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Networking Technologies. Understand Networking Principles – part3 Dr. Husam Osta 2012. Cloud Computing - problem. The use of the internet & computing has generated a huge amount of information on daily basis Managing these huge amount of information

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Networking technologies

Networking Technologies

Understand Networking Principles – part3

Dr. HusamOsta


Cloud computing problem

Cloud Computing - problem

  • The use of the internet & computing has generated a huge amount of information on daily basis

  • Managing these huge amount of information

    • Cloud computing will keep it within the cloud of the internet so that it is available to other users at the same time

  • Cloud computing contains

    • Hardware

    • Software

  • stores information that is available to users at all times and it can be accessed from across the globe.

Cloud computing definition

Cloud Computing - definition

  • What is Cloud Computing ?

  • Is Internet-based computing

    • shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand

  • Cloud computing

    • anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internet and includes any subscription-based or pay-by-use service that, in real time, extends IT’s existing capabilities

Cloud computing

Cloud Computing

  • Traditionally, if you’ve used a computer – you’ve installed software (such as Microsoft Word, Outlook, etc.) on your computer along with the files created, have been stored on your computer.

  • Today, software has migrated to be “installed” and used on the Internet.

  • Using these softwares through a web browser such as Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, or even a smart-phone such as an Android phones & iPhones.

  • Instead of clicking an icon in your START menu to access a program, you can click a “Bookmark” or “Favorite” in your web browser to access it.

Cloud computing example

Cloud computing - example

  • Allows users to share information with other users in a work space

    • by putting it inside the cloud of network.

    • Users can pick files which they need from the cloud.

    • This saves the cost of paper and printer, and it saves time to transfer files to other parts of the work place.

  • Employees in a work place can also share hardware.

    • Users can use single printer or scanner, which will eliminate the need to have multiple printers for each computer.

    • Cloud computing requires a network of computers where employees can share and communicate with each other through their computers.

Cloud computing example1

Cloud computing - example

  • Google Docs ( and Office360 ( are open source online office tools which allow users to perform all major tasks of MS Office.

  • Online storage space such as at Amazon Web Services ( and Rackspace ( However there are cheaper or even free alternatives such as Dropbox ( and Microsoft’s Skydrive (, and they offer good amount of free online storage.

Networking technologies


Internet vs cloud computing

Internet VS Cloud Computing

  • Internet

    • is a global network of billions of interconnected computers around the world.

    • It offers many resources and services such as the World Wide Web and email. This is to access trillions of hyperlinked documents.

  • Cloud Computing

    • The focus has moved towards offering all of the resources over the Internet.

    • Which offers many resources such as software, platforms and infrastructure as services.

Internet vs cloud computing1

Internet VS Cloud Computing

  • Internet is a network of networks, which provides software/hardware infrastructure to establish and maintain connectivity of the computers around the word

  • Cloud computing is a new technology that delivers many types of resources over the Internet.


  • Cloud computing could be identified as a technology that uses the Internet as the communication medium to deliver its services

  • Cloud computing cannot operate globally without the Internet

Networking technologies

  • Cloud computing is broken down into few different categories based on the type of service provided.

    • SaaS (Software as a Service) is the category of cloud computing in which the main resources available as a service are software applications.

    • PaaS (Platform as a Service) is the category/application of cloud computing in which the service providers deliver a computing platform or a solution stack to their subscribers over the Internet.

    • IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) is the category of cloud computing in which the main resources available as a service are hardware infrastructure.

    • DaaS (Desktop as a Service), which is an emerging –aaS service deals with providing a whole desktop experience over the Internet. This is sometimes referred to as desktop virtualization/virtual desktop or hosted desktop.

Management protocols

Management Protocols

  • Element Management System (EMS)

  • Network Management System (NMS)

Element management system ems

Element Management System (EMS)

  • It consists of systems and applications for managing network elements (NE) 

  • EMS manages one or more of a specific type of telecommunications network element.

  • EMS manages the functions and capabilities within each NE but does not manage the traffic between different NEs in the network. 

Network management system nms

Network Management System (NMS)

  • Is a combination of hardware and software used to monitor and administer a computer network.

  • NMS manages the network devices.

    • faults, configuration, accounting, performance, security (FCAPS) management.

