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Networking Technologies. Understand Networking Principles – part3 Dr. Husam Osta 2012. Cloud Computing - problem. The use of the internet & computing has generated a huge amount of information on daily basis Managing these huge amount of information

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networking technologies

Networking Technologies

Understand Networking Principles – part3

Dr. HusamOsta


cloud computing problem
Cloud Computing - problem
  • The use of the internet & computing has generated a huge amount of information on daily basis
  • Managing these huge amount of information
    • Cloud computing will keep it within the cloud of the internet so that it is available to other users at the same time
  • Cloud computing contains
      • Hardware
      • Software
    • stores information that is available to users at all times and it can be accessed from across the globe.
cloud computing definition
Cloud Computing - definition
  • What is Cloud Computing ?
  • Is Internet-based computing
    • shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand
  • Cloud computing
    • anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internet and includes any subscription-based or pay-by-use service that, in real time, extends IT’s existing capabilities
cloud computing
Cloud Computing
  • Traditionally, if you’ve used a computer – you’ve installed software (such as Microsoft Word, Outlook, etc.) on your computer along with the files created, have been stored on your computer.
  • Today, software has migrated to be “installed” and used on the Internet.
  • Using these softwares through a web browser such as Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, or even a smart-phone such as an Android phones & iPhones.
  • Instead of clicking an icon in your START menu to access a program, you can click a “Bookmark” or “Favorite” in your web browser to access it.
cloud computing example
Cloud computing - example
  • Allows users to share information with other users in a work space
    • by putting it inside the cloud of network.
    • Users can pick files which they need from the cloud.
    • This saves the cost of paper and printer, and it saves time to transfer files to other parts of the work place.
  • Employees in a work place can also share hardware.
    • Users can use single printer or scanner, which will eliminate the need to have multiple printers for each computer.
    • Cloud computing requires a network of computers where employees can share and communicate with each other through their computers.
cloud computing example1
Cloud computing - example
  • Google Docs ( and Office360 ( are open source online office tools which allow users to perform all major tasks of MS Office.
  • Online storage space such as at Amazon Web Services ( and Rackspace ( However there are cheaper or even free alternatives such as Dropbox ( and Microsoft’s Skydrive (, and they offer good amount of free online storage.
internet vs cloud computing
Internet VS Cloud Computing
  • Internet
    • is a global network of billions of interconnected computers around the world.
    • It offers many resources and services such as the World Wide Web and email. This is to access trillions of hyperlinked documents.
  • Cloud Computing
    • The focus has moved towards offering all of the resources over the Internet.
    • Which offers many resources such as software, platforms and infrastructure as services.
internet vs cloud computing1
Internet VS Cloud Computing
  • Internet is a network of networks, which provides software/hardware infrastructure to establish and maintain connectivity of the computers around the word
  • Cloud computing is a new technology that delivers many types of resources over the Internet.
  • Cloud computing could be identified as a technology that uses the Internet as the communication medium to deliver its services
  • Cloud computing cannot operate globally without the Internet

Cloud computing is broken down into few different categories based on the type of service provided.

