pumping station at Bigwoods

  • .

Flooding of housing dev. After hurricane Lilli

caribbean hazards are not confined to hurricanes list of some natural human induced threats
Caribbean Hazards are not confined to Hurricanes List of some Natural & Human induced threats

Geophysical: Earthquakes, Landslides, Volcanic Events, etc

Climatic: Hurricanes, Floods, Drought, Windstorm, Northers etc

Biological: Human, Animal and Plant Diseases

Technological: Fires, Air / Marine Transport Accidents, Releases of Toxics and Biological Agencies

Other: Civil Disorder, Terrorism, Conflict, War, Displaced persons

planning processes must
Planning Processes must …
  • Cover credible events and incidents, their mitigation and their potential consequence(s)
    • Large, medium and small scale
    • Natural / Man induced / High / Low Probability
    • Effects on Human, Natural, Social and Economic Capital Assets and systems
  • Ensure that Command, Control, and Communication functions are carried out
  • Include External Communication and Information Management
  • Protect people, property, natural resources, physical assets
  • Be based on systematic planning and a phased response
  • Cover all phases including return to ‘normalcy’
  • Be part of MAINSTREAM / CORE Functions of government and its Private / Civil Society Partners in Small Island States
traditional phases
Traditional ‘PHASES’
    • Analysis, Training, Planning, Scenario Building (incl Wild Card / Worst Case, Simulations/Drills)
    • Environmental Monitoring, Risk Analysis
    • Enhanced readiness, Alert Status, Deployment
      • Life and Asset Protection / Incident Management,
      • Search and Rescue, Security of Assets
disaster adaptations
  • Pre Independence
    • Transfers of ‘Home Country’ modes
    • Focus on Relief and Response
    • Food Security
      • Diversification of Foods / Crops
      • Deliberate introductions
    • Structural / Location Adaptation
public administration of disasters
Public Administration of Disasters
  • Governors “Rule by Decree” using ‘Emergency’ Powers / Riot Act
  • Evolution 50’s – 70’s to “Central Hurricane / Emergency Relief Ctee” Model based on modification of Governors ‘council’ to fit Cabinet
  • Permanent Secretariat sometimes added
    • Eg “CERO” Barbados / NERO Trinidad
  • Typically Located in -:
    • Cabinet Office / Electoral Office
    • Ministry seen to be related Internal Affairs / Social Security / Housing
  • Generally ‘Reactive’ and Hurricane focussed
  • Not comprehensive or integrated
  • No organic link to Oil Spill / Airport CFR
  • Growing concerns in late 70’s at regions lack of capacity and underutilisation of ‘modern’ approaches based on ‘Science’
recent disaster mng trends in caribbean
  • PCDPPP 1980’s built National, Sectoral and Regional Capacity
  • Succeeded by CDERA 1992 and ongoing programmes in Health (PAHO) and other Sectors (eg CDMP)
  • Linkages to AGENDA 21, Barbados SIDS Issues, Sustainable Development, Poverty Reduction, Environmental and Physical Planning Agendas,
  • Linkages to CLIMATE CHANGE issues
  • Emergence of Tourism / Financial / Insurance Sectors
  • WCDR
trends emerging issues
Trends / Emerging Issues
  • Climate Instability possibly related to GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  • “Environmental” Emergencies
    • Marine Accidents / Spills ; Atmospheric Pollution
  • Consequence Management
    • Effects of ‘Offshore’ / Transboundary events
    • 9/11 ; Airport Closures; Oil Spill elsewhere in region
  • Complex Emergencies
  • Humanitarian / Refugee Events
  • Linkages to Development Targets
    • National Goals & Priority Setting
    • Global / Regional / National / Subnational / Sectoral Capacity Building
  • Security / Terrorism
some traditional caribbean coping mechanisms 1
Some Traditional Caribbean Coping Mechanisms (1)
  • Avoidance of High Risk Areas
    • Exposed Coastal Areas
    • Unstable Slopes / Landslides
    • Ground Failure / Liquefaction
  • Building Practice and Materials
    • Wood / Brick / Block and Steel
    • Secure Anchorages
traditional coping 2
Traditional Coping (2)
  • Vernacular Style and Settlement Layout
  • Local Monitoring of Natural Phenomena
  • Dissemination of ‘Warnings’
    • Runners
    • Conch Shells / Church Bells / Flags
    • Radio / Electronic Media
  • Building Laws, Codes and Zoning
traditional coping 3
Traditional Coping (3)
  • Livelihood Protection
    • Crop / Tools of Trade
  • Food Security and Crop Diversification
    • Securing / Preserving Vital Supplies
    • Deliberate Introductions (Cassava, Breadfruit etc)
  • Migration Patterns
    • Export of Labour / Remittances
      • Central Am / Cuba / etc
  • SWEAT EQUITY on Tasks (Community Pooling)
    • Work Days (Cleaning Sinkholes, Drains etc)
  • Traditional Knowledge
    • Oral Transmission of Events / Extremes
      • Past Extremes
      • Marking High Water Levels
coping 4
Coping (4)
  • Large Public Works
  • Communal Sinkhole / Suckwell / Drain / Road Maintenance
  • (Re) Location of Infrastructure
  • Formal Buildings / Spacing
  • Water, Sanitation, and Drainage
  • Regulations regarding Food Staple Production
  • Knowledge / Science and Technology
new challenges
New Challenges
process points to consider
“Process” Points to consider