  • Management tasks include

    • discovering network inventory,

    • monitoring device health and status,

    • providing alerts to conditions that impact system performance,

    • identification of problems, their source and possible solutions.

Comparison between network management system nms element management system ems

Comparison between Network Management System (NMS) & Element Management System (EMS)

  • NMS:

    • provides an integrated system for sharing device information across management applications,

    • automation of device management tasks,

    • visibility into the health and capability of the network,

    • identification and localization of network trouble.

  • EMS:

    • is a carrier class management solution

    • It is capable of scaling as the network grows, (number of nods)

    • maintaining high performance levels as the number of network events increase, (number of tasks)

    • providing simplified addition with third-party systems.

Common protocols

Common Protocols

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

  • Post Office Protocol (POP) Version 3

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Common protocols1

Common Protocols

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

    • HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.

    • HTTP is an Application Layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite.

    • The protocol definitions presume a reliable Transport Layer protocol for host-to-host data transfer.

    • The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the dominant protocol in use for this purpose.

Common protocols2

Common Protocols

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    • is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.

    • It is often used to upload web pages and other documents from a private development machine to a public web-hosting server

Common protocols3

Common Protocols

  • Post Office Protocol (POP) Version 3

    • Used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection.

    • POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most common Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval.

      • Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support both.

    • IMAP, POP3 is supported by most webmail services such as Hotmail, Gmail and Yahoo! Mail.

Common protocols4

Common Protocols

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

    • SMTP is a delivery protocol only.

    • It cannot pull messages from a remote server on demand.

    • Other protocols, such as the Post Office Protocol (POP) and the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) are specifically designed for retrieving messages and managing mail boxes.

    • SMTP has a feature to initiate mail queue processing on a remote server so that the requesting system may receive any messages destined for.

    • POP and IMAP are preferred protocols when a user's personal computer is only intermittently powered up, or Internet connectivity is only transient and hosts cannot receive message during off-line periods.

Common protocols5

Common Protocols

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

    • Internet-standard protocol for managing devices that support SNMP on IP networks. This include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks, and more.

    • Used in network management systems to monitor network devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention.

    • An SNMP-managed network consists of three key components:

      • Managed device

      • Agent — software which runs on managed devices

      • Network management system (NMS) — software which runs on the manager

Understand networking components

Understand networking components

Hardware components

Hardware components

  • workstation eg mobile, fixed, handheld, console;

  • servers;

  • switches;

  • routers;

  • cabling;

  • hubs;

  • repeaters;

  • bridges;

  • wireless devices;

  • mobile eg 3G, 4G, GPRS

Network interface cards

Network interface cards

  • A network card, network adapter, or NIC (network interface card)

    • is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to physically access a networking medium. It provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses.

  • Each Ethernet network interface has a unique MAC address which is usually stored in a small memory device on the card, allowing any device to connect to the network without creating an address conflict.

Repeaters and hubs

Repeaters and hubs

  • A repeater is an electronic device

    • receives a signal, cleans it of unnecessary noise, regenerates it, and retransmits it at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation.

    • In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters.

    • A repeater with multiple ports is known as a hub.

    • Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model.

    • Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal.

      • This can cause a propagation delay which can affect network communication when there are several repeaters in a row. Many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row

  • Today, repeaters and hubs have been replaced by switches



  • A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model.

  • Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on which the broadcast was received.

  • Bridges come in three basic types:

    • Local bridges: Directly connect LANs

    • Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs.

      • Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.

    • Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.



  • The term switch is used loosely in marketing to encompass devices including routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content

  • A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagram's between ports based on the MAC addresses in the packets

    • (chunks of data communication) -> (connected cables)

  • A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected.

  • A switch breaks the collision domain but represents itself as a broadcast domain.

  • Switches make forwarding decisions of frames on the basis of MAC addresses.

  • A switch normally has numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches

  • Some switches are capable of routing based on Layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels: multi-layer switches.



  • A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks

    • processing information found in the datagram or packet (IP information from Layer 3 of the OSI Model).