    • SaaS (Software as a Service) is the category of cloud computing in which the main resources available as a service are software applications.
    • PaaS (Platform as a Service) is the category/application of cloud computing in which the service providers deliver a computing platform or a solution stack to their subscribers over the Internet.
    • IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) is the category of cloud computing in which the main resources available as a service are hardware infrastructure.
    • DaaS (Desktop as a Service), which is an emerging –aaS service deals with providing a whole desktop experience over the Internet. This is sometimes referred to as desktop virtualization/virtual desktop or hosted desktop.
management protocols
Management Protocols
  • Element Management System (EMS)
  • Network Management System (NMS)
element management system ems
Element Management System (EMS)
  • It consists of systems and applications for managing network elements (NE) 
  • EMS manages one or more of a specific type of telecommunications network element.
  • EMS manages the functions and capabilities within each NE but does not manage the traffic between different NEs in the network. 
network management system nms
Network Management System (NMS)
  • Is a combination of hardware and software used to monitor and administer a computer network.
  • NMS manages the network devices.
    • faults, configuration, accounting, performance, security (FCAPS) management.
  • Management tasks include
    • discovering network inventory,
    • monitoring device health and status,
    • providing alerts to conditions that impact system performance,
    • identification of problems, their source and possible solutions.
comparison between network management system nms element management system ems
Comparison between Network Management System (NMS) & Element Management System (EMS)
  • NMS:
    • provides an integrated system for sharing device information across management applications,
    • automation of device management tasks,
    • visibility into the health and capability of the network,
    • identification and localization of network trouble.
  • EMS:
    • is a carrier class management solution
    • It is capable of scaling as the network grows, (number of nods)
    • maintaining high performance levels as the number of network events increase, (number of tasks)
    • providing simplified addition with third-party systems.
common protocols
Common Protocols
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  • Post Office Protocol (POP) Version 3
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
common protocols1
Common Protocols
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
    • HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.
    • HTTP is an Application Layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite.
    • The protocol definitions presume a reliable Transport Layer protocol for host-to-host data transfer.
    • The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the dominant protocol in use for this purpose.
common protocols2
Common Protocols
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
    • is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.
    • It is often used to upload web pages and other documents from a private development machine to a public web-hosting server
common protocols3
Common Protocols
  • Post Office Protocol (POP) Version 3
    • Used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection.
    • POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most common Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval.
      • Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support both.
    • IMAP, POP3 is supported by most webmail services such as Hotmail, Gmail and Yahoo! Mail.
common protocols4
Common Protocols
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    • SMTP is a delivery protocol only.
    • It cannot pull messages from a remote server on demand.
    • Other protocols, such as the Post Office Protocol (POP) and the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) are specifically designed for retrieving messages and managing mail boxes.
    • SMTP has a feature to initiate mail queue processing on a remote server so that the requesting system may receive any messages destined for.
    • POP and IMAP are preferred protocols when a user\'s personal computer is only intermittently powered up, or Internet connectivity is only transient and hosts cannot receive message during off-line periods.
common protocols5
Common Protocols
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
    • Internet-standard protocol for managing devices that support SNMP on IP networks. This include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks, and more.
    • Used in network management systems to monitor network devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention.
    • An SNMP-managed network consists of three key components:
      • Managed device
      • Agent — software which runs on managed devices
      • Network management system (NMS) — software which runs on the manager
hardware components
Hardware components
  • workstation eg mobile, fixed, handheld, console;
  • servers;
  • switches;
  • routers;
  • cabling;
  • hubs;
  • repeaters;
  • bridges;
  • wireless devices;
  • mobile eg 3G, 4G, GPRS
network interface cards
Network interface cards
  • A network card, network adapter, or NIC (network interface card)
    • is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to physically access a networking medium. It provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses.
  • Each Ethernet network interface has a unique MAC address which is usually stored in a small memory device on the card, allowing any device to connect to the network without creating an address conflict.
repeaters and hubs
Repeaters and hubs
  • A repeater is an electronic device
    • receives a signal, cleans it of unnecessary noise, regenerates it, and retransmits it at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation.
    • In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters.
    • A repeater with multiple ports is known as a hub.
    • Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model.
    • Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal.
      • This can cause a propagation delay which can affect network communication when there are several repeaters in a row. Many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row
  • Today, repeaters and hubs have been replaced by switches
  • A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model.
  • Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on which the broadcast was received.
  • Bridges come in three basic types:
    • Local bridges: Directly connect LANs
    • Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs.
      • Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.
    • Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.
  • The term switch is used loosely in marketing to encompass devices including routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content
  • A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagram\'s between ports based on the MAC addresses in the packets
    • (chunks of data communication) -> (connected cables)
  • A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected.
  • A switch breaks the collision domain but represents itself as a broadcast domain.
  • Switches make forwarding decisions of frames on the basis of MAC addresses.
  • A switch normally has numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches
  • Some switches are capable of routing based on Layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels: multi-layer switches.
  • A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks
    • processing information found in the datagram or packet (IP information from Layer 3 of the OSI Model).
  • Routers use routing tables to determine what interface to forward packets