Past Events may not be a reliable guide to future events -:

  • Where we are dealing with NEW ECONOMIC SECTORS
    • New Land Use Patterns
  • If Climate Change Models are correct Physical Vulnerability Issues may require review and analysis
    • Critical Facilities
    • Lifelines
    • Continuity
  • Knowledge dependent issues such as Standards, Building Codes and Zoning may require continuous review and tweaking
  • Tourism / Financial Services Sector
    • Communication and Confidence Issues
  • Private, Public Civil Society Partnerships
    • Knowledge and Information Sharing
    • Are VERY LONG Term
    • Process Oriented and Require broad SOCIETAL Consensus
addressing the cause as well as the effect
Addressing the “Cause” as well as the “Effect”

How can mitigation strategies expand, so that the major political, economic and social pressures are addressed…

as well as the technical factors?

addressing the causes as well as the effects
Addressing the “Causes” as well as the “Effects”

Unenforced, and inadequate building codes are a symptom of vulnerability that require ‘direct’ mitigation measures:

  • Reforming the Building Industry
  • Developing Codes
  • Developing the Legislative Framework
addressing the causes as well as the effects1
Addressing the “Causes” as well as the “Effects”

“It is vital that those involved in disaster work accept that the reduction of disasters is about reducing vulnerability, and that involves changing the processes that put people at risk in addition to modifying the impact of the hazards themselves”

Piers Blaikie, Terry Cannon, Ian Davis and Ben Wisner 1994

“Much has been learnt from the creative disaster prevention efforts of poor communities in developing countries. Prevention policy is too important to be left to governments and international agencies alone. To succeed, it must also engage civil society, the private sector and the media”

Kofi Annan 1999

risk transfer via insurance
Risk Transfer via Insurance
  • How to expand the use of the incentives of reduced insurance payments for safer building practice and rapid recovery?
public private partnerships
Public/ Private Partnerships
  • How to build partnerships between governments, the private sector and insurance companies to promote the training of staff in risk avoidance, risk reduction, mitigation, emergency / disaster preparedness in return for reduced premium payments?
Creative partnerships are needed where entire communities collaborate with the private sector, voluntary groups and government to reduce and manage their risks.
capacity development


Programmes & Projects to Improve Systems Structures, Mechanisms & Procedures

Educate, Increase Capacity to access, create, use skills, & KNOWLEDGE



Enabling Strategies Supportive Policy, Legal & Institutional Frameworks



“Capacity Development”

The Stages in Developing a Disaster Culture

Stage 2:Rhetoric

Stage 3:Logic

Stage 4:


Stage 5:


Stage 1:Inception

(Public outcry following disaster)


Risk reduction measures introduced as normal practice [pre-disaster]

  • Risk reduction measures througheffective disaster management [post-disaster]
  • Risk reduction measures introduced during reconstruction [post-disaster]

Three contexts where resilience needs

to be built into risk reduction activities

dialogue in a 1982 workshop
Dialogue in a 1982 workshop….

“The aim of disaster recovery is to restore normality…”

Senior Red Cross Official

“I am afraid you are wrong, in my country we have people who live in cardboard boxes, that is their normality, so are you suggesting that in the recovery plan we put them back in these boxes? No our ‘normality’ is the same as ’vulnerability’ and in recovery planning you must surely aim to reach a higher standard than the pre- disaster norm”

Wynante Patterson, Jamaican Nutritionist

implication of the safe recovery and resilience graph
Implication of the Safe Recovery and Resilience Graph

Recognise that within a reconstruction programme there is a double challenge to recover rapidly and safely:

First, to reconstruct rapidly, to capitalise on political concerns and the availability of funds

Second, to reconstruct in a manner that is above pre-disaster standards of “normality” , that equalled “vulnerability”

four dimensions of resilience
Four Dimensions of Resilience

1. Robustness:

(strength of elements to withstand stress without losing their function)

2. Redundancy:

(the extent to which elements continue to function in the event of disruption)

four dimensions of resilience1
Four Dimensions of Resilience

3. Resourcefulness:

(capacity to identify problems and mobilise resources)

4. Rapidity:

(capacity to meet priorities and achieve goals in order to contain losses and avoid future disruption)

technical performance measures
Technical Performance Measures

Building Resilience: (Hospital example)

Robustness Damage avoidance/ continued service

Redundancy Backup systems in place

Resourcefulness Plansand resources to cope

with damage and disruption,

hospital emergency plans

Rapidity Buildings/ equipment functional after

disaster shock

economic performance measures
Economic Performance Measures

Economic Resilience:

Robustness Avoidance of direct and indirect

economic losses

Redundancy Alternative suppliers and relocated

venues for work operations

Resourcefulness Plansand stabilising measures

Rapidity Optimisingtimeto return to

pre- disaster functional levels

social performance measures
Social Performance Measures

Community Resilience:

Robustness Avoidance of casualties and

disruption in the community

Redundancy Alternative means of providing for

community needs

Resourcefulness Plansand resources to meet

community needs

Rapidity Optimisingtimeto return to

pre-disaster community functions


Resilience comprises:

  • Risk Reduction Measures that absorb hazard forces (absorb shocks)
  • Emergency Management to minimise the impact of hazards (absorb shocks)
  • Recovery Plans and Implementation Strategies that reduce recovery time

(bounce back)