  • Routers use routing tables to determine what interface to forward packets



Growing a network

Growing a network



Networking technologies



Software components

Software components

  • Software:

    • client software,

      • Software's required by the users in order to do their own tasks

    • server software,

      • Software's required by computer server to be able to run single or verity of services for the users

    • client operating system,

    • server operating system


Server – servers selection - workstations




  • Firewall,

  • E-Mail,

  • Web,

  • File,

  • Database,

  • Combination,

  • Virtualization,

  • Terminal services server



  • A firewall is an important aspect of a network with respect to security.

  • It typically rejects access requests from unsafe sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.

  • The fundamental role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in 'cyber' attacks for the purpose of stealing/corrupting data, planting viruses, etc.



Email server

Email server

  • Mail server or e-mail server is a computer in a network that works as your virtual post office.

  • A mail server usually consists of a storage area where e-mails are stored for local users,

  • Database of user accounts that the mail server recognizes and will deal with locally,

  • Communications modules which are the components that actually handle the transfer of messages to and from other mail servers and email clients.

  • The person who is responsible for the maintenance of the e-mail server (editing users, monitoring system activity) are referred to as the postmaster.

Web server

Web server

  • Web servers are computers that deliver Web pages.

  • Every Web server has an IP address and possibly a domain name.

    • Example, if you enter the URL a browser, this sends a request to the Web server whose domain name is The server then fetches the page “pageName.html” and sends it to your browser.

  • Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the machine to the Internet.

  • There are many Web server software applications, including public domain software from NCSA and Apache, and commercial packages from Microsoft, Netscape and others.

File server

File server

  • In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.

  • A file server allows users to share information over a network without having to physically transfer files by floppy diskette or some other external storage device.

  • Any computer can be configured to be a host and act as a file server.

    • In its simplest form, a file server may be an ordinary PC that handles requests for files and sends them over the network.

    • In a more sophisticated network, a file server might be a dedicated network-attached storage (NAS) device that also serves as a remote hard disk drive for other computers, allowing anyone on the network to store files on it as if to their own hard drive.

  • A program or mechanism that enables the required processes for file sharing can also be called a file server. On the Internet, such programs often use the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

Database server 1

Database server -1

  • Database server is the term used to refer to the back-end system of a database application using client/server architecture.

  • The back-end, also called a database server, performs tasks such as

    • data analysis,

    • storage,

    • data manipulation,

    • archiving,

    • and other non-user specific tasks.

Database server 2

Database server -2

  • A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers.

  • Database management systems (DBMs) frequently provide database server functionality, and some DBMSs (e.g., MySQL) rely exclusively on the client–server model for database access.

Database server

Database server



  • Virtual server is a highly scalable and highly available server built on a cluster of real servers

  • The architecture of server cluster is fully transparent to end users, and the users interact with the cluster system as if it were only a single high-performance virtual server



  • A server, usually a Web server, that shares computer resources with other virtual servers.

  • In this context, the virtual part simply means that it is not a dedicated server-- that is, the entire computer is not dedicated to running the server software.

  • Virtual Web servers are a very popular way of providing low-cost web hosting services.

    • Instead of requiring a separate computer for each server, dozens of virtual servers can co-reside on the same computer.

  • In most cases, performance is not affected and each web site behaves as if it is being served by a dedicated server.

  • However, if too many virtual servers reside on the same computer, or if one virtual server starts hogging resources, Web pages will be delivered more slowly.



Server selection

Server selection

  • Cost,

  • Purpose,

  • Operating system required



  • Is any computer connected to a local-area network (LAN).

  • It could be a workstation or a personal computer

  • Most workstations have a mass storage device (disk drive), but a special type of workstation called a diskless workstation that comes without a disk drive.

  • The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT.

  • Workstation needs:

    • Hardware

    • Permissions / Policies

    • system bus

    • local-system architecture

      • memory,

      • processor,

      • I/O devices



  • system bus

    • A system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system.

    • The technique was developed to reduce costs and improve modularity.

    • It combines the functions of a data bus to carry information, an address bus to determine where it should be sent, and a control bus to determine its operation.

    • Although popular in the 1970s and 1980s, modern computers use a variety of separate buses adapted to more specific needs.

  • local-system architecture

    • Memory (RAM),

    • Processor ,

    • I/O devices

Workstation system bus

Workstation - system bus

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