software components
Software components
  • Software:
    • client software,
      • Software\'s required by the users in order to do their own tasks
    • server software,
      • Software\'s required by computer server to be able to run single or verity of services for the users
    • client operating system,
    • server operating system
  • Firewall,
  • E-Mail,
  • Web,
  • File,
  • Database,
  • Combination,
  • Virtualization,
  • Terminal services server
  • A firewall is an important aspect of a network with respect to security.
  • It typically rejects access requests from unsafe sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.
  • The fundamental role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in \'cyber\' attacks for the purpose of stealing/corrupting data, planting viruses, etc.
email server
Email server
  • Mail server or e-mail server is a computer in a network that works as your virtual post office.
  • A mail server usually consists of a storage area where e-mails are stored for local users,
  • Database of user accounts that the mail server recognizes and will deal with locally,
  • Communications modules which are the components that actually handle the transfer of messages to and from other mail servers and email clients.
  • The person who is responsible for the maintenance of the e-mail server (editing users, monitoring system activity) are referred to as the postmaster.
web server
Web server
  • Web servers are computers that deliver Web pages.
  • Every Web server has an IP address and possibly a domain name.
    • Example, if you enter the URL a browser, this sends a request to the Web server whose domain name is The server then fetches the page “pageName.html” and sends it to your browser.
  • Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the machine to the Internet.
  • There are many Web server software applications, including public domain software from NCSA and Apache, and commercial packages from Microsoft, Netscape and others.
file server
File server
  • In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.
  • A file server allows users to share information over a network without having to physically transfer files by floppy diskette or some other external storage device.
  • Any computer can be configured to be a host and act as a file server.
    • In its simplest form, a file server may be an ordinary PC that handles requests for files and sends them over the network.
    • In a more sophisticated network, a file server might be a dedicated network-attached storage (NAS) device that also serves as a remote hard disk drive for other computers, allowing anyone on the network to store files on it as if to their own hard drive.
  • A program or mechanism that enables the required processes for file sharing can also be called a file server. On the Internet, such programs often use the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).
database server 1
Database server -1
  • Database server is the term used to refer to the back-end system of a database application using client/server architecture.
  • The back-end, also called a database server, performs tasks such as
    • data analysis,
    • storage,
    • data manipulation,
    • archiving,
    • and other non-user specific tasks.
database server 2
Database server -2
  • A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers.
  • Database management systems (DBMs) frequently provide database server functionality, and some DBMSs (e.g., MySQL) rely exclusively on the client–server model for database access.
  • Virtual server is a highly scalable and highly available server built on a cluster of real servers
  • The architecture of server cluster is fully transparent to end users, and the users interact with the cluster system as if it were only a single high-performance virtual server
  • A server, usually a Web server, that shares computer resources with other virtual servers.
  • In this context, the virtual part simply means that it is not a dedicated server-- that is, the entire computer is not dedicated to running the server software.
  • Virtual Web servers are a very popular way of providing low-cost web hosting services.
    • Instead of requiring a separate computer for each server, dozens of virtual servers can co-reside on the same computer.
  • In most cases, performance is not affected and each web site behaves as if it is being served by a dedicated server.
  • However, if too many virtual servers reside on the same computer, or if one virtual server starts hogging resources, Web pages will be delivered more slowly.
server selection
Server selection
  • Cost,
  • Purpose,
  • Operating system required
  • Is any computer connected to a local-area network (LAN).
  • It could be a workstation or a personal computer
  • Most workstations have a mass storage device (disk drive), but a special type of workstation called a diskless workstation that comes without a disk drive.
  • The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT.
  • Workstation needs:
    • Hardware
    • Permissions / Policies
    • system bus
    • local-system architecture
      • memory,
      • processor,
      • I/O devices
  • system bus
    • A system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system.
    • The technique was developed to reduce costs and improve modularity.
    • It combines the functions of a data bus to carry information, an address bus to determine where it should be sent, and a control bus to determine its operation.
    • Although popular in the 1970s and 1980s, modern computers use a variety of separate buses adapted to more specific needs.
  • local-system architecture
    • Memory (RAM),
    • Processor ,
    • I/O devices